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Full text of "Journal of the Derbyshire Archaeological and Natural History Society"

J JO 



fi/7MAY1935 



VOL. VI. 1884. 



OURNAL 




JIRCHJE0L06ICJ1L 



AMO 



Natural History 
OCIfiTY. 




LONDON : 

BEMROSE & SONS, 23, OLD BAILEY; 

AND DERBY. 



JOURNAL 



DERBYSHIRE ARCH/EOLOGICAL 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 



V O L . VI 



JANUARY, 1884. 



%on^on: 

BEMROSE & SONS, 23, OLD BAILEY; 
AND DERBY. 



CONTENTS. 



List of Officers v 

Rules vii 

List of Members x 

Secretary's Report xix 

Balance Sheet - - xliv 



The Earliest Existing Register-Book of S. Helen's Church, 
Uarley Dale, Derbyshire. 

Communicated by John Sleigh, J P. - - - - i 

Charles Balguv, M.D. (1708-1767.) 

By S. O. Addy, .ALA. 11 

On a Medieval Paten at Shirley, Derbyshire. 

By W. U. St. John Hope, B.A., F.S.A- - - - - 31 
The "Green Dale Cabinet" at Welbeck, and the "Green 
Dale Oak " from which it %vas made. 

By Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A., &c., &.c. ■ - - - 33 
A List of the Vills and Freeholders of Derbyshire. 

COM.MUNICATED BY S. O. AdDY. M.A. - - • - 49 

On the Augustinian Priory of the Holy Trinity .at Rep ton, 
Derbyshire. 

By \V. H. St. John Hope, B.A., F,S A. - - - - 75 

Some Notes ov Arbor Low. 

By Rev. J. Charles Cox 97 

A Six Days' Ra.mble over Derbyshire Hills and Dales, in 
THE Year 185S. 

By Richard Keene 109 

An Elizabethan Clergy List of the Diocese of Lichfield. 

By Rev J. Charles Cox 157 

Index of Names of Persons 181 

Index of Names of Pieces -......- 191 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Pedigree of Thomas Dethick - 
Medieval Paten at Shirley (Autotype) 
View of Welbeck Abbey - - - - 
Ancient Cross at Eyam (Platinotype) 



TO FACE PAGE 



33 
109 



LIST OF WOODCUTS. 



PAGE 

The Green Dale Oak, in the Park at Welbeck - - - 36 
Fac-simile of Plan, as Etched by George Vektue, in lyiy - 38 
The Green Dale Oak, near Welbeck, 1727 - - 39, 40, 41, 43 

Green Dale Cabinet 44 

"The Peacock," Rowsley iii 

Lid of Ancient Stone Coffin, Baslow Churchyard - - - 113 

CucKLETT Church 118 

Eyam Church 121 

The Riley Graves 123 

Mompesson's Well 124 

Eyam Dale 125 

Bradshaw's House 126 

Catherine Mompesson's To.mr 129 

Scene in Padley Wood 132 

Higgar Tor 137 

Ruins of Chapel at North Lees 142 

Peveril Castle 145 

Great Peak Cavern, Castleton 147 

MoNSAL Dale 152 



LIST OF OFFICERS 



T II F-: DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, K . G . 



Duke of Norfolk, E.M. 

DuKK OF Portland. 

Lord Vernhn. 

Lord Scarsdale. 

Lord Beli'f.r 

Lord Waterpark. 

Right Rev. Lord Bishop of 

Lichfield. 
Hon. E. K. W. Coke. 
Hon. W. M. Jekvis. 
Hon. Frederick Strutt. 
Right Rev. Bishop Abraham. 
Right Rev. Bishop Stalky. 
Sir FraiNxis Burdktt, Bakt. 



Sir J. G. Allevne, Bart. 

Sir H. S. VVilmot, Bakt., V.C , 

C.B., M.P. 
Sir M. a. Bass, Bart., M.P. 
Very Rev. Dean of Lichfield. 
Ven. Archdeacon Balston. 
T. W. Evans, Esq., M.P. 
Llewellynn Jewitt, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. G. Cro.mpton, Esq. 
C. R. Colvile, Esq. 
X. C. CURZON, Esq. 
G. F. Meynell, Esq. 
H. H. Bemrose, Esq. 



Counttl : 



John Bailey. 

George Bailey. 

William Bemrose. 

John Borough. 

Rev. J. Charles Cox. 

Thomas Evans, F.G.S. 

C. G. Savile Foljambe, M.P., 

F.S.A. 
Rev. M. K. S. Frith. 
Thomas Heath. 
William Jolley. 
Rev. F. Jourdain. 
Richard Keene. 

I^on. ^rrrapum-: 

C. E. Newton. 



Major A. E. Lawson Lowe, F.S.A. 

Rev. J. M. Mello. 

F. J. Robinson. 

Rev. Richard Ussher. 

W. H. St. John Hope, F.S.A. 

F. Campion. 

C. James Cade. 

E. Cooling. 

J. Gallop. 

T. W. Charlton. 

E. Greenhough. 

F. Beresford Wright. • 



HuUitorsi 



JaMKs Li.S(;aRD. 



.\ktiiur Cox. 



Ma.ihk I'dcniaix. 



RULES 



I. — Name. 

The Society shall be called the " Derbyshire ARca^oLooiCAL 
AND Natural History Society." 

II. — Or.jECT. 

The Society is instituted to examine, preserve, and illustrate 
the Archaeology and Natural History of the County of Derby. 

ni. — Operation. 

The means which the Society shall employ for effecting its 
objects are : — 

I. — Meetings for the purpose of Reading Papers, the 
Exhibition of Antiquities, etc., and the discussion of 
subjects connected therewith. 

2. — General Meetings each year at given places rendered 
Interesting by their Antiquities, or by their Natural 
development. 

3. — The publication of original papers and ancient 
documents, etc. 

IV. — Officers. 

The Officers of the Society shall consist of a President and Vice- 
Presidents, whose election shall be for life ; and an Honorary 
Treasurer and Honorary Secretary, who shall be elected annually. 

V. — Council. 

The general management of the affairs and property of the 
Society shall be vested in a Council, consisting of the President, 



Vice-Presidents, Honorary Treasurer, Honorary Secretary, and 
twenty-four Members, elected from the general body of the 
subscribers ; eight of such twenty-four Members to retire annually 
in rotation, but to be eligible for reelection. All vacancies 
occurring during the year to be provisionally filled up by the 
Council. 

VI. — Admission of Members. 

The election of Members, who must be proposed and seconded 
in writing by two Members of the Society, shall take place at any 
meeting of the Council, or at any General Meetings of the Society. 

Vn. — Subscription. 
Each Member on election after March 31st, 1878, shall pay an 
Entrance Fee of Five Shillings, and an Annual Subscription of 
Ten Shillings and Sixpence. All subscriptions to become due, in 
advance, on the ist of January each year, and to be paid to 
the Treasurer. A composition of Five Guineas to constitute Life 
Membership. The composition of Life Members and the 
Admission Fee of Ordinary Members to be funded, and the 
interest arising from them to be applied to the general objects of 
the Society. Ladies to be eligible as Members on the same 
terms. No one shall be entided to his privileges as a Member of 
the Society whose subscription is six months in arrear. 

VHL — Honorary Members. 
The Council shall have tlie power of electing distinguished 
Antiquaries as Honorary Members. Honorary Members shall 
not be resident in the County, and shall not exceed twelve in 
nimiber. Their privileges shall be the same as those of Ordinary 
Members. 

IX. — Meetings of Council. 

The Council shall meet not less than six times in each year, 
at such place or places as may be determined upon. Special 
meetings may also be held at the request of the President, or five 
Members of the Society. Five Members of Council to form a 
quorum. 



KUI.KS. ix 

X. — SuiiCOMMITTEES. 

The Council shall have the power of appointing from time to 
time such sectional or Subcommittees as may seem desirable for 
the carrying out of special objecis. Such sectional or Sub- 
Committees to report their iMoceedings to the Council for 
confirmation. 

XI. — General Meetings. 
The Annual Meeting of the Society shall be held in January 
each year, when the Accounts, properly audited, and a Report 
shall be presented, the Officers elected, and vacancies in the 
Council filled for the ensuing year. The Council may at any 
time call a General Meeting, specifying the object for which that 
Meeting is to be held. A clear seven days' notice of all General 
Meetings to be sent to each Member. 

XII. — At.TFRATION OF RuLES. 

No alteration in the Rules of the Society shall be made except 
by a majority of two-thirds of the Members present at an Annual 
or other General Meeting of the Society. Full notice of any 
intended alteration to be sent to each Member at least seven 
days before tlie date of such Meeting. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



The Members whose names are preceded by nn asterisk (*) are Life Members. 

Bloxham, M. H., F. S, A., Rugby. 

Hart, W. H., F.S.A., Public Record Office, Fetter 

Lane, London. 
Fitch, R., F.S.A., Norwich. \ Honorary Members. 

Greenwell, The Bev. Canon, F S.A., Durham. 
Irvine, J. T., Mount Pleasant, Lichfield. 
North, Thos., F.S.A., Llanfairfechan, North Wales. 

Abbott, S., Lincoln. 

Abney, Captain W. deW., F.R.S., Kensington, London. 

♦Abraham, The Right Rev. Bishop, Lichfield. 

Adams, "W. Davenport, Mercury Office, Derby. 

Addy, S. O., Georg.> Street, Sheffield. 

Adlington, W. S., Kirk Hallam. 

Alexander, Rev. C. L., Stanton-by-Bridge, Derby. 

Alleyne, Sir John G. N., Bart., Cheviu House, Belper. 

Allport, James, Littleover, Derby. 

AUsopp, A. Percy, Trent Valley House, Lichfield. 

Alsop, Anthony, Wirksworth. 

Andrews, Wilham, Literary Club, Hull. 

Arkwright, Rev. W. Harry, Rowsley Vicarage, Bakewell. 

Arkwright, James C, Cromford. 

Arkwright, F. C, Willersley Castle, Cromford. 

Armstrong, Rev. E. P., S. Michael's Vicarage, Derby. 

Auden, Rev. W., The Vicarage, Church Broughton. 

Bagshawe, F. Westby, Tlie Oaks, Sheffield. 

Bailey, John, The Temple, Derby. 

Bailey, J. Egliuton, F.S.A.,Egerton Villa, Stratford, Machester. 

Bailey, George, 32, Cromptou Street, Derby. 

Baker, Henry, 46, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Balguy, Major, Trowel's Lane, Derby. 



I.I.ST OF MEMBERS, 

Balston, The Ven. Archdeacon, D.D., The Vicarage, Bakewell. 

Barber, J. T., Oakfield, Astou-ou-Cliin, Salop. 

Barker, W. lloas, Lyndon House, Matlock Bath. 

Barnes, Captain, Beacoiisfield, Bucks. 

Bass, M. T., Rangemore, Biuton-on-Trent. 

Bass, Sir M. Arthur, Bart., M.P., Rangemore, Burtouon-Trent 

Bate, James O., 9, Wilson Street, Derby. 

Bateman, F. O. F. , Breadsall Mount, Derby. 

Bateman, Thomas K., Alvaston, Derby. 

Beamish, Major, R.E., S. Bernard's Crescent, Edinburgh. 

Beard, Neville, The Mount, Ashburne. 

Belper, The Right Hon. Lord, Kingston Hall. 

Bemrose, H. H., Uttoxeter New Road, Derby. 

Bemrose, William, Elmliurst, Lonsdale Hill, Derby. 

Bennett, George, Iron Gate, Derby. 

Bickersteth, The Very Rev. E., D.D., The Deanery, Lichfield. 

Blackwall, J. B. B., Biggin, Wirksworth. 

Blandford, Rev. H. E., Ockbrook. 

Boden, Walter, Gower Street, Derby. 

Bogonschevsky, The Baron Nicholas Cassimir de, Pskov, Russia. 

Borough, John, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Booth, Frederick W., Hartington Hall, near Ashburne. 

Bowring, Charles, Duffield Road, Derby. 

Bradbury, Edward, 16, Arboretum Street, Derby. 

Bradbury, Rev. T., S. Chad's, Derby. 

Bridgmau, O. Granville, Bilton Hall, Rugby. 

Brigdeu, George, Iron Gate, Derby. 

Briudley, Benjamin, South Pai-ade, Derby. 

Bromwich, Rev. C. T., S. Werburgli's, Derby. 

Brushfield, T. N., M.D., The Cliff, Budleigh Salterton, Devon. 

Buchanan, Alexander, Wilson Street, Derby. 

Buckstone, Rev. R. G., Sutton-on-the-Hill. 

Burch, Robert, 58, Green Lane.^Derby. 

Burdett, Sir F., Bart., Foremark, Derby. 

Bushby, C. S. B., Dulfield Road, Derby. 

Butler, W., Smith's Bank, Derby. 

Cade, Charles James, Spondou. 
Cade, Francis J., Spondon. 
Cammell, G. H., Brookfield Manor, Hathersage. 
Campion, Frederick, Ockbrook, Derby. 
Campion, Frank, Duffield Road, Derby. 
Cantrill, W., Charnwood Street, Derby. 
Carter, F., Irongate, Derby. 
Chancellor, Rev. J., S. John's, Derby. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Charlton, Thomas W., Chihvell Hall, Notts. 

Christie, R. C, Darley House, Matlock. 

Christian, Rev. F. W., The Vicarage, South Wu.gfiekl. 

Clarke, G. D'Arcy, Highfield House, Derby. 

Clarke, C. H., luteraational College, Isleworth, Middlese.. 

Clayton, Mrs., Queen Street, Derby. 

Clay, T. Speuder, Ford Manor, Liugfield, Surrey. 

Clulow, Edward, Jun., Victoria Street, Derby. 

Cokayne, Andreas B., Overdale Grange, Great Lever. Bolton-le-Moou 

*Cokayne, G. E., F.S.A., College of Arms, London. 

*Coke, Colonel, Debdale Hall, Mansfield. 

Coke, The Hon. Edward Keppel ^-^-^'^^l ^°"^'7^^; ^^.^ 

*Coke, Major J. Talbot, Hardwick House, Eiohmond H.ll, Suuey. 

Colvile, Charles E., Lullington, Burton-on-lrent. 

Cooke, Charles, Spondon. 

Cooling, Edwin, Jun., Iron Gate, Derby. 

Copestake, T. G., Kirk Langley. 

Cottingham, Rev. Henry, The Vicarage, Heath. 

Coulsou, J. B., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Coulson, G. M., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Coulthurst, Thomas, Derby. 

Cox Rev. Richardson, The Vicarage, Tickenhall. 

Cox, Rev. J. Charles, Enville Rectory, Stourbridge. 

Cox, "William, Brailsford. 

Cox, Arthur, Mill Hill, Derby. 

Cox, F. W., Priory Flatte, Breadsall, Derby. 

Cox, Miss, The Hall, Spondon. 

Crompton, J. G., The Lilies, Derby. ^, , ■ „ 

Croston, James, F.S.A., Upton Hall, Prestbury, Cheshue. 

Curgenven, W. G., M.D., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Currey, B. S., Little Eaton HQl, Derby. 

Currey! Percy H., Little Eatou, Derby. 

*Curzon, Nathaniel C, Lockington Hall, Derby. 

Davis Hy., All Saints' Works, Derby. 

Tvis; F^derick, Palace Chambers, S. Stephen's, Westminster. 

Deacon, Rev. J. C. H. 

Devonshire, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., Chatsworth. 

Disbrowe, Miss, Walton Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 

Dolman, A. H., Wardwick, Derby. 

Eckett S B., 20, Arboretum Street, Derby. 

Edmunds, Wilfred, Verbyshire Times, ChesterflelcL 

Egerton, Admiral the Hon. F., M.P., Devonshire House London. 

Elton, Charles, 10. Crauley Place, Onslow Square, London, S. A . 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Evans, Henry, West Bank, Derby. 

•Evans, John, Higlifiekls, Derby. 

Evans, Robert, Eldou Chambers, Nottingham. 

Iwnns, Thomas, E.G.S., Pen-y-13ryn, Derby. 

•JCvaus, T. W., M.P., Allestree, Derby. 

Evans, Walter, Darley Abbey. 

•Eyre, Lewis, 78, Redcliffe Gardens, Kensington, London, S.W. 

•Fane, William Dashwood, Melbourne Hall. 

I'estiug, Rev. G. A. , Clifton, Ashburne. 

Eisher, Rev. F. C, The Rectory, Walton-on-Treut. 

Fisher, Edward, Abbotsbury, Newton Abbott, Devon. 

•F'itzHerbert, J. K., Twynham, Bournemouth. 

*FitzHerbert, Rev. Regd. H. C, Somersal Herbert, Derby. 

*Foljamhe, Cecil G. Savile; M.P., F.S.A., Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark. 

Forman, Rev. T. R., Derby. 

Formau, Hy., Chellaston, Derby. 

Fox, Rev. W., The Rectory, Stantou-by-Dale. 

•Freer, Rev. T. H., Sudbury, Derby. 

Frith, Rev. M. K. S., The Vicarage, Allestree. 

Furneaux, Rev. W. M., Reptou Hall, Burton-on-Treut. 

Gallop, Joseph, Normauton Road, Derby. 

Garbutt, Horace, 31, Friar Gate, Derby. 

George, Henry T., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Gillett, F. C, Borrowash, Derby. 

•Gisborne, Miss. Allestree Hall, Derby. 

Gisborne, T. M., Charnwood Street, Derby. 

Goldie, Rev. A. R., The Grange, Thulston, Derby. 

Goodall, Thomas Sorb}', 5, S. Peter's Street, Derby. 

Goode, Mrs., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Greaves, Fred. W., Derby and Derbyshire Bank, Derbj'. 

Greenhough, Edward, Parkfiekl, Willersley Road, Matlock. 

Greenwell, Geo. C, F.G.S., Elm Tree Lodge, Duffield, Derby. 

Gresley, Rev. L. S., Ashover. 

Groves, Rev. C. W., Grammar School, Risley. 

Hall, W. S., 39, Hartingtou Street, Derby. 

Hall, J. Payne, Uttoseter. 

Hall, Robt., Wirksworth. 

Hall, Rev. Tansley, Boyieston, Derby. 

Hamilton, Rev. C. J., The Vicarage, Doveridge. 

Hamlet, T., 40, Green Lane, Derby. 

Harrison, William, M.D., Dean Hill House, Matlock. 

Harwood, James, Corn Market, Derby. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Haslam, A. Seale, Duffield Road, Derby. 

Haslam, W. Coates, Bipley, Derby. ^.^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^_ 

Hatherton, The Dowager Lady, 46, Clifton t^aiae , 

Heath, Thomas, Free Library, Derby. 

Hefiord, T. N., 46, Queen Street, Derby. 

Herbert, Eev. George, University School, Nottingham. 

Hey, Kev. Canon, The Vicarage, Belper. 

Hill' F C , St. James's Chambers, Derby. 

Hillyard, Eev. E. A., Christ Church Vicarage, Belper. 

Hipkins, Eev. F. C, Priory, Eepton. 

Hodges, W. H., Osmaston Eoad, Derby. 

Hollind, W. E., Ashburne. 

Hollis, H.W.,F.B.A.S.,Butterley. 

Holly, Wm., Ockbrook. 

Holmes, Major, Makeney Lodge, Belper. 

Holmes, H. M., London Eoad, Derby. 

TTolmes H M.,Jun., London Eoad, Derby. 

Hells', Charles, Argyle Terrace, Eose HiU. Derby. 

Holmes, Miss E., London Boad, Derby. 

Holoran, G. B., Osmaston Eoad, Derby. 

Hope, Rev. William, S.Peter's, Derby. 

Hope W.H. St. John, F.S.A.,S.Peter^s, Derby. 

Hope, Miss Rose E., 13, Ashburne Eoad, Derby. 

Horsley, Thomas, King's Newton. 

faovenden R. Heathcote, Park Hill Road, Croydon. 

ZZ%. Bight Hon. Lord, of OJossop^Glossop Hall. 

Howard, W. F., cavendish Street, Ches erfield. 

Howe, W. E., Fernie Bank, Matlock Bath. 

Huish, John, SmaUey, Derby. 

Huish, Darwin, Wardwick, Derby. 

Hunt, J. A., The Poplars, Ockbrook. 

H mter, John, Jun.. Field Head House Belper. 

.w.rt Albert F., Alderwasley, Derbyshire. 

K^t, 'Miss 46, CUfton Gardens, Maida HUl, London, W. 

Jackson, John P., Stubbin Edge, Chesterfield. 
Je:X;,L.F., Manor House. Kingston Lewes. 

»Jervis, The Hon. W. M., Quarndon, De.b>. 

JesBop, William, Butterley Hall. 

T .il-ine W W.,Hasland, Chesterfield. 

Jobson, Lclgai vv ., ^x o -n„,.v,v 

Pnilfrev DerweutFoundi-y,Deiby. 
jr:; B t C>. wood H.,..e, 0.„....u Ro.d. D„b,. 



I 



LIST OF MKMKERS. X' 

Johnson, Rev. William, Repton. 

Johnston, Captain Duncan A., R.E., Ordnance Survey, Derby. 

Johnston, Anilrew, Borrovvash, Derby. 

JoUey, William, Eldou Chambers, Nottingham. 

Jones, Joseph, Full Street, Derby. 

Jones, Rev. T. J., Atlow, Ashburne. 

Jones, T., Jun., 250, Glossop Road, Sheffield. 

Joseph, Ferguson, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Juurdain, Rev. Francis, The Vicarage, Ashburne. 

Keene, Richard, Irongate, Derby. 

Kingdou, Clement B., Ediiaston Lodge. 

Kirkland, Capt. Walter, 3, West Terrace, Eastbourne. 

Kitchingmau, Rev. J., The Rectory, Bonsali. 

Knipe, W. Melville, Melbourne. 

Lamb, John, Corn Market, Derby. 

Langdou, W., 5, Grove Terrace, Derby. 

Leacroft, Rev. C. H., The Vicarage, Braekeufield, Alfreton. 

Leader, J. D., F.S.A., Sheffield. 

Leech, Mrs. Samuel, London Road, Derby. 

Lewis, Rev. Lewis, Ockbrook, Derby. 

Lichfield, The Dean and Chapter of — Chas. Gresley, The Close, Lichfield. 

Lichfield, The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of. The Palace, Lichfield. 

Lingard, J., Irongate, Derby. 

Lindsay, J. Murray, M.D. , Mickleover, Derby. 

Lister, Charles, The Abbey, Darley Dale. 

Litherland, Henry, China Factory, Derby. 

Livesay, W'., M.D., Sudbury, Derby. 

Lomas, J., Marble Works, King Street, Derby. 

Longdon, Frederick, Osmaston Road, Derby. 

Lott, Edward, Corn Market, Derby. 

Lowe, Major A. E. Lawson, F.S.A., Shirenewton Hall, Chepstow. 

Lowe, William Drury, Locko Park, Derby. 

Lowe, George, M.D., Horuiuglow Street, Burton-on-Treut. 

Lucas, Captain, Darley House, Derby. 

Mackie, John, Cliffe House, Crigglestoue, near AVakefield, and Watford Villa, 

New Mills, Stockport. 
Madau, Rev. Nigel, West Hallam. 
Mallalien, W., Swallows' Rest, Ockbrook. 
Marsden, George, Wirksworth. 
Massey, Rev. J. C, South Normanton, Alfreton. 
Mason, Rev. G. E., The Rectory, Whitwell. 
Mclunes, E., 100, Osmaston Road, Derby. 



TIS'l' OF MEMBERS. 
XVI '-'- 

Meakin, E. J., Spoudou, Derby. ^ «,! 

Meno Rev. J. M , The llectory, Brar^pton S. Thomas, Che.terheld. 
Mellor, Eev. T. Vernon, Idridgehay Vicarage, Derhy. 
Meynell. Godfrey i\, Meyuell LaiJgley, Derby 

Milligan, Colonel, Cauldwell Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 

Mills, Henry, 2, S. Peter's Street, Derby. 

Milnes, Bey. Herbert, The Vicarage, Wiuster^ 

Molineux, Rev. C. H., S. James's Parsonage, Derby. 

Morley, Henry, London Road, Derby. 

«Mundy, Meynell, 38, Green Park, Bath. 
' Mundy, Edward Miller, Shipley Hall. 

Mundy, F. Noel, Markeaton Hall. 

Naylor, T. R., Leopold Street, Derby. 

Neal, Thos., Highfield Road, Derby. 

Needham.E.M., The Cedars, Belper. 

Newmane, Madame Cavania, George Street, Derby. 

Newdigate, Colonel F. W., West Hallam, Derby. 

Newton, C. E., The Manor House, Mickleover. 

Norfolk, His Grace the Duke of, E.M., Arundel Castle. 

Oakes,T. H., Biddings House. 
Oakes, C. H., Holly Hurst, Biddings. 
Oldham, Rev. J., Clay Cross, Chesterfield. 
Oliver, John, Wardwick, Derby. 
Olivier, Rev. Alfred, Normauton, Derby. 

•Paget, Joseph, Stuffynwood, Mansfield. 
Parkinson, Rev. J. R. S., Shelbourne, Nova Scotia. 
Portland, His Grace the Duke of, Welbeck, Notts. 
Pouutain, Major, Barrow-on-Trent. ■ 

Prince, Paul, Madeley Street, Rose Hill, Derby. 

Ratcliffe, Robert, Newton Park, Burton-on-Trent. 

■Rpdfern. James, Etwall. c. vir 

Sckard: John, inglefield, Leigham Court Road, Streatham, S.NN . 

Rilev T L., Stanley House, Kedleston Road, Derby. 

Rhodes, Thomas, Mersey Bank, Hadfield, near Manchester. 

Robinson, F. J.. Friar Gate. Derby. .„ ,, 

^Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, K.G.. Belvou- Castle. 

Sale, Richard, Barrow HiU, Derby. 

Sale, W. H., The Uplands, Burton Road, Derby. 

Sankey, W. H., Midland Road, Derby. 



I.isr OK MKMliKKS. 

Sfarsdalo, The Biglit Hon. Lorfl, Kedleston. 

•Sohwiiid, Cliarles, Broomfield, Derby. 

Seely, CliarltB, Jim., Slierwood Lodge, Notliiij^liaiii. 

Shaw, Rev. G. A., S. Michael's, Derby. 

Sliaw, Jolin, Nonnantoii House, Derby. 

Sheldou, T. G., Coiifjletoti, Chesliire. 

Shiittleworth, Joliii Speiu er Ahliton, Ilalliersaf^e Hall, Sheffield. 

Simpson, Mrs., Quarndon, Derby. 

Skrine, Kev. H. H. 

Sleigh, John, Eversley, Matlock. 

Smith, F. N., The Outwoods, Diiffield, Derby. 

Smith, Rev. D., Sandiacre, Notts. 

Smith, Storer, Lea'^Hurst, Croniford, 

Sorby, Clement, Darley Dale. 

Sow'ter, Miss, Ash Cottage, Kedleston Road, Derby, 

Spilsbury, Rev. B.'.W., Findern, Derby. 

Staley, The Right Rev. Bishop, C'roxall Vicarage, Lichfield. 

Stapylton, Rev. M., The Rectory, Barlborough, Chesterfield. 

Statham, Geo. K., Matlock Bridge. 

Stewart, Rev. R., The Rectory, Pleasley. 

Stephenson, M., Molescroft Cottage, Beverley. 

Storer, Charles John, Market Place, Derby, 

Stowell, Rev.jHugh, Breadsall Rectory. 

Strick, Richard, Portland, Alfreton. 

•Strutt, The Hon. Frederick, Milford House, Derby. 

Strutt, Herbtrt G., Makeney, Belper. 

Sutherland, George, Arboretum Square, Derbj'. 

Sutton, Edward, Shardlow Hall. 

Swann, Rev. Kirke, Forest Hill, Warsop. 

Swanwick, F., Wliittington, Chesterflald. 

Symons, Hy., Ashburne Road, Derby. 

Taylor, H. Brooke, Bakewell. 

Taj lor, Wm. Grimwood, 83, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Taylor, A. G., / ,, , 

_ , -, , ^ J St. Mary's Gate, Derby. 

Taylor, Mrs. A. G., \ ' ^ 

Tetley, W. H., Cliarnwood Street, Derby. 

Tinkler, S., Derwent Street, Derby. 

Thoruewill, Robert, The Abbey, Burton-ou-Xreut. 

Towle, R. N., Borrowash, Derby. 

Trowsdale, Thos B., Sevenoaks, Kent. 

Trubshaw, Chas., 3, Grove Terrace, Derby. 

Trueman, H., The Lea, Esher, Surrey. 

Turbutt, W. Gladwyn, Ogston Hull. 

Turner, George, Barrow-on-Trent. 



^yjji LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Ussber, Rev. Richard, Grove House, Ventuor, T.W. 
* Vernon, Right Hon. The Lord, Sudbury. 

Wadham, Rev. J., Weston-on-Treut. 

Waite, R., Duffleid, Derby. 

Walker, John, Old Uttoseter Road, Derby. 

Walker, Benjamin, Spondou, Derby. 

*Waltball, H. W., Alton Manor. 

Warden, Stewart, Doe Hill House, Alfreton. 

Wa«s E M.,Bath Hotel, Matlock. 

Waterpark, The Right Hon. Lord, Doveridge. 

Webb, Wilham, M.D., Wirksworth. -o i r, i ^ 

Whiston, W. Harvey, The Gardens, Osmaston Road, Deiby. 

^Whitehead, S. Taylor, Burton Closes, Bakewell. 

Williams, J. , Midland Railway, Dei-by. 

^Vilmot, Miss, 28, Westbourne Place, Eaton Sq^.are London^ 

nVilmot, Sir Henr7, Bart., V.C, C.B., M.P., Chaddesden HaU. 

Wilmot, Rev. F. B. W., Chaddesden. , ^ ^ , . 

Wilmot-HortoB, Rev. Sir G., Bart., Catton Hall, Derbyshu-e. 

Wilmot, Mrs. Edmund, ITdge Hill, Derby. 

Wilmot, Mrs. WooUett, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Wilson, Arthur, Melbourne. 

Woodforde, W. B., 7, Arboretum Square, Derby. 

Woodyatt, Rev. G., Vicarage, Repton. t i ., 

Woods, si- Albert, Garter King-of-Arms, College of Arms, London. 

Worsnop, James, Charnwood Street, Derby. 
Wright, F. Beresford, Wootton Court, Warwick. 
Wright, F. W., Full Street, Derby. 
Wright, FitzHerbert, The Hayes, Alfreton. 



K.B.-Members are requested to notify any error or omission in the above 
list to the Hon. Sec 



REPORT OF THE HON. SECRETARY 
1883. 



HE Fifth Anniversary of this Society was held in the 
.School of Art (kindly lent by the Committee for the 
occasion) on the 20th of February, 1883. The Right 
Rev. the Lord Bishop of Lichfield presided. The 
Report of the Society's proceedings for the past year, which in- 
cluded a satisfactory balance-sheet, and showed an increase in 
the number of members, was read. 

The officers for the year commencing were elected. Tlie meet- 
ing confirmed the provisional election of Mr. Beresford Wright to 
a seat on the Council, and re-elected those members of Council 
who retired in rotation under Rule V. — viz., Messrs. J. C. Cox, 
T. Evans, Foljambe, Frith, Heath, JoUey, Jourdain, and Keene. 
The Hon. Sec, the Hon. Sec. of Finance, the Hon. Treasurer, 
and the Auditors were also re-elected. 

Specimens of Church Plate from the Churches of Derbyshire 
were exhibited at the meeting, including the Plate in use at the 
Churches of All Saints, S. Miciiael's, S. Werburgh's, Derby, 
AUestree, Findern, Ashford, Bradley (a Kniveton set), Matlock, 
Shirley (a medieval paten), and many others. 

The Rev. J. Charles Cox read the following paper upon 
" Eucliaristic Plate," illustrating his remarks from the examples 
exhibited : — 



K U C H A R I S r I C PLATE. 

By the Rev. J. Charles Cox. 

[A Paper read at the Annual Meeting of the Derbyshire Archreological 
Society, held in Derby on February 20th, 1SS3, when there was an 
Exhibition of Church Plate.] 

Of the various instruments or vessels that have at different periods in the 
history of the Christian Church, been considered necessary for the celebration 
of the Holy Communion, the chalice is the only one which is of the essence 
of the sacrament, and without which it cannot be celebrated. For the bread 
may be brought in on a cloth, or in some linen receptacle, and it may not only 
be, but at one time it was distinctly ordered to be consecrated on the 
corporal, that is on the fair linen cloth spread in the centre of the altar. 

The chalice, or "Cup of blessing," being the only vessel mentioned in the 
Holy Scriptures in the accoant of the original institution, and being used 
therein by Christ Himself, was always treated and handled with peculiar re- 
verence in the ancient offices. In the Oblation, both before and after conse- 
cration, the chalice was the special medium, the "paten being treated as an 
accessory and convenient appendage thereto, rather than as a principal utensil 
in making the same."* 

In many old inventories it is obvious that the term " chalice " includes the 
paten, which was sometimes not specifically mentioned, owing probably to its 
being often also used as the cover to the chalice ; nay, further than that, it is 
considered by good authorities that in the same way as " vestment " is soine- 
times used to include the vestment proper or chasuble, amice, albe, girdle, 
maniple, and stole — so the term " chalice " someiimes implies not only the cup, 
but also the paten, crewets for wine and water, and pyx or box for the bread 
before consecration, which, taken together, formed a complete set of Eucharislic 
Plate. 

The material of the chalice was, from the earliest times, of the costliest 
metal, if possible, gold or silver. Early Councils only permitted poorer mate- 
rial, such as wood, horn, or glass, if the church was very poor. But glass 
chalices were, soon after their first use, specially forbidden, owing to their 
liability to be broken. After the depredations of the Danes, and again after 
the raid on Church Plate for the ransom of Richard Coeur de Lion, wooden 



Chambers' "Divine Worship in England," p. 240. 



KKHOKI'. 



ha..ces were pero^.Ue.l in Kngland, but only for a time. ,n .2.2 ,he A,ch- 
1- op of Canterln,ry forbade the use of pew.er or tin. Many of .Ik- .nedieval 
chahcos were most richly jewelled and most beautifully engraved. A .ood 
general ulea of the richness of our old Church Plate can be formed fron^the 
Mth century .Sacrisfs Roll of the Cathedral Church of Lichfield, printed in 
our 1 ransacfons of last year. The high nltar had chalice, paten, and crewets 

th T-ft Vi T 7 ""' ^""""' " '" '" ""'"^ ^•^°"' ^'-S-- These were 
tl c g,ft of B.shop Langton. All the Derbyshire chalices of 1552 were either 
silver or silver gilt. "^imcr 

In the early Church there were usunlly two chalices, one larger, with two 
earsor handles projecting from the upper part for ,he convenience of the 
deacon .n adn.tmstering to the people ; the other smaller, for the use of the 
eZ;:!ft'hT"""'-^"' ''' small Communions, "l here is an excelj 
rTsh A '"Sf ,— ' chalice, said to be of the 9th century, at the Royal 

Irish Aca.lemy, Dublin, which holds about three pints 

Next, as to the shape. These earlv two-handled chalices were commonly 
v-ase-shaped cups formed after a classic model-but in the i.th century, when 
te great revival of art took place, and articles were fashioned more care u.ly to 
fit thir various uses, the chalice became a hemispherical cuo with no rim of 
any kind with or without handles, and mounted on a stem with a knop 
in t e m.ddle,and alarge round foot. After the withdrawal of the cup from 
.he laity, the handles ceased to be of use, and were discarded, and the chalic 
became smaller. Duringthe ,2th century more importance beg.n to be given 
.0 thecleansing of the vessels at the end of the service, and fhere graduall 
grew up the custom of drinking the ablutions. In the rubrics in the ./..i 
of Sa isbury, . ork, and Hereford Uses, after enunciating the modes of ablu- 
non, the priest is ordered to /.^ ^<..„ M. ./.«//,,„;,,„ „././.«. Now this 
d.rec ion, unimportant as it may seem, had theeffect of modifying entirelj 
he shape of the chalice. The round-footed chalice was found apt to roU 
alout when laid on its side; the foot was therefore made hexagonal, which 
anowed It to rest on two points set some distance apart. The hexagon wa 

r; t" T V^'^'r T:''" '''-'"'''''' ''''-• - giving pomts'further 
apart. The hemispherical bowl was at the same time made more conical in 
^ ape, to facilitate the complete draining-out of the chalice when laid on Z 
SKle. 1 his shape continued in use until the middle of the i6.h century It 

on , Tu ""' ''''"" '"™ "^^ "'•^ '° 'l^^ '6'h centuries always 

consisted of three main parts-THE r.mless bowl; the stem with a knop 
■n the middle to hold the vessel by ; and the koc, which wa's a pead „1 
o^Malway^a^ i„ ,,,,„,,,, ,^ „^ ,^^^,^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^.^^ ^^ 

' First noticed by Mr. .Mickle.hwaite, and communica.rd ,0 n,e by Mr. W. H. .s7|^ 
Hope. 



REPORT. 



liable to be upset. The foot was almost invariably of this shape in England, 
but not abroad : — 




The material of the paten usually corresponded to that of the chalice, 
though sometimes, as the less worthy, it was of inferior metal ; for we read of 
more than one chalice of gold that had its accompanying paten of silver. 
There were two kinds of paten — one very large, called the " offertorium," 
which answered to our alms-dish or basin ; and the other much smaller, and 
belonging to the chalice. But at Easter and other large Communions, the 
offertorium was sometimes used in place of the smaller paten. 

Our English medieval patens are distinguished by a sunk sexfoil, the cusps of 
which are filled with a rayed ornament. The centre is occupied by the Ver- 
nicle, a favourite device— a hand in benediction— Our Lord in Majesty— the 
Agnus Dei — or by the sacred monogram. Raised monograms were not usual, 
though instances are found of jewelled patens in old inventories. 

The Shirley paten of this county, recently discovered through the issue of 
the Church Plate inquiry sheets of this Society, and hitherto unknown to any 
of the experts in old English plate, is a very good example of 15th century 
work. The date is 1493—4, according to Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, who first 
identified it as of medieval work. It is five inches in diameter, and weighs 
two ounces. In the centre is the Vernicle, or representation of the Holy Face 
as it is said to have appeared on the handkerchief of S. Veronica, which 
shows great delicacy in the workmanship. In general character this 
paten much resembles the famous one at Nettlecombe. Somerset, the date of 
which is 1439. 

The paten of S. Teter's, Derby, though modern, is a good copy of the 
early 16th century style, of which the one at Trinity College, Oxford, is a well- 
kno«n instance. 
English Church Plate of medieval date is, as might be expected, of very 



rare occurrence, though such inquiries as ours, if generally adopted, will pio- 
bal)ly bring to light a few more specimens. William the Conqueror, in 1070, 
not only robbed monastic and collegiate establishments of their plate and 
jewels, but even condescended to appropriate the chalices of parish churches. 
In 1 194 another general raid was made upon the vessels for the purpose of 
ransoming Richard I. The changes introduced at the Reformation not only 
caused a good deal of Church Plate connected with a more elaborate ritual to 
disappear, but were also eventually very destructive to Kucharistic Plate proper. 

The first thing to notice in the Reformation period is the continually recurring 
reports of robbery and embezzlement which followed the suppression of the 
monasteries and the appropriation of "Cathedral stuff," including all the 
shrints, jewels, rich vestments (burnt for the sake of gold wire) and such plate 
as was deemed superfluous by the worthy king, Henry VIII. It is, however, 
a mistake to suppose that the king also robbed the parish churches. That was 
left for his hopeful son. At Staveley, we are told, in 1552, " our chalis was 
stolen xij monethes past." Dovezridge report "our clialys and other orna- 
ments were solde by Thomas Blythe, sumlyme chaunlry priste, for which 
cause he was putt from the same promocon and dyed very poore." INIarston 
sa)s, "Achales was latelie stolen." The chantry of S. Miciiael, Chester- 
field : "A chalys the vycar there had in custody and roune awaye with it ij 
yeres paste." Many articles of value, however, disappeared by the aid of the 
very persons who ought to have taken care of them, viz., the churchwardens. 
At Egginton, " ij bells themselves were sold in the ijnd yere of the kyng's 
reign to the repairinge of the Monks Bridge," the excuse being that it " is so 
farre in decay that the township is not able to amend the same." The in- 
habitants of Ambaston also sold a bell which was in the chapel, and at Ash- 
burne, after calmly submitting to the loss of "j holde alba stolen forth 
of acofer in the Church, the locke beying pyked, " we hear of " ij holde 
frunts of no valewe beying lant to disguyse persons at the bryngynge in of a 
Mali gamme." 

These and other losses became such a scandal, that Commissioners were 
more than once sent through each county to take inventories of what was 
spared. From these we are able to gather what our loss has been, but, unfor- 
tunately, the lists themselves have not always come down to our day. Those of 
the North Riding of York, Lincoln, and Sussex are missing entirely. Derby- 
shire has been more lucky, for, though only one inventory in the visitation of 
1547 — that of Hope Church — has survived, from the Commission of 1552 we 
possess lists of goods then remaining in between 80 and 90 Churches, prin- 
cipally in the Deaneries of Ashburne, Duffield, Hartshorne, Lullington, Ock- 
brook, Radbourne, Stanton, and Wirksworth. They have all been 
printed by Mr. Walcott in The Reliquary, and revised by myself for the 
Churches of Derhyshirc. 



These various inventories, though ostensibly taken with the object of 
stopping the appropriation of church goods to secular purposes, themselves 
bear witness to the contrary by the numerous cases reported of the application 
of proceeds to parochial purposes. The Commission, however, of the last 
year of Edward VI. was made for the direct and sole purpose of robbery pure 
and simple on ihe part of the Crown— the commissioners being directed to 
seize everything of value, but to leave " one, two, or more chalices or cuppes 
according to the multitude of people." In our county one chalice was deemed 
sufficient for each parish, and in a few instances a paten also is specially 
named ; though it seems almost certain, as I have before remarked, that the 
mention of chalice implied an accompanying paten. It might be expected 
that some of these chalices would have escaped destruction, but, alas ! the 
number of medieval chalices so far known to remain in all England does not 
reach a dozen. The reason is that Edward VI. 's injunctions ordered the 
destruction of all monuments of superstition, and Protestant zeal, too often 
the disguise for personal gain, would certainly include amongst them many of 
the vessels used at the Mass, e'-pecially when marked with sacred symbols. 
Hence we find in many cases entries in the churchwarden's accounts relating 
how the chalices have been made into "communion cups." The changes of 
Queen Mary's reign, nevertheless, followed so closely upon the heels of this 
'"reformation," that many of the old chalices were again brought into use, 
and the new communion cups were frequently reconverted into chalices. 
Elizabeth's reign, however, dealt a most severe blow at our old plate, for the 
injunctions were again enforced, and several of the bishops' visitation articles 
h.ave such questions as this from Archbishop Parker, in 1 569 : — 

" Whether they do minister in any prophane cuppes, bowles, dishes, or 
chalices, heretofore used at Masse, or els in a decent communion cuppe 
provided and kept for that purpose only." 

The few Edwardian cups that have been preserved are all of similar design. 
They are plain standing cups with bell-shaped bowls, and a conical stem 
without knops, and with simple moulded bands. It is doubtful if we have an 
instance in Derbyshire. 

Of Elizabethan cups there are very many examples. Mr. Octavius Morgan 
thus describes the general type as compared with the old English shape : — 

" The chalice still consisted of the same parts, bowl, stem, and foot, 
though I have known two instances in small parishes where the chalices 
consist of the cup only, without stem or foot. The stem, although altered in 
form and character, still swells out in the middle into a small knob, or the 
rudiments of one, and is occasionally ornamented with small bands of a 
lozeni^e-shaped ornament, or some other such simple pattern, and the foot is 
invariably round instead of indented or angular. The form of the cup, how- 
ever, is alUigcther changed, and instead of being a shallow, wide bowl, it is 



elongated into the form of an inverted truncated cone, slightly bell-shaped. 
The form of the paten is also much changed, the sunk part of the platter is 
often considerably deepened, the brim narrowed, and thereon is fixed a rim or 
edge, by whicii it is made, when inverted, to fit on the cup as a cover, whilst 
a foot is added to it, which serves also as a handle to the cover, as though it 
were intended to place the wine in the chalice and cover it with the paten 
cover until the administration of the sacrament, when the cover would be 
removed and used as a paten for holding the bread. On the bottom of the 
foot of the paten was a silver piste, which almost always bears the date when 
it was made, and the name of the parish to which it belongs. The ornament 
on all these chalices and paten covers, as they may be called, is invariably the 
same ; it consists simply of an engraved band round the body of the cup and 
on the top of the cover, formed by two narrow fillets which interlace or cross 
each other, with a particular curvature, in every instance the same, the space 
between them being occupied by a scroll of foliage, and this ornament is 
marked by a total abstinence of letters, monograms, emblems, or figures of 
any kind. It is curious how this exact unilormity of shape and ornament was 
so universally adopted, unless there had been some regulation or standard 
pattern to go by, but I have not been able to find any such to guide the 
makers." 

So far as my own knowledge of the Church Plate of this county is con- 
cerned, and I suppose I have seen more of it than any other individual, with 
tlie exception, most probably, of the Ven. Archdeacon of Derbyshire — coupled 
with the information as yet received from the society's returns — Derbyshire 
possesses eleven Elizabethan cups, but a few others may yet be brought to 
light.* One of these, the Findern example, is one of the earliest known 
instances of her reign, and a singularly good specimen. The Hall marks give 
the year 1564-5. The ornamental band is a handsomer one than any noticed 
by Mr. Cripps, or amongst the large number of Elizabethan cups in the 
diocese of Carlisle. The date, too, is exceptionally early, but few beii'g 
known earlier than 1571. The Wilne example is 1566-7, that of Taddington 
156S-9, Norton 1568-9 (a large fine sample), Derwent 1584-5, Fairfield 1593-4, 
and Kedleston 160 1. There are four unmarked samples of this reign, one at 
Osmaston-by-Derby, which is early in the reign, one at Dalbury, one at 
Shirley, and one at Whittington, which is late Elizabethan, or possibly early 
Jacobean. Dovezridge, 1619, is very similar to Elizabethan. 

The further changes of the next century and their various diversities are brst 
illustrated by the examples before you — the chief difference being in the 
increasing plainness and lack of ornament. The patens also cease to be used 
as covers, ihnugh they will often fit on the top of the cups. 

"* Several other examples of late Elizabethan and early Jacobean clialices have since turned 
up, i.e., at Mickleover, Weston, Marston Montgomery, and Willingion. — W. H. St. J. H. 



I should mention that instances do occur where the old English traditional 
shape of hemispherical bowl, stem with knop, and hexagonal indented foot 
has continued. A very fine one is found at Ashby-de-la-Zouch (1676), S. 
Peter's College, Cambridge — the gift of Bishop Cosin (1626), and two at 
Rochester Cathedral (1653-4). The points of the hexagonal foot usually 
terminate in cherubs' heads. The several chalices of the Kniveton gift in 
this county, noticed below, cannot be surpassed as examples of this kind of 
work. They are exceptionally large and beautifully finished. The cherubs' 
heads and other details are singularly well preserved in the Bradley chalice 
now before you ; its date is 1640-41. 

Derbyshire has a good many examples of chalices of the first half of the 
17th century. The plain but interesting one from Ashford is undated, but I 
take it to be Jacobean. Such are Sandiacre and Tissingtou 1624-5, Stanton- 
by-Dale 1629-30, Risley 1632-3, and Normanton-by-Derby, with paten cover, 
1645. The period of the Commonwealth, when Puritan malevolence culmi- 
nated against the Church, was not so fatal to the sacred vessels of the altar as 
is usually supposed. With the exception of those places wherein the violence 
of civil war specially centred, such as the diocesan city of Lichfield, there is no 
proof that the chalices and patens of our ordinary parish churches, as a rule, 
suffered spoliation. "The Directory for the Publique Worship of God,"' 
which in 1634 took the place of the Book of Common Prayer, provides that 
what the schismatics termed the Lord's Supper was " to be frequently cele- 
brated," and for this puipose the ancient vessels would be required. Plate 
was not infrequently given during the Commonwealth ; Richard Goodwin gave 
"one large silver chalice " to the church of Taddington, Derbyshire, in 1651 ; 
and the Alvaston chalice is dated 1653-4. But by far the most interesting 
piece of Church Plate of the Commonwealth in Derbyshire is the chalice and 
paten of Normanlon-by-Derby, with heraldic quarterings, most beautifully 
engraved, for it is of the year 1645, of which date hardly any plate at all has 
been found, the very year after the forcible suppression of the Prayer Book. 
Morley, too, has an unmarked paten of about the same date, and there is an 
excellent chalice at Spondon of the year 1646-7. 

Of chalices of the second half of the century may be mentioned Morley 
1663-4, Tideswell 1683-4, Spondon 1685-6, Christ Church, Derby, with 
interesting engravings of the crucifixion and resurrection, 1698-9, and Sudbury 
1678-9, which, with its accompanying large paten, has below the unusual 
monogram of the Sacred Heart and three nails. The ancient chapel of S. 
John Baptist, Belper, has a small two-handled chalice of 1685-6. 

Of eighteenth century samples, Derbyshire possesses a large variety, which it 
would be tedious now to enumerate. The chalices of the Derby churches of 
S. Werburgh and S. Michael are good samples of the middle of the century ; 
and the silver-gilt tankard flagons of S. Wcrburgh's of 1 71 7 may be compared 



with the similar vessels of the eighteenth century. There is a good Queen 
Anne paten at Osmaston-by-Derby, 1702-3. 

The most massive and costly village Church I'late in the county is the set of 
two chalices, two patens, alms plate, and flagon, of silver-gilt, at Ravenstone, 
the gift of Rebecca Wilkins in 1715. The handsome chalice and cover of 
Newton Solney, 1757-8, and the Tickenhall paten of 1715-16, with its unique 
leather case, should also be noticed. 

Disastrous as so many of the political and religious movements of our 
nation have been, both to the fabrics of our churches and to the ornaments 
that they sheltered, the history of Church Plate after all confirms the con- 
clusion that I have previously formed, namely, that the period when the 
Church was at its lowest ebb in intelligence and energy, was also the time that 
was most fatal to all that was comely, ancient, or valuable, for it was the 
period of family jobbery and private embezzlement — the century that was ruled 
over by our three first Georges. 

.So far as Derbyshire is concerned, I have carefully inspected the church- 
wardens' accounts and other records of various parishes, and, without exception, 
where I have found such records extant, it appears that some at least of the 
communion plate chronicled in the seventeenth century, some of it Elizabethan, 
some no doubt medieval, has now disappeared, either through criminal care- 
lessness or direct theft. 

At All Saints', Derby, the old silver chalice and paten, mentioned in 1632, 
and again in 1662, is missing, without any record of its fate. In 16S1, Mr. 
Mathews, master of the Free School, presented a silver paten weighing over 
12 ounces. This also is missing. A silver tankard given to Kedleston 
Church in 17 15 is missing. The silver plate at Brampton Church was stolen 
30 or 40 years ago. 

Lady Frances Kniveton, second wife of Sir Gilbert Kniveton, of Bradley, 
gave a valuable set of Communion plate, consisting of silver-gilt chalice, paten, 
and flagon to the seven Churches of Bradley, Kniveton, Mugginton, Asli- 
burne, Brailsford, Osmaston, and Kirk Langley. Lady Frances was one of 
the co-heirs of Sir Robert Dudley, Duke of the Empire. A patent allowing 
to her the title of Duchess Dudley was granted by Charles L and confirmed 
by Charles IL after the Restoration. She used much of her great wealth in 
various munificent benefactions. Each of the above gifts of plate cost ^50, a 
great sum, considering the then value of money. But of these seven gifts, two 
have been stolen, namely, the sets at Ashburne and Brailsford. 

Occasionally the bad taste of post-Reformation churchwardens led them to 
exchange their old medieval plate for new. Two instances of this occur in 
the Youlgreave accounts : — 

" 1625. For changing ye old communion cupp and cover for ye new chalice 
(in all) £1 19s. gd." 



"1732. In exchange between an old silver cup and salver for a silver 
plate, 2.S. 2d.' 

In the Hayfield churchwardens' book is the following : — 

" 1784. Exchanging the silver cup, 12 shillings." 

The melting down of comparatively modern plate of a bad and awkward 
design into more seemly shapes is much more excusable than the sale or ex- 
change of really old plate. As an instance of this may be mentioned the 
Church Plate of S. Peter's, Derby, which in 1857 was remodelled into its pre- 
sent good shape from a chalice of 1666, and from a paten and flagon of 1686. 
But even a change of this sort should not be effected without very grave 
reason. 

The issue of such a volume on Church Plate as that projected by our Society 
will go far to prevent any further recourse to the crucible by clergy or church- 
wardens under the mistaken zeal of preferring "new lamps" to old. Let it 
not be thought that I exaggerate the danger even now accruing to the few 
really old specimens that our county retains. It was only in January, 1881, 
that Mr. Wilfred Cripps, the great authority on English plate, wrote thus to 
the Guardian : — ■ 

" There was hardly a parish in which some relic of Elizabethan times did not 
exist only a few years ago ; but year by year many are consigned to the melting 
pot, or rather to the private cabinet of some wealthy silversmith, who is very 
glad to give a country clergyman the small amount its weight in silver coin 
comes to for a curiosity which, though it loses half its interest by being re- 
moved from the Church to which it has belonged ever since it assumed its 
present form in the early years of the reign of Elizabeth, is nevertheless still well 
worth preserving. I have heard of one being parted with lately, and the few 
shillings it produced spent in hymn books ; of another exchanged for a chalice 
of electro-plate ; of a thinl being sold because the incumbent thought it old- 
fashioned. Each of these had been the propeityof the parish for more than 
300 years, and more than this, was probably made of the very silver of a still 
more ancient chalice, and re-cast into its present shape at the Reformation, in 
deference to Puritanical intolerance." 

Let me briefly revert to one or two other matters of interest wiih regard to 
our post- Reformat ion plate. Chalices are occasionally found in sacred use 
that were originally intended for secular purposes, and afterwards presented to 
the Church. Let me give four Derliyshire instances. The beautifully en- 
graved cup of Derwent Chapel, 1584 — 5, from the style of the ornaments, was 
undoulitedly of secular origin. The engraving is thus desciibed by the present 
Vicar : — 

" Four staves, resting repectively on a seal ; a starfish and other fish, sur- 
rounded by seaweed ; a turtle ; a starfish and other fish, surrounded by sea- 
weed. The four staves are ornamented at middle and top with 



RKPORT. X\l\ 

mitres, and are connected at the top by festoons uf drapery. On the middle 
of each festoon hangs a harp, and over each harp stands an eagle. A band of 
raised ornamentation runs round the stem, and also round the splay foot. The 
cover has spiral top, with raised ornamentation. A rough Latin cross has 
been pricked inside cover." 

This latter mark was probably made at the time of its dedication to a 
sacred use. 

The Kedleston chalice, 1 60 1 -2, is a most beautiful silver-gilt secular cup, 
given to the church in 17 15 by Lady Sarah Curzon, It is engraved all over 
with trefoils, and bears also the arms of Penn impaling Leake. 

The inscription on what is now the chalice at Edale Chapel tells its own 
tale :— 

" This Oration Prize, the legacy of Dr. Hooper, adjudged to Daniel 
Creswell, of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1795, ^^'^s by him given to this 
chapel of Edale, 1 8 10." 

Spondon, too, possesses a large two-handled plated cup, given about 1700, 
and now used as a flagon, which was undoubtedly originally designed for 
secular use. 

Both the arms and the inscriptions on postReformalion Church Plate, that 
were often engraved thereon in the two last centuries, though distasteful in the 
extreme to the reverent mind, have their value and interest for the heraldic 
student and the genealogist. Amongst instances of this character in Derby- 
shire, it may be mentioned that the arms and name of Pegge are on the Shirley 
flagon ; insciiptions of the Harpur and Crewe families on the Tickenhall 
patens ; Curzon arms on the Kedleston patens ; Horton inscription on the 
Croxall flagon ; Willoughby arms and inscription on all the plate at Risley ; 
and Lord Exeter's arms on the noble plate at All Saints', Derby. On the 
Normanton chalice and paten the Harpur arms are beautifully quartered ; the 
Sacheverel arms are on the Morley paten ; the Benskin arms on the plate at 
Alvaston ; and the Gilbert arms on the Spondon paten. In the churchwardens' 
accounts of Youlgreave is an entry which gives an excellent excuse for the 
engraving of the name of the donor and parish : — 

" 1731, May 14. — There was given two salvers for bread and two stoops for 
the wine, all made of pure silver, and weighing by averdupois five pounds and 
half an ounce altogether, by Mrs. Mary Hill, of VVoodhouse, during her life- 
time, to the parish of Youlgreave, with her name engraved thereon only to 
prevent its being imbeziled away — in testimony of which I have hereunto set 
my hand. — Danl. Hakdinge, Curt, of Youlgreave." 

The consideration of the question of the post-Reformation use of pewter, 
without which this paper would be incomplete, leads me back to certain 
Eucharistic vessels upon which no comment has hitherto been offered — 
namely, crewets, and their later development into flagons. 



Two ere wets, one for wine, and the other for water, were an invariable part 
of the Eucharistic Plate, and are specified by all the ancient Ritualists. The 
ancient crewets were very seldom of glass or crystal, but generally of enamelled 
copper, or of some more valuable metal. In the isth and i6th centuries the, 
ordinary parish churches of England were usually content with pewter crewets ; 
almost all the Derbyshire crewets of 1552 inventories were of this material. 
They were usually dislinguiscd by some convenient mark, such as A [aqua) for 
water, and V [viiui/ii] for wine. A pair of golden ciewets at Ely were 
distinguished by a large ruby for the wine, and a beautiful pearl for the water. 
The size of these crewets was but small when the cup was refused to the laity, 
but after the Reformation it became necessary that they should become con- 
siderably increased in bulk, and hence the use of what we usually now term 
flagons. The earliest flagons are of Elizabeth's time. They have a pear- 
shaped body, domed lid with thumb piece, and a curved handle, and are 
mounted on a spreading circular foot. The Osmaston silver flagon, recently 
given by Mr. Ussher, is a good modern copy of an Elizabethan flagon, made 
to match the chalice, and the Osmaston flagon of electro-plate an instance of 
what to avoid. After the beginning of the 17th century the " round bellied " 
flagons disappear, and the common tall tankard shape comes into use, of 
which many examples abound (All Saints', S. Michael's, S. Werburgh's, 
Ravenstone, etc.) These flagons, throughout England, both before and after 
the Restoration, were usually, and invariably at the larger churches, in pairs 
(as All Saints', S. Werburgh's, and many other Derbyshire churcTies), showing 
that they were intended to be the successors of the ancient crewets or phials, 
and were used for wine and water. I have several times noticed, both in pairs 
of pewter flagons, as well as in those of more precious -metals, a difference in 
the covers or handles, though of the same date, and I have no doubt that this 
difference was intentional, and intended to assist the celebrant or his minister 
in readily distinguishing between the flagons for the wine and for the water. 

There is a most charming variition in both handles and shape in the two 
elegant silver flagons of classical design of Sudbury Church, bearing the 
Birmingham hall marks of 1775-6. 

In several of the old engravings of post-Reformation altars, where the two 
flagons arc usually represented, this difference may be noted. It is very 
prominent in the frontispiece of "The whole duty of receiving worthily the 
Blessed Sacrament," which was in a fifth edition in 1717. 

No one, outside the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, who has at all 
studied the subject, can have any doubt that the admixture of water with the 
wine in the chalice was the usual and sanctioned custom of our Reformed 
Church. We have the most unqualified evidence in the case of Archbishops 
Laud and Sancroft, and of Bishops Andrewes, Cosin, and Field, etc., etc. 
The indirect evidence of the pairs of flagons, and their difference in shape (not 
hitherto, I believe, noticed), is not without value. 



J 



KEFORT. XXXI 

It might be objected to this view of the use of the second flagon that the 
size militated against it, as so little water is required for admixture in the 
chalice. To this I answer that the post-Reformation use of our leading 
bishops distinctly authorised the ceremonial ablution of the priest's hands 
before the eonsecration at Holy Communion, and that the large water flagon 
would also be used for this purpose. This, too, explains the use of certain 
small basins, certainly not alms basins, not unfrequently met with in Church 
Plate of 17th century, and usually of pewter. Su^h is the basin of the 1629 
pewter set at Osmaston-by-Derby. 

The great increase in the size of the crewets or flagons, necessitated at tlie 
Reformation by the restoration of the cup to the laity — coupled with the fact 
that that was not the era for promoting the giving of our best to God — gave 
a great impetus to the general use of cheap pewter for flagons, and hence the 
use of that metal, in poor and despoiled churches, descended even to the 
chalice and paten. 

By the XX. Canon of 1603-4, the Churchwardens of every parish, against 
the time of every Communion, "shall provide .... a sufficient 
quantity .... of good wholesome wine, for the number of communi- 
cants that shall from time to time receive there, which wine we require to be 
brought to the Communion table in a clean and sweet standing pot or stoup of 
pewter, if not of purer metal." 

The following are some of the numerous instances of the post-Reformation 
use of pewter in Derbyshire churches. At Quarndon, from the Terrier of 
1 75 1, we find that a flagon, chalice, paten, salver, and plate, all of pewter, 
were in use. At Kirk Langley a pewter paten was used up to 1825. In a 
Mackworth inventory of 1639, a pewter flagon is mentioned. The Wirksworth 
churchwarden accounts have the following entries : — 

" 1662 — Paid for a puter flagon for the communion table, 7s. 4d." 

" 1677 — Disbursed by Mr. Archdeacon 6s. 9d. for a puter flagon." 

The accounts of All Saints', Derby, contain the following : — 

"Memorandum. That in ye month of April, An. 1679, Mr. George 
Smith, of this Parish of All Saints', Pewterer, did give for ye use of ye 
Parishioners of this Parish of All Saints', two large pewter Flaggons, and one 
Pewter Plate : To be used only at the Communion." 

In " An account of the materials belonging to the Communion Table at 
Taddington," for the year 1695, mention is made, in addition to silver, of 
" one large Flaggon of pewter (which still remains), one pewter Bason, one 
large Leather Bottle." This last entry, namely, of a leather bottle or jack, is, 
we should think, unique in tlie record of vessels pertaining to the Holy 
Communion. 

Even now pewter vessels may often be found in the vestries of churches of 
our county, though very rarely in use, except occasionally as alms plates. 



xxxu RKroKr. 

At Tickenhall there is a small alms dish of pewter, now in use, nine inches 
in diameter. 

At Osmastun-by-Derby there is a chalice, a flagon, and an alms basin, all 
of pewter, of the year 1629, but not now used. 

At Monyash, a pewter paten and alms basin are still used ; and at Hartshorn 
there is a pewter flagon of the year 1638 still in use. There is a disused 
pewter paten at Sawley, and there are various pewter plates at S. John the 
Baptist Chapel, at Belper. There is also a pewter alms dish in use at Wilne. 

Surely we ought to be careful — and irrespective of the reverence due to 
sacred things, pewter has its own history, its own marks, its own occasional 
beauty of shape or of engraved design — that such vessels as these, though of 
nferior metal, are not carelessly discarded or suffered to be put to base uses 
where they will soon pass into oblivion. I am glad to say that I have been 
instrumental in one case in this county in recovering a large pewter church 
flagon from the village "public," and it is now used in supplying water for the 
font. Careful inquiry in our country parishes would, I believe, result in the 
recovery of many of these flagons or other pewter vessels that once were put 
to so sacred a use. I would suggest to the clergy that where they have 
several discarded pewter vessels pertaining to the church, that are not rendered 
interesting from any inscription, engraving, or peculiarity of design, that a 
good way of using up the material for a sacred purpose would be to have the 
metal re-cast by a careful pewterer into a font ewer, for the purpose of supply- 
ing water at Holy Baptism. But I only suggest this where there seems any 
real fear of such vessel being secularised or misappropriated. Their careful 
preservation, however uninteresting they mny seem to be, should surely com- 
mend itself most to us, whether as archaeologists or Churchmen. The Bishop 
of Carlisle, in his Christmas Pastoral fur 1880, did not think it beneath his 
notice to formally address his clergy on this subject. His Lordship said : — 
"It is very desirable that pewter vessels which have been used f«r the 
purposes of the Holy Communion should be carefully preserved, even when 
their place has been taken by silver utensils ; there is a temptation to neglect 
them as of no value ; but there is much of historical interest attaching to these 
pewter vessels, and they deserve a place in the treasury of the parish to which 
they belong." 

This society is not a religious one, and is therefore in no direct sense in- 
terested in the promotion of greater reverence in the keeping and use of that 
which is essential to the due celebration of the mysteries of the Christian 
faith ; but as our chief object, according to our rules, is " to preserve the 
archaeology of the county," it may not be out of place for me to speak very briefly 
on the subject of the episcopal consecration of Church Plate, and the great 
desirability of its continuance. I do not, then, now say a word on the religious 
advantage of compliance with a usage that can be proved to have commended 



itself to the faithful of the Church of England for upwards of 1 140 years, but 
simply argue, from the dry archaeological stand-point, that any ceremonial 
which adds greater sanctity, and therefore greater chance of preservation, to 
these valuable specimens of handicraft in precious metals, ought to be encour- 
aged by antiquaries. When, therefore, it can so readily be proved, as I have 
just shown with regard to Derbyshire, how shameless has been the robbery of 
Church Plate in comparatively recent days, I cannot help hoping that such 
associations as ours will bring all the influence they may possess to bear upon 
our bishops to induce them to revert to so primitive and conservative a 
practice, and not to permit the use of any save consecrated plate at the altar, 
the plate being in some significant way stamped, if not more fully inscribed, 
after the completion of the ceremony. The Canons of Elfric, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, 995, order that : — " No person shall celebrate Mass in any other 
vessel save in the chalice that is blessed thereto." 

The forms for the benediction of sacramental utensils are a principal part of 
all the ancient Pontificals. The Pontifical of Archbishop Egbert, circa A. D. 
740, gives this form for the hallowing of the chalice : — 

"Let us pray, most beloved brethren, that our God would hallow this 
chalice to be consecrated to the use of the ministry by the inspiration of 
celestial grace, and to human benediction apply the plentitude of divine 
favour, through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

"Vouchsafe, O Lord God, to bless t this chalice for the use of Thy 
ministry, formed by pious devotion, and to bedew it with that sanctification 
with which Thou didst bedew the sacred chalice of Melchisedec Thy servant, 
and may that, which by the art and nature of metal cannot be accomplished, 
through Thy benediction become worthy of Thy altars, precious and sanctified, 
through our Lord Jesus Christ." 

Here let the bishop anoint the chalice and say : — 

" Almighty God, indivisible Trinity, pour upon our hands the help of this 
benefdiction, that through our benediction this vessel may be sanctified, and 
by the Spirit of Thy Grace be made a new sepulchre of the body and blood 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen." 

This form, with one or two trifling verbal alterations, is to be found in all 
the known varieties of English Pontificals of diff"erent dates down to the 
Sarum Pontificals of the fifteenth century. 

It is a complete mistake to imagine that the consecration of sacramental 
vessels ceased with the Reformation. When one of the charges against 
Archbishop Laud was that in his chapel he "consecrated plate," that prelate 
replied that '■ in all ages of the Church, especially in Constantine's time, there 
have been consecrations of sacred vessels as well as of churches themselves j" 
and explained that he made use of the form drawn up by the saintly Bishop 
Andrewes. This form, first used by Bishop Andrewes when consecrating the 



new plate of the cathedral church of Worcester, is to be found in his Minor 
Works, pp. 159 — 163. This form, in addition to the separate presentation 
and consecration of chalice, paten, and flagon, provides also for the consecra- 
tion of the altar candlesticks, and likewise for the censer for incense. 

Archbishop Sancroft consecrated the altar plate at Coleshill Church, War- 
wickshire, in 1685. The chalice belonging to the Communion Plate of the 
Parish Church of Stretham bears the following inscription : — 

" Ecclesife Parochiali de Stretham infra Insulam Eliensem Consecratum, 
A.D. 1686." 

Francis Turner was at that time Bishop of Ely ; he afterwards became a 
Non-juror. When the form of consecration used by Archbishop Sancroft at 
Coleshill was published in 1703, Mr. Tisdale, the editor, prefaced it with a 
statement that it was after the fashion of like forms that " had been generally 
used since the Reformation." Archbishop Sancroft is also said to have con- 
secrated some Elizabethan plate for his private chapel at Fressingham after his 
deprivation, thus establishing a precedent for consecrating that which has been 
already some time in use. This plate is now in use at the Parish Church of 
Starston, Norfolk, and is inscribed "Deo Servatori Sacrum." 

Dr. Patrick, Bishop of Ely, when consecrating the chapel of St. Katharine's 
Hall, Cambridge, in the year 1704, made use of the following prayer in con- 
secrating the Communion plate : — 

" Most Blessed Lord, accept, we beseech Thee, of the oblation we make 
unto Thee of these vessels, which we humbly dedicate to Thy Divine service at 
Thy Holy Table ; and as we now wholly give them up to Thy use, in the 
ministration of Thy Holy Communion of Christ's Body and Blood, so we pray 
Thee to receive them for Thine own ; preserve them from being any way pro- 
faned ; and being here set apart and consecrated by our office and ministry to 
Thy service, let them always continue to be so employed, through Jesus Christ 
our only Lord and Saviour. Amen." 

The preservative influence of so solemn a prayer as this cannot, I think, be 
gainsayed. One of the most interesting specimens of English medieval plate 
is a silver-gilt cup, now preserved at Pembroke College, Cambridge, the gift, 
in 1497, of Langton, Bishop of Winchester. It is commonly styled the 
Anathema Cup, from the legend that it bears — "Qui alinaverit anathema sit." 
May it not well be the case that this threatened curse is the cause of its present 
existence ? And would not the sense of sacrilege be in a like manner 
deepened if a specific and inscribed act of consecration was used and marked 
on all our sacramental vessels ? It is true that many of the clergy are in the 
habit of having, not only Church Plate, but altar linen, font ewers, or anything 
of a like nature that may be given to the Church, presented at the altar tliere 
to receive a special priestly benediction betokening the future separation of the 
articles so presented from any secular use ; but this is quite a different matter 



J 



lo the solemn act of episcopal consecration of sacramental vessels which it is to 
be hoped may soon be again the rule, and not the exception. That well-known 
theologian, Dr. Forbes, the late Bishop of Brechin, was in the habit of thus 
consecrating, after the ancient forms, Church Plate and other matters pertain- 
ing to the altar ; a portable altar slab that received consecration at his hands 
is now in use in this county. 

With this sentence I proposed to close this paper, but three days ago I 
received information that enables me to give a still more recent instance of 
episcopal consecration, or solemn dedication of Church Plate — an instance of 
peculiar interest to us of this Society, as our Right Reverend Vice-President, 
who has honoured us by occupying the chair to-day, dedicated a few months 
ago some altar vessels at Gailey Church, near Penkridge, according to the 
form of consecrating plate drawn up by Bishop Andrewes, with a few slight 
alterations.* 

Finally — not so much for the information of those parsons and wardens who 
have proved thtir interest in the matter by coming here to-day, but as a warn- 
ing to those officials who are responsible for the custody of Church Plate, but 
apparently think it a matter of but slight moment — I wish to state that, to the 
best of my belief, the sale, the exchange, or even the re-casting of Church 
Plate without a faculty is illegal. 

At the conclusion of Mr. Cox's paper, the Bishop said — " This 
was the first time since he came into the diocese that he had been 
able to attend a meeting not directly connected with Church 
matters ; he was very glad to attend this meeting, because he 
thought the objects of the Society were as interesting and as 
profitable for their thoughts and leisure as they could possibly be. 
The study of nature was most elevating as being the reverent 
contemplation of the handiwork of the Great Creator. The study 
of archseology was very instructive, combining the study of history 
and art ; it acts as a very wholesome corrective to nineteenth 
century self-esteem. Comparing the exquisite architectural 
remains to be found in this country with modern attempts, we 
must confess that the palm is to be awarded to past generations. 
He ventured to believe that the present very strong utilitarian 
spirit was too much inclined to do away with the devotional spirit 



* " The Order of Consecrating Plate for the Altar," in Andrewes' Minor Works, Library of 
Anglo-Catholic Theology. Ii. addition to the consecration of paten, chalice, and flagons, 
It provides forms for the consecrating of the altar candlesticks, and also for the censer for 
Imniint: incense. 



of past ages when time and talents were ungrudgingly bestowed 
over their work. The exhibition of plate brought together by the 
Society was a very happy idea ; he felt strongly the importance of 
preserving these sacred vessels with the greatest care. The 
amount of real loss in past years from culpable carelessness could 
scarcely be over-estimated. For himself, he made it a rule never 
to consecrate a new church without having a complete inventory 
of everything belonging to it." 

During the past year there have been ten meetings of the 
Council, at which a fair proportion of the elected members of 
Council have attended with great regularity, and their deliberations 
have been aided by the same Vice-Presidents, who have always 
displayed so keen an interest in the work of the Society. 

The first expedition of the Society for the past year was held on 
Saturday, June the 2nd, to Steetley Chapel and Welbeck Abbey. 
The party, in number about one hundred and thirty, left Derby, at 
9 a.m., in a special train provided for their use by the Midland 
Railway Company, and travelled, v'lh. Ambergate and Pye-Bridge, 
to Whitwell Station, where breaks from Mansfield were in readi- 
ness to drive to Steetley Chapel. Here the party was received by 
the Vicar of Whitwell, the Rev. G. E. Mason, who pointed out 
all the interesting features of this unique specimen of Norman 
architecture, and read the following paper on the " History of 
Steetley " : — 

The neighbouring village of Thorpe .Salvin is said by some lovers of romance 
to be the celebrated Castle of Front de Boeuf. If that be so, I maintain that 
Steetley Chapel is the ruined shrine where the Black Knight enjoyed the hos- 
pitality of " the holy clerk of Cotmanhurst." Certainly when "the gentle 
and joyous passage of arms of Ashby-de-la-Zouch " took place, this chapel had 
been standing nigh a hundred years. For it was probably built by Gley de 
Breton, when Stephen was on the royal throne of Westminster, and seated 
Roger de Clinton, 33rd successor of S. Chad, on the episcopal throne of 
Coventry. It was the hand of a Clinton that first blest this altar and these 
walls, and now, when seven centuries have rolled away, it is under the noble 
patronage of a Clinton that this altar and these walls have been restored. 
Steetley Chapel, then, is older than Welbeck Abbey. Gley de Breton built it, 
perhaps for his own convenience as a private chapel to stand near his house ; 
and no doubt Parson Hugh or Parson Walter used sometimes to walk down 



i 



here from Whitwell early in the morning to say mass for the benefit of Gley, 
with his four sons and their sister, Matilda, and the Gurths and Wambas of 
his day. These four young men, if they married, left no children, and 
Matilda, becoming heiress, brought the property by marriage to the Vavasours, 
who held it till the year 1360. Thenceforward, and all through the Reforma- 
tion period, it was held by the Frechevilles. From them it passed to the 
Wentworths, to the Howards, and to the Pelham CHntons. Although for 
some 200 years this building remained as a "capella " in Whitwell parish, yet 
in the 14th century, while Roger Northburgh and Robert Stretton were 
Bishops of Lichfield, nine separate institutions are known to have been made, 
and the priest is called "Rector of Steetley Church." This brief inde- 
pendence of 40 years lapsed as mysteriously as it arose, and Steetley Chapel 
serves now once more the purpose for which Gley de Breton built it. 

The chapel is 56 feet long. It is divided into three parts — a nave, a chancel, 
and an apse (a parallelogram, a square, and a semicircle). The nave is 15 feet 
9 inches broad, and the chancel measures 13 feet 9 inches across. Mr. J. C. 
Cox (whose name needs no comment) has pronounced Steetley Chapel to be 
" the most perfect and elaborate specimen of Norman architecture to be found 
anywhere in Europe." The chief features of interest are the porch, the 
chancel, and the apse. Observe the porch. It is composed of a triple arch 
resting on three pillars. The inmost member of the arch is plain, the second 
and third are ornamented with the beak head and with the zig-zag design. On 
the pillars the sculptor has lavished his art. The inmost one is simply 
moulded ; the next is very rich with deeply-cut interlacing foliage, and on the 
capital are two fish ; the third is ornamented with picturesque medallions, and 
on the capital is a syren or mermaid. It is not extravagantly fanciful to 
suppose that these three pillars represent the works of Creation, three steps in 
the progress of life. The inmost is inanimate ; the second displays the wealth 
of vegetable growth ; the third the activity of animal life — the sea monster; 
the wild beast, the lamb of the flock, the man ; and the flying eagle — that is, 
things "in heaven above, in the earth beneath, and in the water under the 
earth." This idea is visible on both sides of the porch. There is no doubt a 
further meaning in the medallions. Thus, on the left side, is plainly seen the 
Good Shepherd delivering the Iamb out of the paw of a bear, on the right the 
figure of the pelican in her piety. Two new pillars have been added by 
Mr. Pearson on the old basement discovered. The carved stones lying on the 
grass may have originally belonged to the porch. They were found blocking 
up the lower of the two west windows. Outside the porch, right across the 
entrance, was found yonder priest's tombstone, and beneath the stone a skull. 
On the stone is carved an altar with three legs, and on the altar a chalice and 
paten, and hand extended in blessing. At the head and foot is a sort of cross 
in a circle. There are two other stones — one plain, the other with a cross 



rudely scratched on it. Perhaps that unearthed skull beneath the carved stone 
was part of the skeleton of Lawrence le Leche, who was instituted to Steetley 
the year before the great plagne of 1349, during which 77 priests in Derbyshire 
died, and 22 resigned. It is not difficult to imagine him, like Mr. Mompesson, 
at Eyam, in 1666, refusing to quit his post, comforting the sick and dying, or 
restoring them to health by that medical skill which had earned for him the 
title of "le leche." Then, after seven years' service he died, and, in the 
humility of his self-devotion, chose, like St. Swithin, at Winchester, to be 
buried before the porch, so that the people whom he had so faithfully served 
during his life might tread upon his bones as they passed within to pray. 
Dying, he left no name, no epitaph on his tomb, only a hand, eternally to bless. 
It was a happy omen to find, when we began to restore, a holy hand that 
blessed us from the grave. To these ancient graves are now added new ones ; 
a few little children, and two old men who made their first and last Communion 
here before they died. 

The chancel arch forms a kind of frame, through which the second arch and 
the lovely apse are seen. It gives an effect of solemn depth and rich beauty. 
The arch is triple. The inmost design is the zig-zag, the next the battlement, 
and the third is "an escalioped border over reticulated cones." The two 
pillars on the north side are richly carved, one with a double-bodied lion, the 
other with a St. George and the Dragon. The winged dragon, his long 
sweeping tail curled round the next capital and terminating in foliage, tramples 
on a prostrate lady. The warrior, in a complete suit of armour, strides to the 
rescue. His left hand thrusts a kite-shaped shield against the monster's 
mouth, and his right hand, grasping a long broadsword, is stretched out behind 
him to deal a death-blow. The chancel is paved with stone, as it was 
anciently. The aumbrey in the north wall contains a specimen of the stone 
tiles with which the chapel was once roofed. An old copper key, a piece of 
wrought iron, and a silver penny of the reign of Richard II. are the only other 
things found here. In Lysons' Magna Britannia (vol. v., pp. ccxxii-iii. ) are 
shown two doors opposite each other in the chancel, evidently cut for the 
convenience of the pigs or sheep that once lived inside. The decorated 
window in the south side is the only feature later than the Norman period. 
The apse has a stone vaulted roof, supported by four ribs resting on engaged 
pillars. In the centre, where the ribs meet, immediately over the altar, is a 
medallion containing the "Lamb as it had been slain." The capitals of the 
pillars are elaborately carved. On the left is represented the tree of know- 
ledge, loaded with fruit. Round it curls the serpent, and on either side stand 
Adam and Eve ; an emblem of temptation and defeat. On the right are seen 
two doves ; a symbol of peace after resisted temptation. The two together 
suggest and teach the wisdom of the serpent and the harmlessness of the dove. 
Some remains of the colour can still be seen on the capital of the south pillar 



I 



of the arch. It would be a thousand pities to touch the carving with modern 
paint. It is painted with the inimitable art and colour of the great master, 
Time. But the chapel needs colour and enrichment. And if the spaces 
between the ribs were tastefully decorated, the stone carving would appear to 
greater advantage. One word to suggest a scheme. Behind the altar is a 
reredos, representing the Crucifixion ; in the central window, the Ascension ; 
in the central space of the roof, Christ in Majesty, surrounded by the four 
living Creatures, the Angels, and the Saints after whom the chapel is named. 
Between the arch and the ribs of the roof is a semi-circle, which surrounds 
and frames the vaulted roof. This is the " rainbow round about the throne in 
sight like unto an emerald," and it is composed of created things. In the 
summit the ranks of the angels, then the sun, moon, and stars, the clouds, 
lightnings, and storms, then the birds, then the beasts, the trees, the flowers, 
the water, and the fish. 

It only remains for me to call your attention to the grotesque heads that 
surround the Chapel immediately beneath the roofs, and also to the very 
beautiful string course of carved foliage that girdles the apse immediately 
below the three exquisite little narrow windows. The Chapel has not been 
re-consecrated. It was reconciled by the prerent Lord Bishop of Lichfield on 
the 2nd of November, 1880. As we moved in procession round the outside, 
we intoned the same psalm which was used by Bishop Hackett when he 
reconciled Lichfield Cathedral after its desecration by the Puritans. If the 
spirits of the departed are able to understand what their descendants do on 
earth, then I think that Gley de Breton, and Matilda de Vavasour, and 
William de Mykall, and Anker Frecheville, and John de Bristowe, and Has- 
cuil Musard, must rejoice to see the little shrine they loved saved from dese- 
cration and decay, filled with youug men and maidens, old men and children, 
praising the name of the Lord, and professing the same creed, in the faith of 
which they lived and died. 

The party drove on to Welbeck Abbey, and, by special per- 
mission of the Duke of Portland, lunched in the riding school, 
after which they were conducted, in sections, over the gardens, 
stables,' and cow-sheds, the glass gallop, the underground rooms 
and corridors, the rosery, kitchens, and Gothic hall. Tea having 
been taken in the riding school, the return journey was made 
through the park, past the " Greendale Oak," and through the 
Duke of Portland's private drives, past " Robin Hood's Larder 
Oak," and the water meadows, to MansfieLi, whence the special 
train conveyed the party back to Derby. 

The second expedition of the Society was held on the 4th of 



xl REPORT. 

August, to Youlgreave and Arbor Low. The party left Derby at 
10.23 ^•"''- i'"' special saloon carriages attached to the train for 
Rowsley. Brakes were waiting at the station, and the party was 
driven to Youlgreave Church. The Vicar of Youlgreave was 
unavoidably prevented from receiving the party, and his place 
was supplied by the Rev. J. Charles Cox, who pointed out the 
various features of interest in the church, calling special attention 
to the unique font, beautiful monuments, and general careful 
restoration of the fabric. 

Luncheon was taken at the George Hotel, after which the party 
drove to the stone circle of Arbor Low. Here the Rev. J. Charles 
Cox read a paper upon " Stone Circles," generally, with special 
reference to that of Arbor Low ; this paper appears in another 
part of the volume. The return journey was made, via Middleton, 
to Rowsley Station, in time for the 5.1 1 p.m. train to Derby. 

Early in the past year your Council was informed of the 
probable demolition of the 17th century brick-house in S. Peter's 
Churchyard, and at once communicated with the Mayor and 
Corporation, asking if nothing could be done to preserve so 
interesting a specimen of domestic architecture. The answer (if 
such it can be called) was a newspaper slip announcing the date 
of the sale by auction of the site upon which the old house was 
standing ! 

This circumstance is mentioned to you in order to show how 
little sympathy is to be looked for from utilitarian bodies, and to 
impress upon each individual member of our Society the impor- 
tance of keeping a look out upon, and doing all they can to 
preserve from destruction, the interesting relics of the past, which 
are so rapidly disappearing from amongst us. Your Council is 
thankful to be able to add that the site in S. Peter's Churchyard 
was purchased by a member of our Society, and as a happy result 
the old house, minus only a chimney stack, is still an ornament to 
the town. 

Your Council has also been instrumental in causing the 
erection, in the grounds of the Free Library, of portions of the old 



REPORT. xli 

S. Alkmund's Cross, which were lying uncared for on the premises 
of the Museum. 

It is with keen regret that we mention the fact that the old 
Guest House at Dale Abbey has been pulled down during the past 
year, and we cannot help feeling that there were members of the 
Society residing in the neighbourhood who might have notified to 
the Council the intended demolition before it was actually accom- 
plished. It is impossible for the Vigilance Committee to do its 
work thoroughly without help from members in their own neigh- 
bourhoods. 

The Society will be glad to learn that the Vicarand Churchwardens 
of All Saints have consented to the erection of the wooden efifigy 
in front of the Chambers' monument in the north aisle of All 
Saints' Church. On the strength of this permission, your Council 
decided to authorise certain proposed restorations of the effigy ; 
these are now all but completed, and it is expected that the effigy 
will be erected on the proposed site before Easter. The effigy 
will, with your permission, be previously exhibited in London 
before the Society of Antiquaries. 

In April last it was notified to your Council that it 
was intended to build a new school at Repton upon 
the ground occupying the site of the old Priory Church. 
The Council at once communicated with every member of the 
Governing Body of Repton, giving them a lithographed plan 
(drawn by Mr. St. John Hope, F.S.A.) of the probable position of 
different parts of the Priory, and expressing a hope that the new 
buildings might be erected so as not to conceal the traces of the 
old church. By permission of the Head Master of Repton, 
Mr. St. John Hope made some experimental excavations on the 
site, and laid bare portions of the nave and choir piers, leaving no 
room for doubt that further excavations would produce valuable 
results. The Governing Body having appointed Mr, Bloomfield 
as their architect for the new buildings, this gentleman consented 
to meet, at Repton, a sub-committee selected by your Council. 
The Council also voted ^2.0 from the funds of the Society towards 



xlii REPORT. 

furtlier excavation. The details of what has resulted are put 
before you in tlie paper about to be read to you. 

Your Council has sent an invitation, in the name of the 
Society, to the Royal Archaeological Institute, to make Derby the 
headquarters of their annual meeiing in 1885 ; this invitation has 
been accepted, and it is hoped that a very successful gathering 
may be held. 

So many complaints have been made as to the very imperfect 
indexing of the Society's Journal, that it has been decided to issue 
a new and correct index for the five volumes already published, 
and to maintain an index of equal completeness for the future. 

The proposed volume upon the Church Plate of Derbyshire is 
being prepared. The delay is entirely owing to the returns asked 
for not being sent in by the clergy or wardens. About one-half 
of the returns are now to hand, and it is hoped to obtain the 
remainder before the end of the current year. It is still open to 
any member of the Society to help in the collection of these 
returns ; any offer of such help will be gratefully accepted 

The Library of the Society increases in bulk and value. We 
have lately received a very handsome addition in the shape of a 
volume by one of our members, Mr. John Sleigh, "The History 
of the Parish of Leek." 

We now exchange publications with the following Societies : — 

The Royal Archaeological Institute. 
The British Archseological Association. 
The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
The Sussex Archaeological Society. 
The Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 
Tlie Norfolk and Norwich Archnsological Society. 
The Somersetshire Archaeological and Natural History Society. 
The Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeo- 
logical Society. 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
The Kent Archaeological Society. 
The Surrey Archaeological Society. 



KEPORT. j.]jjj 

The William Salt Archaeological Society. 

The Essex Field Club. 

We have this year to regret the death of two of our Vice-Presi- 
dents, Lord Vernon, and Lord Howard of Glossop ; no fewer than 
twenty ordinary members have been removed by death or other 
causes. We still, however, continue to increase in number. 
The accompanying balance-sheet is satisfactory, and the Council 
can congratulate members upon the result of the Society's sixth 
year of proceedings. 

ARTHUR COX, 

Mill HHl, Derby, Hon. Sec. 

January 22nd, 1884. 



xliv 



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7MAY1935 



I.'.^rcrton MS. 996'' 

Ad. MS. 6675-'' 

Stilton nnd Etwall Registers, &c. 



Thomas Dethick, = Anne, il. 
Esq., of Newhall- Tlion 
in-Staplchill, Co. Rollesto 
Uerb. of 



Sir Ralph Longford, of Long- = DorrHhy, d. Sir An- = Sir John Tort, of Elwall 
■ • " tlion) Fitzherljeit, of j Hall, Co. Derb., Knt., 

Norl iiry. Justice Justice Court King's 
Cour: Queen's Ijench. I Bench; vir 2. 

A 



Co. Uerl_). ; mil. ob. 23 
Sep., 35" Hci. S *'• vir I, 



A 

other issue. 



Humphry Dethiclc, Esq., = Ehzabeth Longford, 
of Newhall ; ob.g Dec, I 2n<I d. and co-h., 
42° Eliza;. living 42° Elizse. 



Sir Nicholas Longford, of = Elizabeth, d. Ralph 

Longford; living a"- D' 1 Okeover.ofOkeover, 

it;7i; o s. 11. 1610. 1 Co. Staft. ; ux. i. 

V 



h'rancis Dt 
of Newhall, 



"thick =Katherine, d. Sir Thomas William Dethick.resigned Another 

Esq. ; I Gresley, of Drakelow, Co. living of Hartshorne, Co. son, ob. 

I Staff. ; supstes, a widow, Derb., 1624; ob. 31 

I 42° Eliza?. May, 

V 



1626. 



vivo 
patre. 



Katharine Dethick, d. = Alexan 
and ev. h., aged 28 at | 
her father's death. i 



'■ I ^- 

iir George Vernon, = Mawde Longford, = Sir Francis Ilas- 
)f Haddon, '■' Kin;\ 2nd d. and co-h. I tingt ofCndbury 
'/■>-« /V«&," ob. 31 I (and ux. Sir George Co.'Somcr-et ' 
Aug., 1565. V Vernon.) | 



Margery, 
3rd d. ob. 
inniipta. 



ler Redishe, of Redishe, 
Pal., Lane, Esip 



2n(l dau- 
ghter. 



I 
3rd dau 
ghter. 



5ir Edward Coke (Chief Justice of = Bridget!, d. and co-h. John 
England), of Longford, Co. Derb. ] Paston, ofPaslon, Co Norf 

I 



Grace Redishe, e. d. = Sir Robert Darcy, of Dartford, 
and co-h. ; living 15° I Co. Kent, Knt. ; dead 15° 
Jac. I Jac. I. 



Sarah Redishe, 2nd d. and co-h., living 20" Jac. I. = Clement Coke, 6th and youngest son ; 
(Burke says, '' Sarah, d. and co-h. A. R., by d. and I ob. 1629, Sep. in 'J'eniple Church. 
co-h. Sir Rol't. Lnuiiky, of Agcci ofl, Co. Lane") 



Edward Darcy, = Elizabeth, d. 

s. and h., 15° j Pliilip, Earl 

Jac. I. I of Cherter- 



Chnrles Darcy, 
15° Jac. I. 



I 1636, 

Margaret Darcy, =Sir Samuel Sleigh, M.P. Co. Deib^^" C. 2 



ob. 1647, ret. 34, 



of Ashe and Etwall Hall, Co. Dijrb. ; n. 
603, ob. 1679. 



I I. 2. 

Samuel Sleiyh, = Barbara, d. Archi-=John Morewood, 
of Graye's Inne, I bald Palmer, of I of Affreton, 
E.sq. ; o. s. p. Wanlip, Co. Sheriff Co.Derb. 
1675, XI. 37. Leicester, Esq. | 1677. 

V A 



I I 1672. 

Edward Sleigh, Maigauet Sleigh, 

of Graye's Inne, e. d. and ult. co-h. ; 

bar.-at-law ; n. n. 1645, °^- I7°9- 
1640, o.s.p. 



Samuel Chetham, 
of Castleton, e. s. 
andh. , Sheriff Co. 
Lane. 1738 : n. 
1675-6, o. s. p. et 
intesl' 1744-5. I 

V 



714. 

= Mary, 6th d. and 

co-h. James Holt, 

of Castleton, co. 

Lane, Esq. ; ob. 

1749. 



I 
George 
Chetham, 
of Darcy 
Lever ; n. 
1678. ob. 
co^lcbs, 
1709. 



i 
Humphry Chet- 
ham, of Turton 
and Castleton ; 
n. 16S0, Sep. in 
Chetham Clia- 
pel, Manchester 
Cathedral, 17 
July, 1749. 



I 
James Chet- = Frances, 

ham, D.U., Id 

VicarEtwall, W i n - 
Canon and | Stanley ; 
Chancellor I md. 
Lichfield ; n. Eccles. 
1 68 1, o. s. p. I 
1740. Y 



Sir Edward Coke,: 
of Longford, s and 
h. ; created 3oDec., 
1 64 1, a Bart., ob. 



Jaiijes Chetham, of Other 
ton Tower, Co. issue ; 

Laic, Sheriff of o.s.p. 

Deibyshire 1693 ; 
641, ob. 1697. 



Henry 
Chetham, 
Serjeant - 
at - law ; 
n. 16S3, 
pep. Prest- 
;w i c h , 
1712. 



I 
Gervase 
Chet- 
ham, n. 
1684, 
o. s. p. 
1718. 



Abigail, 
n. 1674, 
ob. virgo 

1 7 14. 
.Marga- 
ret, ob. 
inri678. 



I 
Judith, 
n.l6S6, 

ob. 
Virgo 

1 7 10. 



Elizabeth Darcy, 
e. d. and co-h. 



William Barnes, 
of , Esq. 



= William Barnes, 
of , Esq. 



Katharine Darcy, 
living 1712, ux. 2. 



: Elizabeth, sole d. William 
Greaves, of Derby, Gent. 



Sir Erasmus 
Philipps, of 
P i c t o n 
Castle, Co. 
Pemb. ; ob. 



I 
Anne Darcy, d. and = Thomas Millward, of Stanton 



co-h. [deaf and dumb.) I Wood, Co. Derb., 



I 
Elizabeth Millward, = Sir Hugh Clopton. 
s. d. and h. I 

V 



Esq. 



Darcy, = Sir William 

d. and co-h., I Rokesby, of 

living 1 712. Skiers, Co. 

I Ebor, Bart. 



I I I 
Katharine, d. Robert, 
and c-h. Sir Bridgett. 
Wm. Dyer, of Agnes. 
Great Hough- 
t o n , Co. 
Hunts., Knt.; 
ob. 8 Dec, 
i68«. 



Philip Barnes of 

Esq. ; o. s. ]). 25 Dec, 
1767. 



Sir Robert Coke, 2nd Bart., = Sarah, d. and co-h Katharine = Cornelius Clarke, Sir Edward Coke, of Long- Theoph 

M.P. Co. Derb., 1° Jac 2; I Barker, of Albi ighlee. Coke, ult. I of Norton, Co. ford, 3rd Bart ; ob. ccelebs, ult. Co 

o. s. p. Jan. 7, 1687. I Co. Salop, Esq. co-h. | Derb., Esq, ; o.s.p. Buxton, 25 .\ug., 1727. 

V V 1696. 



ila, = .... 
h, I of . 



ullock, Anne, 
., Esq. o.s.p. 



Derbyshire Irch^ological 



Iatural ¥istory Iociety. 



Ei^c (iBailtcst Existing 3^cgtsttv=Boolt of 
S. I^clru's Ci^tttci^, ^3aiirg Salt, I3crt)j)si^tre. 



Communicated by John Sleigh, J. P. 




EXT to Youlgreave, the Darley registers are the most 
interesting I have as yet tackled in North Derbyshire ; 
and such excerpts as are here presented may stimulate 
further research. Possibly, the account of the great 
snow might, by the aid of chemicals, be made decipherable. 
Most, if not every one, of the names of the earlier landowners and 
gentry have long since, " like the idle vapour of a dream," faded 
out of the neighbourhood — the Baches, Beresfords, Birds, Colum- 
bells, Barleys, Femes,* Foljambes, Greaves, Greensmiths, Knive- 
tons, Marburys, Milhvards, Mowers, Seniors and Steares. 

Bassano tells us that Robt. Milhvard, of Snitterton (n. 1597 ; 
q : ob. 1622 ?), " fought a single combat in Spain with a Spaniard. 



* Henry Feme, of Snitterton (ob. 1703), was receiver-general of customs 
t' W. 3. & Anne. 

VOL. 6. -i 



2 DARLEY DALE REGISTERS. 

He and his adversary were first to fight with quarter-staff, in 
which he was wounded. They then betook them to sword and 
dagger. The Spaniard hereby soon lost the use of his left arm 
and afterwards his life." 

There is a curious proviso in the will of Peter Columbell, dated 
20. Oct : 1616* — that if his brothers or sisters shall find his hope- 
ful son Roger '• takeinge of lobaccoe," he is forthwith to forfeit his 
howseholde-goodes at Darley. 

The families, some of them still hi our midst, of most frequent 
occurrence in the earlier entries are — Allen, Allsoppe, Barker, 
Bradwell, Britland, Bullock, Clay, Derbyshire, Feme, Flint, 
Gregory, Knowles, Nedham, Piilcocke, Ragge, Shore, Silkstone, 
Soresby, Sterndale, Stephenson, Taylor, Tissington, Vygors, or 
Vickers, Wall, Waterhouse vel Walters. WiKlgoose (abbreviated, 
as we shall presently see, into the euphonious Goose), Wilmot, 
and Woodiwisse. 

Rectors of Darley — 

Robert Dawe, parson of Darley, 161 5. 

Robert Evans, parson of North Medietie, ob. 1639 

James Holland, rector of S. Medietie, ob. 1644. 

Charles Broxholme, rector of South Medietie, ob. 1648. 

John Potts, rector of North Medietie, (resigned?) 1663. 

Edward Payne, minister of South-mediety, ob. 1665. 

Thomas Moseley, rector of North-mediety, ob. 1685. 

John Edwards, rector of Darley, ob. 1689. 

Henry Aldrich, rector, ob. 1720. 

John Garmston, M.A., formerly fellow of Magd : Coll : Camb : 

rector of Darley and Prebendary of Wolverhampton, ob. 1744. 
Thomas Savage, M.A., rector of Darleigh, and formerly fellow of 

New Coll , Oxon, ob. i 764. 
Sir William UUithorne Wray, nth bart : rector, 1 764-1808. 
Benjamin Lawrence, M.A. rector 1 808-1 838. 

* 1616 was the year of Shakspeare's death ; as also of the erection of the 

exceptionally large number o{ fivclve sedilia in Darley Church. 



DARLEY DALE REGISTERS. 3 

Richard Lee, M A. rector 1838-1847. 

Daniel Vawdrey, M.A. rector 1847-1 881 — and formerly fellow of 

Brasenose-coU : Oxon. 
Frederic Atkinson, M.A. Trin-coU., Camb: rector 188 1, formerly 

Rural Dean of Ockbrook. 



I 



" A copie of the Register-booke of the parish of Darley of all 
the Christnings, Weddings and Burialls which can be had these 
yeares ensiiinge. And first of Christnings. Written [in a very 
clerkly hand] by mee, John Cantrel (curate and), schoolemaster 
at Darley, a°- D' 1630. ' 

The first entry is "a° D'- 1541. Richard Williamot and Luce 
Williamot were maried this yeare." 

a"- D'- 1 55 1. The Swete was this yeare. 

The great snowe begun in Christmas 15 untill the 

Spring 

1676, A great ffrost which Began at Martinmas, was continued 
till Jan^ 3. 1677. Derwent was accordingly (?) ffrozen, and att 
y" dissolving of the ffrost was a great fflood, and incredible 
quantity of Ice were brought out of the water-bankes into 
tollerable (?) inclosed grounds, and up to the Church-yard steps. 
Thos. Moseley, Rect". 

1705. a very dry summer. 

1706. ffrom y'' begining of Sep : to 8. Feb. 1707, was a very 
wet winter. 

Baptisms. 

1569, Francis CoUumbell was baptised this yeare. 

1570, James Badyley ,, 

1576, Apl. 27. Richard, son John Battegent. 

1580, 13. John s. Henarie Westwood. 

)) J'^'ly 3- William Kniveton, gen : had a sonne bp : 

1581, Jany. 25. John, y'' sonne of John Potte, gen : 

1582, Feb. 2 1. John, s. M"' John Malderon, vel Maleram. 
1587, Feb. 12. Richard, s. William Sherborrie. 

„ Mch : 30. Elizabeth, d. Ottewell Williamot. 



4 DARLEV DALE REGISTERS. 

1588, Apl. 25. John Hollilie had a sonne bp : named Arthur. 

1593, June 13. Robert, s. M"' Sleeman. 

1598, Nov: 20. Roger, s. Roger Hursthouse. 

1599, Feb. 24. M' Parker had a sonne bp : 
1610, Feb: 11. Hector Typpinge. 

161 2, Mch : 8. Dorithy, d. Godfrey Lingard. 

1 6 13, July 21. Ellyce, s. ElHce Whewhall. 

1615, Mch : I. Elizabeth, d. Robert Dawe, parson of Darley. 

1616, Dec. 15. John, s. M' John Shoare. 

1 61 7, May 24. Mary, d. George Spendlove. 

,, Sep: 20. Jane, d. M'' Robert Evans, parson of DarUye. 

16 18, Aprel 25. Jane, d. Ottewell Beeleigh. 

1619, Dec: 12. Rosemand, d. M"^ Roger CoUombell, esquier. 
1627, Jany. 9. M' John, y^ sonne of Roger Columbell, esquier. 
1629, Feb. 15 William, s. Henry Silkstone. 

,, ,, 22. Elizabeth, d Edward Sorsbie. 

,, June 14. Catharine, d. ffrancis AUsoppe. 

1631, June 12. Elizabeth, d. George Profit. 

1634, Feb. 9. ffrances, d. John Millvvarde, esquier. 

1636, Jany. i. Anne, d. Anthony Renshawe. 

1637, April 2. Abraham, s. John Sheldon. 

1638, Jany 14. Anne, d. Henry Corbet, of Harovvden,Northants. 

1639, Aug. II. ffrances, d. Anthonie Tissington. 

1640, Apl. 17. Marie, d. George Winterbothome. 
1642, May 25. Isaac, s. Richard Burgesse. 

1646, June 12. John, s. James Chadwicke, of Todhole. 

1647, July 18. Walburge, d. John Pott, rector of y" North 

Medeity. 

,, Augt. 4. CoUumbell, s. M' Francis Grantham, of Darley- 
hall. 

1648, Oct 3. John, s. M' Edward Payne, rector of South- 

Medeity. 

,, „ 9. John, s. Katharin Aston, a Staffordshire woman 

1649, Jany. 17. Hellen, d. Ellis Longley, of Rowsley. 
1649. Jany. 30. Henery, s. John Milward, esq : 

1651, Augt. 26. George, s. M' George Cartwright, of Standi ffe. 



DARLEY PALE REGISTERS. 5 

1651, Nov: 12. Dorothy, d. John Ashborne, of Rowsley. 

1654, Sep. 12 : Francis, s. Sir WiUiam Boothby, bart : 

1659, Dec. 7. Edward, s. Anne Shackerlie. 

1660, Feb : 26. .\nne, d. M' John Stevenson, of Rousley. 
1662, May 29. William, s. William Sappox. 

1665, Aug : 4. John> s. Robert Sidwell, 

1668, Dec. 13. William, s. Abraham Woodiwisse. 

1673, Jany. 30. Anne, d. M' Thomas Mosselie, rector North- 

Medeity. 

1674, July 26. John, s. Edward Walklate. 
1678, Jany. 20. John, s. Joseph Mutthill. 

1687, jany. 27. Margery, d. Wensly Bestall, of Wensly. 

,, Oct. 22. Edward, s. M' Edward Bedford. 

1698, Feb. 7. Henslow-Fotherley-Fortunatus.s. Henry William- 
son, esq : 

1707, May 18. Silence, d. Geo : Willimot, i'th' Lane. 

1 7 14, July 6. John, s. Edmund Leicester. 

1726, Jany. 14. Joseph, s. George Longley. 

Marriages. 

1541, Henrie Stafforth tS: Joane Newton were married this yeare. 

John Senior & Agnes Proudlove. 
1549, Richard Wildgoose tSc Luxa Winfield. 
1558, Nov. 5. Richard Pendleton & Cicilie Ballidon. 
1569, Sep. 8. Thomas Barker & Marie Heathcoate. 

1578, Nov. 12. William Bagshawe & Lure Ratcliffe. 

1579, Feb. 4. M' John Walderome & M'^ Rosamond CoUum- 

bell. 
1592, Augt. 6. Robert Milnes & Joane Lowe. 

1598, May 2. M"^ Henrie Chaworth & M^DorothieCollumbell, 
,, June 6. Thomas Tidderington & ffrances Potte. 

,, Sep. 28. Christopher Goodenough & Grace Applebie. 

1599, Nov : 6. Thomas Rushton & Tabitha Senior. 

1614, Nov. 22. Ralfe Alexander & Bennet Bradlie. 

1615, Jany. 9 M' George CoUombell «& M" AVallbrydge Pott. 
,, .\pl. 21. Tliomas Parke & Mary Stamforde. 



O DARLEV DALE REGISTERS. 

1624, Aug 31. Jhonne Buxtoniie, of Brassongtonne, & Bridget 
Senior. 

1626, Feb. 18. John Sellars & Cicile ffoole. 

1627, Dec. 12. Bryante Berisford, parson of (q. Botiiomsall ?) 

in Lincolnshire, & M" ffrances CoUomble. 
1629, June 25. Christopher Cotton & Anne Wilde. 
1631, Jany. 27. Giles Cowley & Joan Richardes. 
1633, June i8. John Ashbourne & Dorothey Stevenson. 

1635, Apl. 7. Hemor Champney & Anne Allen. 

,, Aug. 19. M' George Greysone & M" Alice Milnes. 

1636, Maye 11. John Baddesley & Eliz"* Beardsley. 

,, ,, 17. George Buxton & Katharine Oldfield. 

,, Nov. 15. Luke Whittington & M" Marg' Milnes. gen : 

1638, July 3. Anthonie Tissington & Marie Gamble. 
Oct. 30. John Somersasll & Dorothie Gibson 
Dec. I. Henrie Silkeston & ffrances ffuUwood. 

1639, Sep. 28. George Columbell & Anne Gladwin. 

1641, Jany. 28. ffrancis Dawes & Judith Boothbie. 
Nov. 25. Riciiard Benbow and Dorothie Supper. 

1642, Feb. 2. Richard Wildgoose & Bersheba Watson. 

1644, Aug. 31. Ottiwell Beely, of Sniterton, & Susanns Holme. 

1645, Feb. 6. Henry Burgh & Mary Newton, widow. 

1646, Feb. 14. John WoUey, of Matlock, Sz Katherin Raynes, 

of Wendsley. 

1648, Apl. 4. John Bowyer, of Knipersley, co. Staff: esq: & 
M'^ Mary Milward. 

1650, Nov. 5. John Beresford, gen : & Jana Bennet. 

1656, Jany. 27. John Millward, gentleman, the sonne of John 
Millward, of Snitterton, esq : in y^ parish of 
Darley & county of Darby, & M'^ ffrances 
Sneyde, y" daughter of Raph Sneyde, esq : 
deceased, in y" parish of Woodstanton, in 
y" CO. of Stafford, were published three 
severall Lords-dayes at the close of y^ morning 
Exercise, and y^ marriage was solemnized ; 
&c. 



DARLEY DALE REGISTERS. 7 

1656, Feb. 3. M' Josiah Stubbs, of Bloare ? co. Staff: & Mary 

Benite, of Darley. 

1657, Sep. 16. A'P Humfrye Jennens, of Brimingham, & Mary, 

d. John Millward, of Snitterton, esq: 
1659, Oct. 4. Robert Constable, of North-cliffe, co. York, 
Esq : & Eliz"", d John Mil ward, of Snitterton, 
esq : 

1662, Feb. 20. M' John Steere, of Stancliffe, & M'" Elizabeth 

Hides, of Cowley. 

1663, June 23. M' William Bache, of Stanton, & M" ffraincis 

Senior, of Cowley. 

1663, Nov. 12. Francis Swindel &: Anne Shakerley. 

1664, Jan\'. 17. George Willimot & Isabel Rimington. 

1665, Feb. 16. Benjamin Heathcote, of Cliesterfield, & Mary 

Bestall. 
1 666,- July 28. William ffranklin & Dorothy Taylor. 

167 1, April 24. M' ffrancis ffolmbige-bache, & M'' Mary Potte. 

1672, Jany. 22. M"" George Birds, of Stanton-hall, & M" Brighet 

ffox, of Youlgrave. 
„ May 16. Adam Woolley, of Allen-hill, & Millisent, d. 
M' Henery Wiggley, of Cromfort. 

1676, Feb. I . W" Grantham, of Darby, and M^^ Anne Adderly, 

of Chesterfield. 

1677, Sep. I. John Ford, of Leeke, & Hellen, d. Thos : 

Statham, of Stantcliffe. 
1681, M"^ John Berisford & M^= Cath^ Reynes. 

1688, May 17. Gilbert Thacker, of Etwall, esq: & M'^ Eliz'" 

Marbury, of Darley. 
„ Dec. 6. M' John Greaves, of y* Woodhouse, & M'" Annie 

Bird, of Stanton-hall. 
1690, Nov. 27. Edward ffinnie, esq: & M'^ Anne Senior, of 

Cowley. 
1693, Dec. 28. M' Joseph Butler, of Sheafield, apoticary, & 

Sara, d. M"^ Peter Barker, of Darley. 
1707, Feb. 25. Henry Nightingale, of Morton, & Sarah Had- 

field. 



8 DARLEY DALE REGISTERS. 

1707, May 5. John Grenoway, of Tilass, Berks, & Marg' 
Draper, of Sullam, Berks. 

17 1 3, Mch. 16. Ralph Gell, of Carsington, & Eliz'" Worthy, of 

Sialic. 

1 7 14, Jany. 6. John Revell, of Morton, & Mary Ryley, of 

Pentrich. 
1 7 16, Mch: 16. W™ Fallows, of Alderley, & Frances Bateman, 

of Yolgreave. 
1724, Augt. 13. William Milnes, of Hope, & Mary Bagshawe, 

of Chesterfield. 
1726, July 18. Thomas Beresford, of Allstonfield, & Jane 

Tipping, of Darley. 
1751, Feb. 6. Thomas Hall & Mary Goose. 

Burials. 

155 1, Nine persons were buried from the 5th of Julye till the 
loth, which dyed of y*^ sweatinge sicknenes. 

1557, Agnes Buxton dyed of y*" plague & was buried the ist 

March. 

1558, Alice Stafford (and 5 others) dyed of y" plague & was 

buried 14th April. 

1559, Feb. 3. Elizabeth Pendleton was buried. 
,, ,, 12. Agnes Ballidon was buried. 

1560, Elizabeth Ballidon was buried in January. 
1562, Dec. 4. John Rowsley had a child buried. 

1 581, May 25. Richard Needham, gen : buried. 

1589, July 14. James Plato was buried. 

1590, March 14. M' Holland buried. 

1593, April 2. Hugh Brough. 

1594, April 5. M' Vavesour. 

,, ,, 14. Old Ottewell Williamot had a sonne b'' 
161 2, Oct. I. William Carlell, a strange beggar. 

1616, Dec. 15. John, Sonne of John Warde — petrified with cold 

on y" moore. 
1623, Nov. 18. Joan, da M' Rob' Evans, parson of Darley. 



DARLEV DALE REGISTERS. 



1624, Jany. 25. Richard, sonne Godfrey Baall. 
163 r, Feb. 3 Ould Catharaine was buryed. 
1634, June iS. William Norman. 

1639, yv Rob' Evans, parson of tlie North Medietie 

of Darleigh, dyed 15th Nov: sep : 23^* 

1640, Mch : 3r. John Supper. 

1642, June 6. Widdow Cheethome. 

1644, Apl. 2. M" Walburge Columbell, of Stancliffe, widdow. 
„ June 29. M' James Holland, rector of South-medietie, 

set. 69. 
„ July II. Margery, wife of Adam Marshall, from Rowsley- 
hall. 

1645, Feb. 23. Richard Bendbow, of Hackneylane. 

1647, Dec. 7. Colkimbell, s. M' Fs : Grantham, of Hackney- 

lane. 

1648, Jany. 15. Charles Broxholme (?) rector Soutli-Medietie, 

£et. 56. 
„ Sep. 13. A male child of Robert Gregory, of flfrogatt ; 
drowned, brought downe the River in the 
fflood. 

1649, F^ti 23. James, s. Edmund Tatersall, a straunger. 

1650, May 4. Ottiwell Arnfeild, a slater. 

1654, Sep. II. ffrances, da. of col: John Millward, of Snitter- 
ton ; by Anne, ux ejus, da. James Whitehalgh, 
of Whitehalgh, y' wife of Sir William Boothby, 
baronet, buried the nth, aged 21. 

1657, ]\Iay 28. Damorish, da. W" Buxton, b'^ at Darby. 

1659, Dec. 7. Edward Shackerlie. 

1662, June II. Walburge, d. AF John Potte, rector of y" North- 

medietie. 

1663, Dec. 3. Robert Dum, of Toadhole. 

1665, June 20. M' Edward Paine, jninister of the South- 
medietie. 

1669, Oct. 4. ISP John ^lilward, of Snitterton, Chaptaine 
{captain). 

1671, Apl. 10. Thomas Ironfeild. 



lO DARLEY DALE REGISTERS. 

1673, Aug. 19. A maide from Sniterton Hall. 
1676, Feb. 5. Roger Ball, killed in a grove {mine). 

„ May 8. Philippe Barnes, of Brigtowne— was huntsman 

to Jo. Earle of Rutland. 
„ Sep, 12. A son of one Abill, a stranger and by trade a 
tinker. 
1678, May 30. Anne, d. Samuel Giles, a stranger y' came out 
of Staffordshire. 
„ June 17. M" Frances Chadderton, of Doncaster, and da. 
M' Godfry Columbell. 
1735, Nov. 9. Katherine Harper. 
1743, Aug. 24. M'^ Catherine Harpur, of Bridge-town. 
1 75 1, Oct. 4. M" Mary Harpur. 

1757, Mch. 21. M'^ Mary Langford, from Leek, Staffsh : 

1758, Feb. 14. Thos : Cheyney Savage. 



€tjavUs Balgiu), iit.l3. (i 708-1 767.) 



By S. O. Addy, M.A. 






H E object of the following pages is to relate a few facts, 
all too brief as they are, respecting the life of a man 
of letters and a physician of eminence whose name 
has been almost forgotten. Though his later years 
were spent, and the work of his life was done, in another county, 
he was the son of a Derbyshire country gentleman, whose family 
had long been settled in the Peak. Two centuries ago, and later, 
the Balguys were possessed of large estates in Derbyshire. For 
several generations they seem to have been engaged in the pro- 
fession and practice of law, and in adding one estate to another.''' 
Thomas Balguy was Recorder of Stamford, and member of 
Parliament for that city from 1597 to 1600. His son John 
Balguy, who in 1634 is described as " cousin " to William Earl of 
Exeter,! occupied his father's place as Recorder. From the 
Lincolnshire and Northamptonshire branch of the family was 
descended Thomas Balguy, elected Master of the Sheffield 
Grammar School in 1662. John Balguy was Recorder of Derby 
and a Judge on the Welsh circuit. Nicholas Balguy, of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, was Master of the Temple. 

* See Yorkshire Diaries (Surtees Society), and the Register of Admissions at 
Gray's Inn, now in course of publication in the Collectanea Genealogica. At the 
present day, in Derbyshire, when a question hard to be answered is proposed, 
the reply often is, "That beats Balj^uy." Mr. Benjamin Bagshawe, in an 
excellent paper in The Reliquary., relates how, upon the death of a member of 
this family, a large box was found in his room so tightly packed with guineas, 
placed edgeways, that they could not be got out. 

+ Calendar of State Papers (Domestic), 1634. 



12 CHARLES BAI.GUY, M.U. 

Charles Balguy, the subject of this article, was born in 1708. 
He was the younger of the two sons of Henry Balguy, Esq., ot 
Dervvent Hall, and Elizabeth, his wife, the daughter of Thomas 
Eyre, Esq., of Newbold, near Chesterfield. His elder brother 
Henry, who lived at Alfreton, seems to have inherited tiie family 
estates, and from him is descended the present head of the family, 
John Balguy, Esq., of Waltham House, Chelmsford, the Police 
Magistrate for Woolwich and Greenwich There were five 
daughters — Ann, Dorothy, Mary, Catherine, and Elizabeth. I 
have not ascertained what became of the three elder girls, but on 
the 30th January, 1732-3, Catherine"' was married at Hathersage 
to Joseph Greaves, of Moscar House, in that parish, gentleman. 
Elizabeth married John Littlewood, of Bamford,t gentleman, and 
it will be seen hereafter that she became possessed of half the 
property of her brother Charles. 

We may assume that Charles Balguy was born at Derwent Hall, 
for in the record of his matriculation at Cambridge he is described 
as the son of Henry Balguy, of Derwent. Over the principal 
doorway of the fine old hall in Derwent Dale, built or purchased 
by the Balguys in 1672, and now the country residence of His 
Grace the Duke of Norfolk, are carved the arms of Balguy. This 
house was, in fact, the principal J seat of the family before they 



* She was buried at Hathersage, 29lh November, 1768. I have a few of her 
books inscribed in her own beautiful handwriting "Kitty Greaves's Book, 
1733," &c. Some of them are copies of The Spectator. Another is The British 
Magazine for 1760, containing .Smollett's Lancelot Greaves, first published 
in that form. Her daughter, Elizabeth, was married at Dronfield, 1st May, 
1775, to John Oldall, or Odell, of Cold Aston, gentleman, my great grandfather. 
Joseph Greaves made his will, 31st December, 1783, appointing John Oldall 
sole e.xecutor. It was proved by him at Lichfield, 29th April, 17S4. 

+ 1764. Draft indenture between John Littlewood, of Bamforth, in the 
parish of Hathersage, gent., and Elizabeth his wife, of the one part, and 
Robert Newton, of Norton, co. Derby, Esq., of the other part. Conveyance 
of property at Hathersage for ;,^6oo. — " Local Notes and Queries " of The 
Sheffield and Rotherham Independent. 

t They had other residences and estates in the Peak. Amongst these may 
be mentioned Aston Hall, in Hope Parish, Hope Hall, Rovvlee, and The 
Hagg. Aston Hall is now a farm house, and Rovvlee is the residence of Mr. 
Charles Greaves. Hope Hall, immediately opposite the north side of the 
" restored " church, is now the villnge inn. It is an interesting building, and 
has some quaint old rooms and oil paintings, let into the panels, which once 
belonged to the Balguys, and were doubtless put there when tlie house was 
built. One of the paintings represents Danae in the shower of gold. 



CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 1 3 

finally left the Peak district, after some centuries of residence 
there. The exterior of the house itself remains nearly as it was 
when first built. The gardens seem to have been little altered, 
the old trees are there, and the quaint and narrow bridge spans 
the Derwent. The Duke has added many rooms to the house, 
and he has filled it with specimens, more or less genuine, of old 
oak furniture. He has clothtd its inner walls with oaken panels 
and carved work which once adorned picturesque mansions of the 
Elizabethan or Jacobean period.* But we cannot make antiquity, 
and this miscellaneous collection of curious furniture, however 
rare and valuable some of the articles may be, forms no part of 
the history of Derwent Hall. 

Charles Balguy was educated at the Chesterfield Grammar 
School, under the Rev. William Burrow, M.A. For many years 
the masters of this school were men of the first literary eminence, 
and the school maintained a high reputation during the latter half 
of the seventeenth, and nearly the whole of the eighteenth century. 
A writer in 1762 says that ''tlie school is reckoned the most con- 
siderable of any in the north of England, and sends great numbers 
of men to the universities, particularly to Cambridge." Amongst 
others who were educated under the care of Mr. Burrow were 
Ellis Farneworth, the translator of Machiavel ; Halifax, Bishop of 
Gloucester; Dr. John Jebb, an eminent physician of the last 
century ; and Erasmus Darwin, M.D., grandfather of the author of 
" The Origin of Species." Dr. Samuel Pegge,t the antiquary, 
and Seeker, Archbishop of Canterbury, were also educated at this 
school.:]: 

Leaving tlie Chesterfield Grammar School at the age of eighteen, 



* Some of the finest of the oak wainscot was renr.oved from Norton House, 
Derbyshire, pulled down by Mr. Charles Cammell in 1877. 

t He was about three years older than Dr. Balguy, having been born at 
Chesterfield, 5th November, 1704. Admitted pensioner of .St. John's College, 
Cambridge, 30th May, 1722. He was sworn fellow of St. John's, 2ist March, 
1726, O. S., Balguy being at that time an undergraduate at the same College. 
Pegge's father was a lead merchant in Chesterfield, and Mayor of that town. 
His mother was Gertrude, daughter of Francis Stephenson, of Unston, near 
Dronfiekl. 

tSee llaW's History of Cheslc-rfield (td. 1839), p. 191, et seq. 



14 CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 

Charles Balguy was admitted pensioner of St. John's College, 
Cambridge, on the 5th July, 1725. His tutor was Mr. B. 
Edmundson. He did not proceed in arts, but took the degree of 
Bachelor of Medicine in 1731. 

In 1734 he contributed to the Transactions of the Royal Socuty 
an account of " the dead bodies of a man and woman preserved 
49 years in the Moors of Derbyshire." He is then described as 
of Peterborough, and I presume that he was then practising physic 
in that city. The account lie gives is so curious that I venture to 
give it at length, quoting, however, the abridgement of the 
Philosophical Transactions . * 

"These two persons were lost in a great snow on the moors, 
in the parish of Hope, near the Woodlands, in Derbyshire, January 
14th, 1674, and not being found till the 3rd of May following, the 
snow lasting probably the greater part of that time, they tlien 
smelt so strong that the Coroner ordered them to buried on the 
spot. They lay in the peat moors 28 years 9 months before they 
were looked at again, when some countrymen, having observed 
the extraordinary quality of this soil in preserving dead bodies 
from corrupting, were curious enough to open the ground to see if 
these persons had been so preserved, and they found them in no 
way altered, the colour of their skin being fair and natural, their 
flesh soft as that of persons newly dead. They were afterwards 
exposed for a sight 20 years, though they were much changed in 
that time by being so often uncovered, and in 17 16 their condition 
was as follows, viz :— The man perfect, his beard strong, and 
about a quarter of an inch long, the hair of his head short, his 
skin hard and of a tanned leather colour, pretty much the same as 
the liquor and earth they lay in. The woman by some rude 
people had been taken out of the ground, to which one may well 
impute her greater decay ; one leg was off, the flesh decayed, the 
bone sound ; on her face the upper hp and tip of her nose decayed, 
but no wliere else. Her hair was long and springy, like that of a 
living person. They were afterwards buried in Hope CImrch, 

* Philosophical Traiisac/ioits, No. 434, p. 413. 



CHARLES RAT.GUY, M.D. 1 5 

where viewing them some time after it was found they were entirely 
consumed.* They had lain about a yard deep in the soil or moist 
moss, but without any water in the place. Wlien their stockings 
were drawn off, the man's legs, which had never been uncovered 
before, were quite fair ; the flesh, when pressed with the finger, 
pitted a little, and the joints played freely and without the least 
stiffness ; the other parts were much decayed. What was left of 
their clothes (for peojile had cut away the greater part as a 
curiosity) was firm and good. The woman had on a piece of new 
serge, which seemed never the worse." 

He contributed to the '' Medical Essays " in i736.t Dr. Pegge 
says that he married at Peterborough. As Pegge was an accurate 
genealogist, and must have been well acquainted with Balguy both 
at school and college, I cannot think that he was mistaken. Yet 
there is no mention of wife or children in his will or on his 
monument. Nor have I succeeded in finding any clue to his 
marriage in the parish registers of Peterborough. He seems to 
have been on terms of intimate friendship with the Misses Eleanor 
and Sarah Hake, a name well known in Peterborough a century 
ago. To the former he left half his property, and it seems 
probable that he was related to these ladies by marriage. 

The house which he occupied at Peterborough is that which 
" had in its front in plaster two boars' heads;}: with a bend or 
dagger in them, which dagger was found in the Isle of Ely, and 
lent to Dr. Stukely, who promised to return it, but gave it to the 
Duke of Montague." He was Secretary to the Peterborough 
Literary Society, § and a member of the parent Spalding Society. 

* See more on this subject in Cox's Churches of Derbyshire, vol. II., p. 266, 
et seq, also p. 237. 

+ Allibone's Dictionary of Authors. 

X His family crest was a bear passant, proper, collared and chained, or. 

§ The founder of the Peterborough .Society was Dr. Timothy Neve. Writing 
from that city in 1 741, Dr. Neve says : — " Since I came to settle in this place I 
have instituted a society of gentlemen, most of University education, who meet 
every Wednesday evening, whereof the Dean is president, and myself secretary. 
We are near twenty regular members, and al)out a hundred honorary .... 
We have a pretty large collection of curiosities, natural and artificial, such as 
shells, minerals, petrifactions, prints, medals, etc., etc., which now and then 
amuse us a little, and give us the appearance of meeting to do something else 
than smoke a pipe or drink a bottle." — Nichol's Litei-ary Anecdotes, vol. VI. 



1 6 CHARLES EALGUY, M.D. 

The latter numbered amongst its members Pope, Gay, the two 
^Vesleys, and Sir Isaac Newton, and its transactions show that it 
did better and more lasting work than the giving of popular 
lectures. It was, in fact, a learned society.* 

In 1 741, when he was ^^ years old, he published a translation 
of T/ie Decameron. The volume is a closely anci well printed octavo 
of 591 pages. Its title page is The | Decameron, ] or | Ten 
Days Entertainment | of j Boccace j Translated from the Italian | 
London : I Printed for R. Dodsley at TuUy's Head in Pall Mall | 
MDCCXLI. 

It is dedicated "' to Backe Thornhill, Esq.,"t and was published 
anonymously. In his preface, speaking of The Decameron^ the 
translator says — " This hath been reprinted an infinite number of 
times, and translated into diverse languages. Two translations 
there are in French that have come to my knowledge, and the 
same number in our own language, if they may be stiled so, for 
such liberties are taken everywhere in altering everjthing accord- 
ing to the people's own taste and fancy, that a great part of both 
bears ver}- little resemblance to the original.'' The translations 
to which he probably refers are that of William Paynter, who, in 
1570, published a translation of sixty of Boccaccio's novels under 
the title of The Palace of Pleasure, and Jaggard's folio of 1625. 
Of the former of these it is well known that Shakespeare made 
great use. 

We have it on the autliority of Burton, the author of The 
Anatomy of Melancholy, that in his day the novels of Boccaccio 
were commonly related at English firesides. We may well 
imagine that in the hill countr}- of Derbyshire, where news was 
scarce and travellers were few, old stories and traditions would be 
often repeated. Such a man as Charles Balguy, with his love of 



•See Nichol's Literary Atucdotes, VI., pp. 4, 74, 122, and History of the 
S/aliiitiff Society (Nichol's), 1 784. 

t Bache Thornhill, of Stanton. He married (i) Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas 
Coke, of Melbourne, knighi of the shire, and Vice-Cbamberlain to George I. , 
and (2) in 1742, Margaret, dau. of Anrhony Eyre, of Rampton and Grove, co. 
Notts. She was descended from the Eyres of Newbold, co. Derby. It will 
have been noticed that Charles Balguy's mother was a Miss Eyre of Newbold. 



CHAULES IJALGUV, M.D. I 7 

books and his fondness for natural science, must have heard and 
remembered many of these. Thougli his hfe was mostly spent in 
the flat fens of Northamptonshire he could not forget the loveli- 
ness of the Derbyshire valleys, and the poetry which lingered 
there." 

In his boyliood members of his family had espoused the cause 
of James Stuart, the Pretender. + Had he lived in our time, he 
might have forsaken the older scholarship and written a good 
novel or two. As it was, he practised pliysic, and contented 
himself with translating the "Decameron." In 1741 the modern 
novel had hardly been "invented." Richardson, himself a 
Derbyshire man, had only published the first part of his 
"Pamela" in 1740, at the very time when Balguy was engaged 
in turning the most femous collection of novels in the world into 
English prose. Fielding had published nodiing but pamphlets 
and essays. Smollett was a surgeon's mate on board a ship of 
the line, and did not publish his first novel till 1748, nor his 
translation of Don Quixote till 1755. The modern novel was 
really begun by Addison's " Roger de Coverley," and besides that 
there was nodiing to read in 1741 but old volumes of romances, 
printed in folio, and often inexpressibly dull and tedious. 

My own copy of Balguy's translation was described by Mr. 



* The making of ballads, and sometimes of lampoons, could not have been 
uncommon in the Peak district. In 1742 a reference was held l^efore Joseph 
Hall, of Bamford, touching "the making, singing, and publishing a soiig." 
An action for libel had been Ijrought in the Exchequer. — ^" Local Notes and 
Queries " of Sheffield and Rotlurhani Independent. 

t See some letters written in 1717 by Philippa Balguy, fourth daughter of 
Henry Balguy. Esq., of Hope Hall, to a young Mr. Heaton, in Sheffield, who 
supplied her with news about politics and the movements of the Pretender. 
.She writes to him of the birth of a Royal Prince as "the birth of a Royal 
whelp." In one of her letters she says, " You had better by half send me a 
lover, or put me in a way to get one, for they are very scarce in the Peak." 
{Reliquary xxii. 44). . Heaton seems to have admired her eldest sister, Frances, 
whom she describes to him as "killing Mistriss Fanny," "resplendent 
Mistriss Fanny," etc. Frances did not marry him, but the Rev. W. Lucy, 
D.I)., Rector of Hampton Lucy. The Heatons seem to have lived near the 
Charity School, Sheffield, for on tlie 2nd Feb., 1726, Thomas Heaton, iron- 
monger, leased to John Balguy, then of Sheffield, clerk, pai t of his garden 
near the Charity School to build a house upon. — L. N. iX: Q. of Sheffield 
Independent (\i,\.\\ Match, 1877). 



1 8 CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 

Quaritch, of whom I bought it, as being bound in " bright old 
calf." The stories themselves are bright as Italian skies. If the 
novels of Boccaccio and the tales of Chaucer give true pictures 
of the times, life must have been a joke in the fourteenth 
century. Chaucer's heart was light enough, but Boccaccio's was 
lighter. Chaucer put his stories into the mouths of pilgrims 
journeying to Canterbury ; Boccaccio's Florentine young men 
and women coolly go a pic-nic into the country to avoid the 
awful Black Death, they dance and sing, and during their sojourn 
there relate stories which have moved the laughter of the world 
for centuries. We are reminded of another and older Italian 
writing to his Lesbia — 

" Vivamus mea Lesbia atque ainemus, 
Rumoresque senuni severiorum 
Omnes unius aestimemiis assis." 

But we are concerned liere with one of the worthies of Derby- 
shire, and not with the history of romance. It was Charles 
Balguy's task to present those old stories in a fair English dress, 
and he accomplished that task well* His English is always 
pure, and some parts of his prose translation read like poems. 
His metrical versions have no great merit. Tiiey are merely 
such as a scholarly writer would make in an age when everybody 
imitated Pope. His prose has the true Addisonian ring, and the 
archaisms which have been altered in subsequent editions have no 
uncouthness to the literary eye.t Whether Balguy had ever lived 
in Italy I know not, but he had certainly a scholarly acquaintance 



* It need hardly be said here that many of the stories are licentious, but 
not more so than those of Chaucer, who, as is well known, borrowed from 
Boccaccio. Yet it appears to me that they always render vice ridiculous, 
and never attractive. 

t In a modern, undated edition of "The Decameron' (Chatto & Windus) 
with Stothard's plates, and an introduction by Thomas Wright, M.A., the well 
known antiquarian writer, no mention is made of the edition of 1 74 1, though 
it is re-printed, word for word, from that translation, with modernized spelling 
and some unnecessary alterations. Two novels are, however, given partly in 
French and Italian, which, for obvious reasons, Balguy thought it proper to 
omit. Several other editions have been printed, either without acknowledg- 
ment, or with a bare reference to the edition of 1741. 



CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 19 

with Italian literature, and when we take into account his 
attainments in medicine, and his knowledge of the Latin lan- 
guage, in which he wrote a scientific treatise, there seems no 
reason to doubt the judgment written on his monument — that 
he was "a man of various and great learning." 

In 1750 he was made Doctor of Medicine at Cambridge. 

In 1758 he wrote Epistola de Morbo Miliari. It was published 
in London, but I have in vain endeavoured to procure a copy. I 
gather, however, from its title, that it is a short Latin treatise on 
some form of pulmonary disease. 

In his will he mentions an estate which he had bought at 
Colne, near St. Ives, in Huntingdonshire. . 

For some of the facts contained in this article I have to thank 
Professor Mayor, of Cambridge ; Messrs. Green and Mellor, 
solicitors, of St. Ives; and Messrs. Percival and Son, solicitors, 
of Peterborough. But especially I must acknowledge my in- 
debtedness to the Rev. W. D. Sweeting, Vicar of Maxey, and 
late Head Master of the Peterborough Grammar School, for the 
researches kindly made in that city. My thanks are also due to 
William H. Weldon, Esq., Windsor Herald. 

I subjoin as appendices the will of Dr. Balguy and his epitaph, 
some pedigrees from the College of Arms, abstracts of Court 
Rolls, and a very interesting communication from the Rev. AV. 
D. Sweetins. 



Will of Dr. Balguy. 

'• I Charles Balguy of the City of Peterborough Doctor of 
Physick make this my last Will and Testament as follows First 
I remit to AP' Eleanor Hake and M'^ Sarah Hake all sums of 
money advanced by me for their use amounting to four hundred 
and sixty pounds for which I have M-? Eleanor Hake's note dated 
Jan. i"" 1766 which I hereby cancel or declare of no form or 



20 CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 

effect I also give and devise unto M- Eleanor Hake and her 
heirs for ever All my Copyhold Estate lands and tenements at 
Colne in the County of Huntingdon purchased of Robert Pigott 
Esq^? and of William and Edward Burton to a certain part of 
which she has already an equitable right And to my sister 
M":? Elizabeth Littlewood Wife of M'- John Littlewood and to 
her heirs for ever I give and devise all my Copyhold Estates 
in Peterborough aforesaid consisting of an House in tenure of 
M"- Thomas Bowker and a piece of Ground called the Holt in 
my own occupation Lastly all my ready money securitys for 
money books furniture and all my personal Estate whatsoever 
I give equally between the said Eleanor Hake and Elizabeth 
Littlewood whom I appoint Joint Executrixes of this my last 
Will and Testament In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and seal the sixteenth day of February in the year of our 
Lord One thousand seven hundred and sixty-seven. 

"Ch:Balguy ^ 

" Signed sealed published and 
declared by the aforesaid Charles 
Balguy as his last Will and 
Testament in the presence of us 
who in his presence and at 
his request liave set our hands 
as witnesses hereto Ashby Dean 
Eli Miller Tho. Bowker." 

" On the 13th June i 767 the Ex'ors 
in the within written Will named 
were then at tlie Petition of Smith 
their Proctor sworn faithfully to 
perform the same according to 
law and so forth before me 

Geo. Jefferys, Sur." 



CHARLES BALGUV, M.U. 

cliancel of S(. John Bapt.sfs Church, Peterborough. On one of 
Ihe chancel piers is a „,arble .ablee, wi.h ,his inscription : 

^^ff/- this Place 
lie interr'd the Kemains 
of CHARLES BALGUY M.D. 
a Man of strict Integrity, 
various and great learning, 
and of distinguished eminence 
in his Profession. Which 
He exercised, thro a Course 
of many Years in this City. 
He died lAIarch y-^ 2d. 1767 
Aged 59 Years. 

Underneath are sculptured his armorial bearings, viz., ...three 
lozenges, asur., two and one. surmounted by the crest bear 
passant, proper, collared and chained, or. 



CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 

B. 



3BalGa\?. 



From " Vincent's Derby." 



Page I is headed, " The gentlemen of name and arms in the 
countie of Darbie, Anno dni. 1569 11° Elizabeth." 

The shield of " Balgey of Aston" is left blank on this page. 



Page 27 — '• Georgius Eyre dux. fil. Tho. Balgey de Aston in 
com. Derb."= From the Ped. of Eyre of Padley. 
A 



Page 184. 
A shield left blank. 



Th om as = 
Balgey 
de Aston 



filia 



Poole 



Thomas B;ilgey = Emma Filia Lau- 

de Aston in rentii Stafford de 

com. Derby Botham 



till II 

Tana ffrancisca Alicia Thomas Balgey Margaretta Laurentuis 
■ de Aston, super- 2 

stes a" 161 1 



Elizabetha Johannes Adamus Robertus Edmundus 



C. 34 (" Visitation of Derbyshire," 1662) fo. sg''- 



*Emma daur of Lawrences. 
Stafford of Bothanis Hall 
in the parish of Glossop 
CO. Derby 



■ A brother of hers died about 1610. 



Balgay 



of Aston 



CHARLES BALGUV, M.D. 



23 



c. 



36alca^ of Hagg. 



Bakewell, 

13 Aug. 

This cote and crest is 
respited for proofe till 
MichaellmassTerme next. 

No proofe made. 



Thom.is Balgay of= 

Aston in the parish 

of Hope in com. 

Derb. 



Thomas Balgay of 
Aston, from whom 
the Balgays of 
Aston derive them- 
selves 



Adam Balgay of Hagg = Jane, daughter 
in the parish of Hope, 1 to Tye 



'n com. Derb. died 
about the yeare 161 1 



Retford in 

Nott. 



|2 

John dyed 

unmarried 



Thomas Balgay of = Dorothy daughter to Thomas 
Hagg died about Massy of Wickleswick in 
the yeare 1649 ca Lanc^ 



Grace daughter to = Henry Balgay of=:Eliz : daughter to = Anne daughter to 



Edw: Barber of 
Rowley in ( 
Derb. I wife 



the Hagg set. 53 

ann 13 Aug. 

1662 



Edward Allyn of 

Tydswell in com. 

Derb. 2 wife 



John More wood 

of Oakes in co. 

Ebor. 3 wife 



Elizabeth Dorothy 



Henry Balgay set. 

14, ann. 13 Aug. 

1662 



(Signed) Henry Balgay. 



The above is taken from the original " Visitation of Derby- 
shire," A.D. 1662, fo. 81. 



William H. Weldon, 

Windsor Herald, May, 1881. 



24 CHARLES BALGUV, M.D. 

D. 

Balcja^. [i. 

The following is taken from " Pegge's Collections," Vol. VI. : — 

Tlie Genealogie of y^ Surname of Balgay sometimes written Balguay, anciently 
Lords of y'= manor of Baguley Co. Cestr. brought down to y"' Person of Henry Balgay 
of Hagg Co. Derb. Gent, faithfully Collected & Copied from an old Pedigree & other 
authentic Proofs by Jn° Taylor at the Lute in Fleet street. 



'I'homas Balgay of Ashton in 
)^ Peak Esq''^ 4 H I 1 1 04 

* Evidently a slip John = Rosaline d'' of Jno Fitzherbert 
of ihc pen for J. "Esq. I of Norbury A° 11S72KS 
I * 



i I 

2 Thomas 1 188 

3 Richard 



Robert, = Ann d & h of S'' Jn° Brailsford 
Esq''"= I of Norton 6H2. 1167 



2 Brian = Ursula d. of Jn" Edmond = Amy d. of Jn° Lang- Anthony m. Ann d. 



Langley Co. 
Derb. Esq" 



Esq. 



ford of Langford Co. 
Derb. 



Rob' Alsop of y' 
Dale Co. Derb. 



Jane ux. Rich'' Margaret, ux. Jn° Bently of Henry = Rose d. of Jno Knyfton 
Okeover Hungrey Bentley Esq'* Esq''^ I of Bradley Kt. 



2 Robert = Alice d. of Jn° Staveley S"^ John = Ann d. &co-h. of S' 
I of Morley I Tho Leigh Kt. 



I.l I . i M 

1 Eliz. ux. Pet. Fretchville of Stayl John =Rose d. of 3 Aim ux. Jn° Pole of 

2 Mary ux. Tho. B Esq"= I Jn° Foljambe Radburne 

5 Jane ux. Jn" Ausley of Ausley Esq. | Esq. 4 Xtina ux. Jn° Cha 

I worth, Esq. 

n I 

1 Rose ux. Jn° Bagshaw,Esq. Christopher = Dorothy d. of .S"^ Jn" Bassett 

2 C Avey ux Tho. Blundevile Esq | of Bletsworth Esqr 

i \ I 

Anthony = d. of Jn° Leeke Susanna ux. Tho. Barley Susanna ux. Tho. Black- 



Esq. 



Esq. 



of Barley Esqr. well Esq. 

Grace ux I ho. D Basford Esq. Amy ux Jn° Powtrell Esq' 



James = Bridget d. Tho. 
Esq. I Marson Esq. 



S' Brian = Alice d. & h. of S' 
I W" Leich K' 



daur ux Thomas 
Brinsley Esq'*^ 



CHARLES BALGUV, M.D. 21; 

Eliz. d. & h. of=John -Elianor d. of Ralfe Lowe 
Jn" Gars I Esqr | of Denby 2^ wife 

I 



I I I 1 

2 John Edward = Barbara d. of Tn° Thomas of Aston = Joan Jane 

3 Henry Esq''^ | Sacheverell Esq' Co. Derb. I " died young 

\ \ F 

Thomas of Aston Adam of Ha-g Co. Derb.=Jane d. of Tye of Retford 



Co. Nott. Esq 



2 John Ann Jane Marg' Thomas of Hagg= Dorothy d. of Thos. ^fassey of 
_l Wickleswick Co. Lane. 

Grace d. of Edw^ Barber of = Hen.7 of=EHz. d. of Edw. Allyn of=Anne d. of And- 
Rowley Co. Derb. I wife I Hagg | Tydswell Co. Derb. 2 wife rewMorewood of 

Hallowes 3 wife 



Dorothy Eliza- Henry of As- = Walburge d. & h. of Anth. senior 

beth ton Esq^<= I of Cowley Co. Derb. Esq. John 



2johnEsq«= 4 Gervas 2 Dorothy 4 Mary Henry of Dar- = Eliz. d. of Tho 

3 Charles I Frances 3 Anne 5 Phillippa wentCo. Derby Eyre of New- 

bold Co. Derb. 



2 ° Charles I Ann 2 Dorothy 3 Marj- 4 Catherine 5 Elizab. Henry 



" Charles educated at Chesterfield, was after of S' John's Coll., Studied Physick, 
and practised at Peterborough, where he was mar., & died 28 Feb 1767 He 
translated Boccacio's Novels. '' 



26 CHARLES BALGUY, M.D. 

E. 

Balaam. [2. 

The following is taken from " Pegge's Collections," Vol. VI. : — 

The foregoing Pedigree is of no great authority as to y<= upper part of it, for yt 
Taylor was only an Herald Painter. 

It appears to me from an inspection of S^ Peter Leycester p. 217 that they took 
Baguley and Balguy for y'= same Name, but q. as also whether there be any Proof y' 
Balguy was ever Lord of Baguley Co. Cestr. 

In consequence of this Error, for such I suspect it to be, they gave to Balguay the 
Arms of Baguley for see Leycester p. 216. No Arms in my Book, f. 13, b. So there 
f 4 Balgay of Aston is an usurper. 

This Roll was lent me 1759 by Mr. Henry Balguy who writes his Name Balgay. 
I take it to be Scotch, viz., the two last syllables of Strabolgie. 

A Ashton y^ same as Aston. 

B q. the Name of Mary's Husband. 

C Avey, f Amy, for her Niece is so called. 

D Basford, suppose should be Beresford, for y^ Coat is Beresford's. Two sisters 
of the same name, Susanna, q. 

E The Balguy? of Dervvent are a younger branch ; q. if any of the elder branch 
is now remaining. 

F Hagg, q. where this is ? 'tis different from Hagg in Staveley Par. 

The line of Thomas of Aston is not carried on. I take it y' y"^ Pedigree in my 
Book f 13, b is ihis line, thus : 

(Here follows the Ped. from " Vincent's Derby," page 184. W. H. W., W. H.) 



CHARLES EALGUV, M.D. 



27 



5; ^ 



13s 



D ^ O 



J %: 



O -^ Q 



£ 
i-i 

< 

'3 
n 









■ »i 



cs 



■& ' 






•S 6 . ^^ 

c C "i ~^' 

rt U < 53 



'^O^ 



£ ~ <^ '-0 



u -5 to "^ "^ 









5 N 



5* ^ 



« -^ -3 ^ 

^ Q *; 



tH' 



cc^ 

-t;. o 






>§ 


r 








^ 


^•. 





•6 


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v» 1 


a> 


». 


^ 


c 


1 










*^ 


Ov 




II 


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6£ >« 1 




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H cv. to -? -5 



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— 



28 CHARLES BALCUV, M.D. 

G. 

Manor of Peterborough. 

1753, Nov. 6//^.— Chas. Balguy, of Peterborough, Doctor of 
Physic, admitted on a surrender made to liis use by George 
Kitchin to a part of a holt or ozier ground in Peterborough, 
divicied by a ditch from the other part abutting on a close of Sarah 
and Eleanor Hake. 

1756, Nov. 16///.— Chas. Balguy, Doctor of Physic, admitted on 
a surrender of Wm. Stacey to two Copyhold cottages within the 
said Manor, in a place called Priestgate Lane, next a messuage of 
Mrs. Hake West. 

1767, May zbth. — Death of Doctor Balguy presented at a 
Court then held. Seized to himself and his heirs of a Customary 
Messuage, with the outbuilding in Priestgate Lane, which was 
formerly two Tenements, and lately rebuilt in one, and late the 
estate of Wm. Stacey; then in tenure of Tho. Bowker. And also 
of part of a willow holt, late the estate of George Kitchin. Mrs. 
Littlewood admitted. 

1773, Dec. Gt/i. — At an Adjourned Court then held it is stated 
that John Littlewood and Elizabeth his wife, who was the sister of 
Charles Balguy, deceased, surrendered the piece of pasture or 
meadow, late called a holt or ozier ground, being then laid to a 
Close of Eleanor and Sarah Hake, Spinsters, to the use of the 
said Eleanor Hake, her heirs and assigns. Eleanor Hake 
admitted. 

\1']/\, April 2\st. — It was presented that on 21st April, 1773, 
John Littlewood, of March, Isle of Ely, and County of Cambridge, 
Farmer, and Elizabeth his wife, sister of Chas. Balguy, surrendered 
the messuage in Priestgate Lane to the said Elizabeth Littlewood 
for her life. Remainder to the said John Littlewood for his life. 
Remainder to the use of George Littlewood, their eldest son, his 
heirs and assigns for ever, charged with the i)ayment of ^100 to 



CHARLES BAI.GUY, M.D. 29 

Chas. Liltlewood, and Ann, wife of Anthony Worral, son and 
daughter of the said John and Elizabeth I.ittlewood, within 12 
months after the death of the said John and EHzabeth. The said 
John Littlewood admitted for his life. Memorandum in margin 
of Court Roll as to payment of the ;!^ioo. From this Ann 
Woriall appears to have re-married one John Stringer. 

1780, Jan. i']t/i. — Court held. Surrender of 21st of April, 
1773 recited, and deaths of John Littlewood and Elizabeth his 
wife. Presented that George Littlewood was also dead without 
having been admitted, and that the said Charles Littlewood, then 
of March aforesaid, Farmer and Grazier, was the surviving son of 
the said John and Elizabeth Littlewood, and brother nnd heir at 
law of the said George Littlewood, to whom the said customary 
premises descended, and to which he was achnitted. 

1789, April 22nd. — Presentment of Surrender from Chas. 
Littlewood, late of March and then of Tyd St. Giles, in the said 
Isle and County, Grazier, of the said messuage, to the use of Jane 
Puckney, who was admitted. 

H. 

On the floor at the E. end of the chancel at Stoke Doyle 
Church, CO. Northants. 

P. M. S. 

HIC IVXTA SITVS EST THOMAS BALGUY S. T. B. 

RECTOR HVIVS ECCL^ PER XX ANNOS 

OBiJT 16° MAij, ^TATIS SV^ 58. D'^' 1653 

Relicta posuit moestissima maria. 

[The chancel was, by license of the Bishop of Peterborough, 
pulled down in 1722, and a new one built. The old monuments, 
inscriptions, etc., were to be preserved, and this seems to have 
been done, after taking copies, by leaving those that were in the 
floor in their places, and covering them with earth six or eight 
inches deep — burying tliern in fact. No other monument or 



30 charle;s balguv, .m.d. 

inscription is now to be seen to the Balgiiy family, but this notice 
is preserved amongst the copies ma(]e at the time when the church 
was pulled down.] 

"On one of the Pillars on y^' North side of y" said Chancel, 
hung a Wooden frame, abt 3 ft. long, and 19 Inches brood, in 
Memory of Frances Balguy daughter of Tho. Balguy, Rector, and 
of Mary his Wife, the daughter of Tho Westfield late L'' Bp of 
Bristol]. The s'^ Frances dyed 27 April, 1650. Scarce 6 months 
old. Under y" Inscription are y" Arms of Balguy and Westfield 
in a Lozenge, and y" some Verses, w'''' I omitt, here supposing 
y'= s'' frame will find a Place in y'= New Church." 

The frame has not been preserved. The crescent for difference 
on the tomb of the Rector shows him to have been the second 
son. He was Rector from 1632 to 1653. The only entries I find 
in the register are the baptism of his children — 

1646. 2 A p. Mary. 

1648. 2 June Edward. 

1649. 14 Nov. Frances. 
1651. 25 Ap. Adolphus. 

And these two from the burials — 

(650. 28 Ap. Frances Balguy the daughter of Thomas Balguy, 

Rector, and of Maria his wife was buried. 
1653. May 16. Tho. Balguy Rector ecclesije Diem obijt. 
May 17. Tho. Balguy Rector ecclesias sepultus. 

[He made some alterations and improvements in the Rectory 
House ; and a handsome bay window, embattled, has his initials 
and the date 1633 T. B.]* 



£x t'li/orm. Rev. W. D. Sweeting. 



■ ElELf-IE^ PHOTO. 



MEDIEVAL PATEN AT SHIRLEY. 



3' 



0\x a I^Tctricbal |Datcn at Si^trkg, 



By \V. H. St. John Hope, B.A., F.S.A. 




|OME time ago the question was brought before the 
Council of our Society of making a descriptive 
inventory of all the Church Plate in the county ; but, 
for some reason or other, the project was not carried 
out, and it was not until tlie appearance, in 1882, of the valuable 
volume on the Church Plate in the Diocese of Carlisle, published 
by the Cumberland and Westmoreland Antiquarian and Archaeo- 
logical Society, that the matter was taken up again in earnest. 
A form of return lias been issued to every parish in tiie county, 
and we are already able to say what plate about half the churches 
in Derbyshire possess. Numerous beautiful specimens of Eliza- 
bethan chalices, and other interesting examples of the silversmith's 
craft, have turned up; but, so far, only one piece of pre-Reformation 
plate. How this escaped the general confiscation of church 
plate in the reign of Edward VI., cannot be explained. 

The article in question is a paten of silver now preserved at 
Shirley. 

It is five inches in diameter, and, as may be seen from the 
illustration, is of the usual type, consisting of a circular plate 
with a narrow molded edge and plain brim, within which is sunk 
a circular depression, and this again has a six-lobed depression 
with central device. The spandrels are filled with the common 
rayed ornament, which has two lines. The central device has a 



32 iMEDIEVAf- PA TEN AT SHIRLEY. 

representation of the Vernicle, or face of our Lord, surrounded 
by a cruciform nimbus, and set in a glory of twelve rays. It is not 
enamelled, as in the Nettlecombe example. 

There are two hall marks: (i) the maker's, a cross fleury 
in a shield ; (2) the date letter, a double-cusped Q, being that 
for the year 1493-4. 

Mr. Cripps writes: — "I am almost sure the letter on the Shirley 
paten is the double-cusped Q for 1493-4. AVhy there is no 
leopard's head I cannot say. It is usually present, but not 
always, on pieces of that date. We have now a number of 
patens of that exact period ; indeed, the number is remarkable, 
and gives colour to the tradition that K. Henry VII. gave a paten 
to every church in England. I forget, for the moment, what this 
is based upon, but there are now several known of his reign." 

The Shirley paten is in a remarkably good state of preservation, 
but the chalice to which it once belonged has disappeared, and 
been replaced by one of early seventeenth century date. It 
should be compared with a paten of very similar design at 
Hamsterley, Durham, engraved in Vol. XXXIX. of the Archceo- 
logical Journal. 

The paten, so named from its shape, quia patet est et ampla, was 
always used as a cover to the chalice, into whose bowl it fitted, so 
that the Shirley example must have belonged to a chalice almost 
identical in size with the Nettlecombe one, that is, 6 inches high 
and 3S inches across the bowl. 

The device of the Vernicle was no uncommon one. It occurs 
on the patens at both Nettlecombe and Hamsterley. Another 
common device, was a hand in the act of benediction, of winch 
we have examples at Chichester, Hereford, and York. St. Paul's 
also possessed one, witli the addition of stars impressed round the 
rim ; another with a demi figure of the Saviour, and another with 
an image of the Majesty. At Lincoln, one had the coronation of 
our Lady, and another the Agnus Dei and the four Evangelists. 

The accompanying j)late has been executed by the Autotype 
Company, from a photograph by Mr. Keene, of Derby. 



il|i|,iiiiL .jjllilli'il^ |i:i^,'liy 

Ih!;I|II!|ii H • jI'-ii. ■ '^•'■'^< :•''■*. 



•if I 






Sill 'ill 



i II 




AND THE 

€ixttn IPalc <!^ait" from t»!jicfj (t iuasj matrr. 



By Llewellyn n Jewitt, F.S.A., &c., &c. 




It is not my intention in the present paper to enter 
at length into any particulars of the history of the 
Old Abbey of Welbeck, much less to attempt a 
description of the magnificent, and in many ways 
remarkable — indeed unique — mansion by which it has been 
succeeded, and which has not only been raised upon, but in 
great measure formed beneath, its site. This I have, to some 
extent, already done in my " Stately Homes of England," and 
I purpose, therefore, on the present occasion, to confine myself 
to a few observations upon a remarkable piece of furniture 
therein preserved, and the grand old tree — the " Green Dale 
Oak " — from the heart of whose trunk it was formed. 

It may, however, be well, in few words, to say that Welbeck 
was, before the Conquest, held by the Saxon, Sweyn, but, later 
on, passed, as part of the manor of Cuckney, to the Flemangs ; 
the Abbey being founded by Thomas de Cuckney, grandson of 
Joceus de Flemang, or Flemyng, in 1153, who colonised it with a 
party of canons from Newhouse, in Lincolnshire, the first liouse 
of the Premonstratensians in England. Welbeck was dedicated 
to St. T'Tnies, and endowed with grants of land, which from time 
5 



34 "green dale cabinet." 

to time were greatly augmented. In 1329, it is stated, "The 
Bishop of Ely bought the whole manor of Cuckney, and settled 
it upon the Abbey, on condition of their finding eight canons, 
who should enjoy the good things and pray for Edward the Third 
and his Queen, their children and ancestors, &c. ; also for the 
bishop's father and mother, brethren, &c. ; but especially for the 
health of the said lord bishop while he lived, and after his death, 
for his soul ; and for all theirs that had faithfully served him, or 
done him any good ;" to which was added this extraordinary 
injunction, " That they should observe his anniversary, and on 
their days of commemorating the dead, ' should absolve his soul 
by name,' a process whose frequent repetition might naturally be 
considered as needless, unless the pious bishop supposed that he 
might perhaps commit a few additional sins whilst in purgatory." 

In 1512, Welbeck was, it is said, made the chief house of the 
Order of Premoustratensians. At the dissolution it was granted 
to Richard Whalley, and later on passed to the Cavendishes, in 
the person of Sir Charles Cavendish, third son of Sir William 
Cavendish, by his wife, Elizabeth Hardwick, afterwards Countess 
of Shrewsbury, and founder of the noble house of Newcastle. 
From them it passed successively, by marriage, to the Holies 
(created Duke of Newcastle), Harleys (Earl of Oxford and 
Mortimer), and Bentincks, in the person of William, second 
Duke of Portland, who, by his marriage with Lady Margaret 
Cavendish Harley, acquired the estates of that illustrious family. 

It is to the second of these alliances, that of the Lady 
Henrietta Cavendish Holies, with Edward Harley, second Earl 
of Oxford and Mortimer, founder of the " Harleian " Collection 
of MSS. (and later on advanced to the dignity of Duke of 
Newcastle), that the interest of the piece of furniture I am about 
to describe attaches itself. 

The "Green Dale Oak," to which I have made allusion, is only 
one out of many remarkable and historical trees that give a 
character peculiarly its own to the broad domains of Welbeck. 
It is one of the best known and most famous of trees, and takes 
rank among the oldest and most venerable in existence. Venerable 



"green dale cakinet. 35 

for its antiquity, grand in its hoary age, and eminent above 
most in its picturesqueness and strikingly singular character, this 
" Monarch of the Forest " — the " Methusaleh of Trees,' as il has 
not inaptly been called — still stands, a living relic of long-past 
ages, and surrounded with a halo of historic and traditionary 
interest. It stands, in all its " forest pride," a complete wreck of 
its former self, but finer than ever in its picturesque aspects, and 
grand and solemn as a ruin. 

When Hayman Rooke, in 1 790, wrote his " Description and 
Sketches of some Remarkable Oaks in the Park at Welbeck,'' 
he spoke of this as being " thought to be above seven hundred 
years old ; and, from its appearance, there is every reason to 
suppose that it has attained that age at least," while Thoresby, in 
his " Thoroton," supposed it, when he wrote, to be upwards of 
1,500 years old, thus making a difference of eight hundred 
years in the computations of contemporary autliorities ! 

In Evelyn's time, it was 33 feet in circumference at the bottom, 
the breadth of the boughs was 88 feet, covering a space equal 
to 676 square feet. In 1776, on the plate that accompanied 
Dr. Hunter's edition of the "Sylva," the measurements are 
given as: — Diameter of trunk near the ground, 12 feet; 
diameter of trunk at the top of the arch, 1 1 feet ; girth 
of ditto, 34 feet 10 inches ; diameter of trunk at widest part 
above the top of the arch, 13 feet 3 inches ; height of the tree 
from the ground to top of highest branch, 53 feet 6 inches; height 
of the archway, 10 feet 2 inches ; width of archway, 6 feet 2 
inches." Major Hayman Rooke, in 1790, gave the measurement 
as : — "The circumference of the trunk, above the arch, is 35 feet 
3 inches ; the height of the arch, 10 feet 3 inches ; width about 
the middle, 6 feet 3 inches ; height to the top branch, 54 feet.'' 

The trunk of this gigantic tree having a century or two back 
become hollow with age, and so much decayed that large open- 
ings occurred in its sides, the opening was, in 1724, sufificiently 
enlarged by cutting away the decayed wood to allow a carriage 
of the ordinary size, both in height and width, or three horsemen 
riding abreast, to pass through it. 



36 



GREEN DALE CABINET. 



Through this opening, cut through the genuine " heart of oak " 
of the stem of the tree, one of the noble owners of Welbeck is 
said, with his bride, to have driven, or been driven in, a carriage 
drawn by six horses, on the occasion of his marriage. 

It is also said that on several different later occasions, carriages 
have been driven through the rudely cut and arched opening, 
while equestrians by the hundred have ridden through it from 
side to side. 




THE GREEN DALE OAK, IN THE PARK AT \VELBECK. 



The event to which I have alluded, of the carriage drawn by 
six horses, and driven by a cocked-hatted coachman on the box, 
having passed through the tree, is admirably represented on a fine 
old engraving, executed by George Vertue in 1727 ; and it is to 



"green dale cabinet. 37 

this, and the other engravings of the series, that I shall have to 
draw attention in reference to the cabinet upon which they are 
reproduced. 

The engravings form a series of five folio plates, etched upon 
copper by George Vertue for the Countess of Oxford, to whom 
Welbeck belonged. They are of extreme interest, and of con- 
siderable rarity. I have myself, for the first time they have ever 
been re-produced, had them reduced by the never-failing photo- 
relief process from the prints themselves, so that they are literally 
line for line and touch for touch, the very etchings themselves as 
they left the engraver's hands more than a century and half ago ; 
but of a reduced size ; and I have great pleasure in thus adding 
them to my present paper. 

The first plate of the series is a ground plan of that part of the 
Welbeck property where the Green-Dale Oak stands. In the 
centre is represented the ground plan of the tree in dark shade, 
with the opening in a lighter tint, and the dimensions marked thus — 
" 12 feci," "■ lo feet," '■'■d feet ;" and on the surrounding map, 
'' Foot Pathy '' The Road" ''to Welbeck" and ''Path Way" are 
all accurately laid down and marked, as is also the situation 
of "^ s/itall Oke 4 Feet diameter" not far away. At the side of 
the plan are the monogram and coronet of the Countess (Henrietta 
Cavendish Holies, Countess of Oxford and Mortimer), and her 
motto, " Virtue et Fide ;" at the top, on a roll, in six lines, the 
words, ''A PLAN of the GREAT OKE calPd The Green Dale 
Oke in the Lane near Welbeck in Notti^ighani Shire f and at the 
bottom, on the base of a pillar, " The Arch cut thro' the Tree 
ID Feet 2 Lnches high." ^'- These Draughts taken 31 August 
1727," and the initials G.Vf. of the engraver, George Vertue. 
The plan is enclosed in an ornamental border, with corner 
and other pieces composed of oak leaves and acorns. This 
highly interesting print I have had re-produced from the original 
plate in the manner I have before spoken of, and here introduce 
it on the next page. 



38 



" GREEN DALE CABINET. 




FAC-SIMILE OF PLAN, AS ETCHED BY GEORGE VERTUE, IN 1727. 



GREEN DALE CABINET. 



39 



The second plate of tlie series, here re-produced, gives a side 
view of tlie tree (or rather of its trunk, for the branches are not 

t'lr/if.iu' /iarC^//!/i</fj/!'j&TJ i^//.r<-re c//t'rraJ: 
tf/7^jf f/i/i,iii mam^uj /la-tli er tm/Z/ie, fnaiu 

J///'/T JiiS/iar. •fjf/t/ii ^irr/iffl /aceC /if/'/a ■<e/'-emiu . 




sliown) with railings and landscape at the back. Above it is the 
following quotation from Ovid : — 

" Sicpe sub hue Diyadcs fatas diixcre choreas : 
SiTpe etiain manibus nexis ex online, Irunci, 



4° 



" GREEN DALE CABINET." 



Circuicre inodiim : moisuraqm roboris jilnas 
Qninqtie fer implebat. Nee non et Cictera tanto 
Silva sub hdc, sylvd quanta facet herha sub omni. 
Ov : Mel : " 

and at the bottom the words " T/ie Green-Dale Oak near Welbeck, 
1727." The third of Vertue's engraved plates, here given in 










•J///- O'/fr/i 7>a/cj &fe^'/ic<!r'il''y^CiA.-- 17'7- 



GREEN DALE CABINET. 



41 



reduced fac-simile, presents us with an angular view of the tree in 
its entirety, through the arched opening of which an equestrian is 
passing out towards the spectator. In the distance is the land- 
scape with trees. At the top are Chaucer's words, " Lo the ©lu ! " 
and at the bottom, " The Green Dale Oke near Welbeck, 1727." 
Tlie fourth of the series of these remarkable etchings represents 

S^/'ff- (//c f/.iiic f/iat dai'?/.!iif/i,/init fa Jlrrmf 
.A/id ///^e// jc /r/i^ rr. ///(, oj life, mffj/ .ur ,- 
" ^J/ft aC f/u. l/utc, vrufid IJ (/i^ [Tfrr. 

CAatccer 




7/i<: ^ifc/;-7J,i/i. 0/if. nrui^'ilf/^fcA. 



42 "green dale cabinet. 

a front view of the tree from the opposite side, but, like the second 
of the series, leaving off the branches and the foliage. Through 
the artificial arched opening a man on horseback is exhibited as 
riding /rofu the spectator towards the mass of forest trees forming 
the park scenery in the background of the picture. At the top 
of the plate are the following lines from Chaucer : — 

" ^0 tbc @1;C I i/iat hath so long a norishing 
Fro the time that it ginnith first to spring 
And hath so long a life, as we may see ; 
Yet at the laste, wastid is the Tree. 

Chancer." 

At the bottom are the words — " The Green- Dale Oketiear JVelbeck, 
1727." 

The fifth and last of the series of etchings (which I give 
upon the next page) is, perhaps, the most interesting, giving, as 
it does, a picture of the entire tree with all its upper branches 
and foliage, through the arched opening in whose trunk a 
carriage — one of the lumbering vehicles of the period, with 
the tires of its massive and clumsy wheels, and the front of 
the carriage itself, studded with large nails — drawn by six horses, 
is being driven towards the spectator. Its noble driver (as 
I imagine him to be, to bear out the tradition) is seated on the 
box, with reins in his left, and whip in his right hand, and wears a 
cocked hat. On one of the leaders is a postilion, also furnished 
with a whip. In the background is park scenery with trees — one 
of them (that to the right) being evidendy the " sviall Oke 4 feet 
diameter " marked upon the plan. At the top of the plate are 
the words " Una Nemus" and at the bottom " 77/6' Green-Dale 
Oke near Welbeck, 1727." 

From wood cut out in forming the arched opening through the 
trunk of this wonderful tree, and from some of its branches, the 
" Green Dale Cabinet" — one of the treasured possessions of the 
Duke of Portland — at Welbeck, was made, as I have stated, for 
the then owner of the place, the Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holies, 
Coimtess of Oxford and Mortimer. Of it I give the accompanying 



"green dale cabinet." 



43 



engraving (on page 44) from a drawing made by myself, with special 
pe™.ss.on of .he Duke of Portland, and th'e following detaird 



\ 



'-■> 1l^ Ik 



(-.*;.%, 



'tj 














'J/ie^reY^c''/).,/, i}/,^ •;!'^^y7/;%^^. /-j^. 



appea... to have been made i„ ,„3, ,he „a,„e of the 



44 



GREEN DALE CABINET. 



workman being brought to light on the occasion of its being taken 
to pieces for removal a few years back. A copy of the writing has 
been kindly furnished to me, and is as follows : — '■'■John Hocknell 
jiiade this Liberery Case September ye 2d 1753." The Countess of 
Oxford and Mortimer, for whom, as I have stated, it was made, 
died on the 9th of December, 1755, and was buried with her 
husband, who had pre-deceased her some years, in Westminster 
Abbey. 




The cabinet, which is perfectly unique in style, character, and 
historic interest, and of paramount importance as connected with 
the history of one of the most remarkable of existing trees, 
measures seven feet six inches in height, six feet in width, and 
two feet two inches in depth, and is divided into two heights, each 
of which is furnished with a pair of folding doors. The upper 



"green dale cabinet." 

45 

pair of these doors are each divided into four panels ; the lower 

pair, each into two panels ; and these are in each case separated 

from each other by inlaid bordering. The ends of the cabinet are 

each divided in a similar manner into three panels in hei<.ht • 

two m the upper and one in the lower portion. '' ' 

By the simple diagram here appended I have endeavoured to 

show the arrangement and character of these panels, and of the 

painted and inlaid designs -which in all cases are reproductions 

of \ertue's views-with which they are decorated. The designs 





A 


C 


A 


C 




— 


13 ' 


I 


6 


3 


8 




16 




B 


D 

1 


B 
C 


D 


1 






C 


A j 


1 

1 A 


H 


S 


1 
2 


7 


4 


17 


1 


D 


B 1 


D 


B 





- 1 














E 


G 


1 I 


K 




IS j 


9 


10 


II 


12 




18 




F 


" 1 


J 


L 






— i_ 


- 


1 






_ 












■ 


. 



throughout, which are exquisitely inlaid and painted, and have a 
remarkably fine and good effect, are identical with the series of 
etchmgs which I have just described ; the details of trees, letter- 
ing, etc., being strictly preserved. 

In the upper of these doors, in each of the panels I have on 
this diagram marked i, 2, 3, and 4, occur (thus four times 
repeated) the third of Vertue's etchings-the one engraved 
on page 40, with the horseman passing through the tree towards 
the spectator-with the words, "Z. fAe Oke T at A, and "77/. 
Greeu-Dale Oke, .ear We/beck, 1727," at B, as there engraved 



46 " GREEN DALE CABINET." 

In the panels which I have numbered 5, 6, 7, and 8, are the 
subject, thus again four times repeated, of Vertue's fifth plate of 
etchings — the one in which the carriage, drawn by six horses, is 
being driven through the tree, as engraved on page 43 — similarly- 
painted and inlaid ; the driver and the postilion on the first horse 
being habited in red coats and cocked hats. Above each of 
these, at C, are the words '■'Una Nemus" and beneath each, at D, 
" The Green-Dale Oke near Welbeck, 1727." 

On the two of the panels of the lower pair of doors, upon 
which I have placed the numbers 9 and 1 2 , occur the side view 
of the tree denuded of its top branches, as in Vertue's second 
plate, engraved on page 39 arite, with, at E and K, the quotation 
from Ovid, already given, and at F and L, the words " The 
Green-Dale Oke 7iear Welbeck, 1727." On each of the other two 
panels, which I have numbered 10 and 11, are Vertue's fourth 
subject — the one in wliich a man is represented riding from the 
spectator, through the arched opening in the tree stem, engraved 
on page 41 ante. Above each of these two, at G and I, is the 
quotation from Chaucer already given, and beneath each, at H 
and J, the usual words, " The Green-Dale Oke near Welbeck, 
1727." 

The end of the Cabinet to the left has in its upper panel, 
which I have numbered 13, the same view of the tree, and the 
same lettering as already described on the panels 5,6, 7, and 8 of 
the upper doors (engraved, page 43 ante) ; the middle panel, 14, tlie 
same as panels i, 2, 3, and 4 of the doors (engraved on page 40 
ante) ; and the lower panel, which I have numbered 15, bears the 
ground plan of that part of Welbeck Park where the Green Dale 
Oak stands, which forms the first of Vertue's series of etched 
plates, as already described and engraved on page 38 ante. 

The opposite end of the cabinet, that to the right, is similarly 
divided into three panels in height, and bears, in like manner, in 
its upper panel, which I have numbered 16, the same view, with 
the horseman riding through the tree to\vards the spectators, as 
occurs on the panels i, 2, 3, and 4 of the upper doors; the middle 
panel, 1 7, the same (the one with coach and six horses) as on panels 



"GREEN DALE CABINET." 47 

5, 6, 7, and 8 of the upper doors ; and the lower one, i8, the ground 
plan, as on 15 on the other end, and engraved on page 38 ante. 

It will have been gathered from the foregoing, that the "Green 
Dale Cabinet," of which I have had the pleasure of preparing and 
illustrating this notice, is a piece of historic furniture of no little 
value, and no trifling interest, and, with care, it will last long after 
the tree from which it was made has ceased to exist. 

It may be interesting to note that, besides the series of etchings 
by George Vertue, done in 1727, other notable engravings of the 
tree have also been made. Among these are "^ North- West 
View of the Green Dale Oak near Welbeck," drawn by S. H. 
Grimm, in 1775; engraved by A. Rooker ; and "Published 
Jan. 2ist, 1776, by A. Hunter, M.D., as the Act directs," to 
illustrate his quarto edition of Evelyn's " Sylva." This is a remark- 
ably good and effective line engraving, in which a gentleman on 
horseback is represented as riding from the spectator through the 
archway in the trunk of the tree. Another quarto engraving for 
the same work, represents a north-east view of the same tree ; and 
others give outlines and full dimensions at various points, referred 
to by letters. Another engraving, " Drawn by H. Rooke," 
" Engraved by VV. Ellis," and "Published Dec. 31st, 1790," with 
the name of ^' The Green-Bale Oak," formed plate 5 of Hayman 
Rooke's " Descriptions and Sketches of some Remarkable Oaks 
in the Park at Welbeck, in the County of Nottingham, a Seat of 
His Grace the Duke of Portland. To which are added, Observa- 
tions on the durability of the Tree, with Remarks on the Annual 
growth of the Acorn. London, 1790." In this plate, which is, 
like the rest of the series, poor and tame, a gentleman in a 
cocked hat is represented standing beneath the archway in the 
trunk of the tree with his walking-stick raised to touch the top of 
the opening. His accompanying description it is needless to 
quote. Several wood-cut representations of the tree have also at 
one time or other been given in various publicatious, and it is 
pleasant to add that in recent years, during the lifetime of the late 
Duke— to whose unbounded genius, engineering skill and con- 
structive ability, as well as pure kindliness of disposition, I desire 



48 " GREEN DALE CABINET." 

to bear emphatic record— a careful representation of the Green 
Dale Oak was, with other of the noted trees, designed to form the 
subject of sculpture in white marble, of one of the chimney pieces 
in the new part of the mansion. 

The Green Dale Oak, as it now stands, propped, supported, 
chained, and lovingly preserved on all sides, is assuredly, while 
eminently picturesque in its every aspect, the grandest, most 
solemn looking, and venerable "wreck of ages" that any forest 
monarch — not even excepting the "Parliament Oak'" — in appear- 
ance presents ; but in spite of its hoary age, its desolateness of 
aspect, and its apparent decay, it still retains its vitality, and 
gives out year by year fresh foliage in its upper branches. 

It is not, as Shakspere has it, an " unwedgeable and gnarled 
oak" — "an oak, but with one green leaf upon it" — but an oak 
whose once "unwedgeable and gnarled" and knotty trunk and 
branches are now softened down, decayed, and rotted away into 
little better than "touch-wood," but yet with its hundreds of 
leaves, season after season springing into life, giving to its hoary 
and propped-up frame a crown of joy and beauty, with just here 
and there an acorn to give evidence that even in the last stages of 
decay its powers of vitality are not yet exhausted. 

The Hollies, 

Diiffield, Derby. 



1 



49 



^ Htst of tf)r TilU antr .iFvrdjoltrtrs of 
Scrtgsi^irc, 1633. 

Communicated by S. O. Addy, M.A. 



HE following list has been transcribed from a MS. in 

the possession of Mr. G. A. Ciibley, of Sheffield, who 

has kindly allowed it to be printed. The MS., 

which is of small quarto size, is written on paper 

bound m a parchment wrapper. It is evidently a draft, and is 

written in a good clerical hand, with erasures and additions by 

a more dashing but much more illegible writer. The additions 

are distinguished by being printed in italics. 

It will be noticed that the list does not include the town of 

Derby. I conjecture that it was made for some legal purpose, 

and that this town fell under a different assessment. Only 

one freeholder, " Arthur Mower," is given under the head of 

Chesterfield. 

The abbreviated words a//oc. bre, p'cator, etc., written in the 

margin, present some difficulty. The former may be allocatioim 

breve, meaning a writ or certificate of excuse, and I conjecture, 

with considerable diffidence, that the latter may be procurator. 

If we take this document as a jury list, as probably it is, the 

words written in the margin become intelligible. Moreover, the 

absence of the names of peers, etc., is accounted for. I have 

expanded ;;///' ten-'' whenever it occurs into militaris terra, that 

is land held by knight-service. 
6 



5° 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



Freeholders, or free tenants {lihere tenenies), were those who 
held portions of the demesne lands, as opposed to land held in 
villenage. Those who are interested in the ancient tenures of 
English land, whether from an antiquarian or an economic point 
of view, should consult Mr. Seebohm's masterly treatise on The 
English Village Community (1883). 

Such a list as this may be useful to the students of economic 

history, but it is sure to be acceptable to the family historian and 

genealogist. 

1633- 

Nomina villarum et liberorum''^ tenentium infra hundredum de 



Scarsdale t 
Siaveley. 



Herdinges. 
Couldaston. 



Barley. 



Scarcliff. 



Duckmanton. 



et resid[entium] Comitatus Derbiensis 
Petrus Fretchvile, Miles. Jtis\ticiarius.] 
Robertus Turner, alloc bre. 
Humfridus Brelsford 
Rogerus Watson. 
Robertus RoUinson. 
Rolandus Revell. 
Johannes Blithe. 

Georgius AVright.ij: Mil\itai is] tcr\j-a^^ 
Richardus Cokes. 
Willelmus Shawe, generosus. 
Arthurus Mawre, generosus. alloc bre. 
Petrns Tippinge. 
Franciscus Caul ton. 
Franciscus Owtram. 
George Slator. 
Willelmus Bradley. 
Johannes Kesteven.§ \Erased?^ 
Thomas Spaulton. 
Robertus Standley. /'. 
Willelmus Rogers. 



* One would expect Ubere. 
t A blank follows this word. 
X This name is erased. 
§ Opposite is written "noe land. 



1 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 5^ 



Tibshelfe. 



Carnethwaite. 
Pin2;ston. 



South Normanton. 



Ogston. 
Whittington 



Dunston. 
Wingerworth. 
Sherland. 
Unston. 



Sonierley. 

Crowlane. 
Hill houses. 

Swathwicke. 



Johannes Ouldham. 
Richardus Buckland." [Erased.] 
Volentitie Jon son. 

Edwardus Revell, Arnnger. Jus\ticiarius. 
Franciscus Byffeild, generosns. alloc. 
Christoferus Wood, alloc. 
Thomas Boote. alloc. 
Anthonius Bennitt. 
Hugo Farnesworth. 
Anthonius Farnsworth. 
Thomas Marriott. 
Johannes Wilson. 
Georgius Stubbinge. 
Edwardus Revell, Arnnger. 
Nicholaus Sprentall. /'. 
Godfridus Stubbinge. 
Ricardus Lowe. 
Johannes Somersall. 
Franciscus Renshato. 
Thomas Poynton. 
Willelmus Reynoulds. 
Thomas Ludlam. 
Johannes Bullocke, generosns. 
Franciscus Stevenson, generosns. 
Godfridus Owtram. 
Robertus Goodlade. 
Franciscus Curtis, generosns. p' ca. 
Jacobus Cowper. 
Johannes Clarke. 
Thomas Brelsford. 
Franciscus Clay. 
Georgius Wagstaffe. alloc bre. 
Thomas Hancocke. alloc bre. 



"hWMtaris itxra written opposite. 



52 VILLS 



Sutton. 
Whitwell. 

AUferton. 



Ashover. 



Alferton. 
Riddings 
Swanwicke 



Beisihton. 



AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1 633. 

Henricus Parker. 

J'ohannes Barlowe (?) 

Franciscus Beveridge. Recus\atis.\ 

Thomas Marshall. 

Georgius Westby. 

Anthonius Moorewood, generosus. 

Georgius Turner, seiiex. 

Johannes Howlmes. / cat 

Edmundus Memott. 

Johannes Duffeild. 
Johannes Sutton. 

Willelmus Bacon, alloc bre. 

Rogerus Sutton \_eraseii\. Mil\itaris\ ler[ra.] 

Ralphe Chriche, generosus. 

Johannes Gregory, generosus. 

Johannes Mason. /'. 

Edwardus Newton, infirm. 

Egidius Cowley 

Johannes Hill, alloc bre. 

Eranciscus Clay, generosus. 

Franciscus Stubbinge. 

Phillippus Elinte. alloc bre 

Johannes Lowe, recu$\ans\ 

Thomas Platts. alloc. 

Phillippus Rowleston, generosus. 

Gilbertus Weste, generosus. 

Henricus Williamson. 

Johannes Wood. 

Edwardus Wood. 

Edwardus Hunt. 

Jacobus Jessopp. 

Henricus Waynwrighte. 

Johannes Hobson. 

Godfridus Morten. 

Epifanus Scales. 



VILLSAXD FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



53 



Hackenthorpe. 



Berley. 

Beighton feilde. 
Barlbrough. 



Blackwell. 



Dranfeild 
Woodhouse. 
Haslande. 
Stubley. 

Dranfeild. 



Ricardus Treeton. 
Georgius Shirte. 
Willelmus Blithe. 

Willelmus Staneford. Mil\ilaris\ ter\ra?\ 
Johannes Newbould. 
Thomas Creswicke 
Robertus Foxe. 
Henricus Hewitt, reciis\ans7\ 
Johannes Rodes, miles. 
Christoferus Slater, generosus. 
Henricus Turner, alloc bre. 
Henricus Smyth. 
Georgius Machin. 
Wm. Smith. 
Johannes Boote. 
Ricardus Richardson, generosus. 
Stephanus Wilkinson. 
Johannes Turner, alloc. 
Anthonius Wilson. 
Willelmus Thorpe. 
Willelmus Marriott. 
Johannes Buller. 
Johannes Dawson. 
Ricardus Dawson. 
La. Thorpe (?) [Erased.] 
Thomas Oxecroft. 
Franciscus Crookes. 
Robertus Owtram. 
Robertus Rose, generosus. 
Radulphus Hancocke. 
Thomas Mellor. 
Jervacius Staynerod. 
Robertus Outram. 
Carolus Blithe, Armiger. 
Lionel I Fanshazc, Armiger. 



54 VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1 633. 

Fxkington. Henricus VVigfall, generosus. 

Georgius Sitwell, generosus. 

Willelmiis Cooper, generosus. 

Johannes Levicke. 

Willelmus Rotheram. 
Braniley. Thomas Staniford. 

Ridgway. Gilbertus Rotheram. 

{The name following is obliterated.) 
Forde. Thomas Cunis. 

Pouey. Thomas Kente. 

Johannes Kirkeby. 
Caldewell. Willehinis Leighe, generosus. 

Renishawe. Willehiius Cowley. 

Robertas Cowley. 
Creswell. Alexander Vessey. Mil\iiaris'\ te>\ra. 

Glapvvell. Robertas Woolhouse, Armiger. 

Milnethorpe. Georgius Mawre. 

Chesterfeild, Arthurus Mawre. 

Dore. Edwardus Barker, Armiger. 

Stephanus Bright. 

Johannes Raworth. 

Edwardus Moore. 

Robertus Hounsfeild 
!>iampton. Godfridus Watkinson, generosus. 

Henricus Bullocke, Armiger. 

Georgius Turner. 

Johannes Stevenson. 

Willehnus Shawe. 

Franciscus Stevenson. 

Willehnus Doe. 



HallcliiTe Hous 
Hay Milne. 



, Anthonius Crafte, 
Godfridus Cooke. 
Thomas Ashe. 
Johannes Stevenson. 
Ricardus Martyn. 
Ricardus Stevenson. 



VIH.S AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 



Totley. 
Killomershe. 
Senor. 
Ciitthorpe. 



Conygree. 

Northwinfeild. 

Wadshelfe. 



Wigley. 
Prat Hall. 
Norton. 



Norton Parva. 
Norton Lees. 



Greenehill. 
Hage. 



Johannes Brelsforil. 
Georgius Newbould * 
Johannes Harvey. 
Johannes Brelsford. 
Georgius HeathcoU. 
Georgius Harvey, inipoteiis. 
Georgius Shawe. 
Thomas Hollis. 
Thomas Brelsford. 
Johannes Brelsford. 
Edwardus Allyn. 
Edwardus Heward. 
Georgius Revell. 
Jacobus Caulton. 
Petrus Caulton. 
Leonerdus Gill, geiierosus. 
Georgius Gill, generosus. 
Edwardus Urton, alias Steaven. 
Johannes Blythe, alias Rotheram. 
Johannes Bullocke, Armiger. Jiisticiarius. 
Rolandus Moorewood. 
Johannes Urton, alias Steaven. 
Johannes Parker. 
Hugo RoUinson. 
Godfridus Barten. 
Willelmus Blithe. 
Willelmus Hudson.t 
Johannes Kirke. 
Robertus Turner. 



* Over the doorway of a quaint house at Totley, now known as Totley Hall, 
may be seen the inscription, "G. N., 1623." In all probability, then, the 
builder and owner of this house was " George Newbould." 

t Jiihannes Hudson, filius et apparens lieres Thoma: Hudson de .Sicke house, 
yeoman, juvenis zeli, pielatis, humanitatis, donisque graphice scribendi haud 
vulgariter [indutus]. B'.irial in Xorion Parish Register 14 Aug. 1608. I 
have not been able to find out whether this youthful man of letters ever 
published anything. 



56 VILLS AND I'REEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 

Robertus Hitche. 
Spinkliill. Georgius Poole, junior, Armiger. Recus\cins?^ 

Georgius Poole, i&mox,geiierosus Recus\ansP\ 

Johannes Poole. Recus\pnsP\ 
Brimington. Ricardiis Cowpe. 

Anthonius Saxon. 
Spittlefeild. Robertus Shawe. 

Clowne. Henricus Barker. 

Edmondus Woodhead. 

Ricardus Tompkyn. 
Hanley. Ricardus Milward. 

Sherbrooke. Matheus Foxe. 

South Winfeild. Thomas Plats. 

Troway. Robertus Turner. 

Himsworth. Willelmus Hudson. 

WORKESWORTH. 

Workesworth. Henricus VVigley. 

Thomas Taylor. 
Georgius Sommers. 
Johannes Lee \_erased\. Mil\itaris\ kr\_ra?\ 



Wigwall grange. 


Ricardus Wigley, generosits. 


Prat hall. 


Roberuis Toplis. 


Perwich. 


Johannes Gould, alloca. 




Matheus H alley. 




Johannes Pegg 




Johannes Dakyn. alloc. 




Simo Dakyn. 




Thomas Alsopp. alloc. 




Ricardus Roe. remember alio. 




Willelmus Alsopp. alloc bre. 


Hopton. 


Anthonius Steeple. 




Georgius Cockeyn. 




Willelmus Greatrax. 


Thorpe. 


Johannes Stubbs \crase(f\. mil\ilai is ter\ra. 


Carsington 


Thomas Buxton pc. 



VILLS 



AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



57 



Brassingtou. 



Bradburne. 



Tissington. 

Kniveton. 
Fenny Bentley. 



Ashburne. 



Radulphus Gell. 

Edvvardus Vallence. 

Robertus Westerne [fmse>/]. 

Willelmus Steeple [erased]. 

Johannes Buxton, generosus. 

AMlIelmus Westerne, generosus [erased] morte. 

Edwardus Lane, generosus. 

Rolandiis Alsopp. 

Radulphus Walton. 

Robertus IVesieme. 

Georgius Buxton [erased]. 7nort[uus est]. p7. 

Thomas Hande. 

Ricardus Harrison [erased] 

Matheus Wright. 

Arthurus Smyth. 

Nicholaus Hurt, generosus. 

Willelmus Sherwin. 

Georgius Spooner. 

Humfridus Manifould [underlined]. 



Hognaston. 



Franciscus Eaton, generosus 

Rogerus Jackson, generosus. 

Gervacius Prince, alloc. 

Georgius Lees. 

Robertus Webster 

Edwardus Shawe. alhic. 

'\^'illelmus Tayler. 

Johannes Alleyne [altered to ''Allen.''] 

Edvvardus Buxton. 

Thomas Taylor, alloc. 

Willelmus Owfeild. 

Willelmus Fletcher, alloc bre. 

Edvvardus Harrison, fcator. 

Thomas Wood. 

Rogerus Owfeild. 

Johannes Slater. 



Mort. 



Mort. 



58 VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DEKBYSHIRE, 1633. 



Kirke Ireton. 



Middleton 

juxta 

Workesvvorth. 

Matlocke. 



Tansley. 

Hartington. 

Hurdlowe. 



Whildon trees. 
Crowdicote. 
Need ham 
grange. 



Bonsall. 



Franciscus Osbaston. 
Humfredus Alsopp. 
Johannes Jackson. 
Henricus Twigge. 
Radulphus Twigge. 
Thomas TopHs. 
Ricardus Cowper. 
Georgiiis Storer. 
Robertus Smyth. 
Rolandus Higgett. p'caf. 

Johannes Spencer. 

Anthonius Woodward. 
Anthonius Cotterell. 
Thomas Flynte, generosus. 
Anthonius Bowne. 
Willelmus Liidlam [erased], alloc. 
Adamiis Woolley. alloc bre. J. C. 
Georgius Bowne. 
Willehmis Woolley '■' [emsed\ 
Henricus Stalham. 
Georgius Spateman. 
Ricardus Bateman, generosus. 
Thomas Fearne [erased], p'cator. 
Edwardns Brereton, generosus. 
Robertus Dale, 
Johannes Froggatt. 
[Blank] Goodwyn. 
Ricardus Sterndale. p'caf. 

Willelmus Mellande. 

Thomas Lomas [altered to Robertus]. 
Anthonius Shawe. 



Mort. 



Mori. 



Mort. 



' In margin Pr p. G. Greaves. Probably Per procnraloreui. 



' 



VILLS AKD FREEHOLDERS OF DERBVSHIRE, l6: 



59 



Biginge. 
Biginge grange. 
Heathcott. 

Cowley. 
Bridgetowne 

Middleton 
juxta 

Yolgrave. 
Cninit'urde. 
Ballidon. 
Greene. 
Black wall. 
VVooscote grange. 
Alsopp. 



Alderwaslee. 



Ashlehey. 
Thiirvaston. 
Windley hill. 
Biginge. 
Hollande. 



Thomas Marple. 

Edwardus Wooley. 

Thomas Needham. 

Thomas Bennett. 

Johannes Greatrax. 

Georgius Wood. 

Georgius Hardinge. 

Georgius Bowne. alloc 

Anthonius Hardinge. 

Laurcncius Feme {altered to Tliowas.] feat. 

Johannes "SiX^x^^, gaierosus. alhe bVe. 

Johannes Humbleton. 

Willelmus Feme. 

Ricardus, Senior, generosiis. alloc bre. 

Jacobus Ouldefeild \erased\ 

Robertas Steere. 

I ^Villelmus Riddierd. feat. 
J Robertas Bateman. feat. 
Thomas Woodiwis. 
Rogerus Hurt, generosiis. 
Johannes Feme. mil\itaris] ter{ra\ 
Johannes Blackwall. 
Georgius Crichloe. geiierosiis. 
Joha?iiies Mellor. all^- hie. 

Appletree. 

Edwardus Lowe. Armiger. 

Johannes Rowland. 

Thomas ^^'inteild. 

Willelmus Storer. 

Thomas Merryman [erased]. inil[ifaris-\ter\^ra\ 

Robertus Rowe, ge)ierosns. alloc bre. 

Martinus Alsopp. 

Johannes Kniveton, generosiis [Erased]. 

Laurencius ^\'t•tton, generosiis. 



6o 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



Windly. 
Haslewood. 



Belper. 
Duffeild. 



Lockoe. 
Chaddesden. 



Spoondon. 



Bredsall. 

Muginton. 
Radburne. 
Dalberie. 



"Willelmus AVebster. 
Martinus Alsopp. 
Johannes Stables. 
Franciscus Bruckshawe, getierosics. 
Thomas Johnson, generosus. 
Willehiius Woollatt, generosus. 
Petrus Alsopp. 
Georgius Sellers, p'caf . 
Willelmus Raynor, geiierosns. 
Nicholas Ouldham, generosus. 
Willelmus Parker. 
Franciscus Hodgkinson. 
Thomas Gilberte, Armiger. 
Robertas Willimott, Armiger. 
Franciscus Cockine, generosits. 
Ricardus Cheadle. 
Edvvardus Newton. 
Edwardus Carter. 
Robertus Rowland, generosus. 
Ricardus Roe, generosus. 
Robertus Bamford. 
Thomas HoUingworth [^Erased]. 
Johannes HoUingworth. 
Franciscus Brecknocke, generosus. 
Robertus AVright, generosus. 
Johannes Lockoe. 
Robertus Knowles. 
Thomas Widoson. 
Johannes Taylor. 
Johannes Carrington, generosus. 
Robertus Walker. 
Willelmus Walker. 
Johannes Ratcliffe, generosus. 
Ricardus Poole, generosus. 
Johannes Fowler, generosus. 
Johannes Barke. 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



61 



Stenson. 



Etwall. 



Franciscus Fowler. 
Dalberie Lees. Georgius Dickenson, generosus. 

Jervacius Brough. 

Ricardus Aulte. 

Ricardus Hankinson. 

Johannes Hankinson. 

Willelmus Kniveton, generosus. Twyford. 

Thomas Sharpe. 

Johannes Stone. 

Willelmus Holmes. 

Thomas Heacocke. Mart. 

Willelmus Clarke. Reciis\ans.^ ale. 

Alexander [blank]. 

Michaell Beere. 

Johannes Terry. 

Arthurus Harrison. 

Willelmus Eliott. 

Tristram Dantrie. 

Ricardus Lawford. alloe. 

Mauricius Dilkes. 

Robertus Hill. 
Church Broughton. Johannes Parker, generosus. 

Robertus Brinsley. 

Robertus Yealde. 

Henricus BuUivant. 

Johannes Moore. 
Scropton. Josephus Rossingtoii. 

Radulphus Yeald. 

Radulphus Moore. 

JohannesArcher? [Erased]. mil\itaris\ter[ra\ 
Boylston ^^'alterus Lorde, generosus. 

Thomas Chalmer. p'cat'. 

Johannes Alsopp. 

Georgius Stone. 

Henricus AVilson. 



Bournaston 
Hilton. 



Hatton. 



62 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DEkBYSHIRE, 1633. 





Johannes Bayly. 




Osleston. 


Simo Heane. 




Ednaston. 


Willelmus Miles. 




Hollington. 


Thomas Holme, generosiis. 
Johannes Millington. 
Willelmus Smyth [Erased]. 
Johannes Smyth. 
Johannes Bakewell. 




CuUand. 


Thomas Draper, geuerosits. 




Sherley. 


Humfridus Pegg. alloc bre. 




Yeavelie. 


Radulphus Pegg. 




Snelson. 


Nicholaus Coxon. 
Johannes Archer. 
Radulphus Doxeye. 




Ladehole. 


Johanes Lees, generosiis. 




Sturson. 


Henricus Ould, generosiis. 




Osmaston 
juxta 


Johannes Kniveton, generosiis. 




Georgius Pegg. fcaf. 




Ashborne. 


Johannes Terry. 
Franciscus Bearde. 
Johannes Twigg, jiin\jor\ 
Jacobus Prince. 
Ricardus Hall. 
Robertus Hord. alloc. 
Willelmus Hord. 
Thomas Riglie. 




Wyaston. 


Jacobus Ashton. alloc bre. 
Johannes Salte. 
Georgius Froste. 
Thomas Sherwin. 




Rodesly. 


Petrus Prince. 
Stepiianus Parker. 
Nathaniell Fitzherbert. 




Somersall. 


Ricardus Stiibbinge. generosiis. 






Ricardus Stubbinge, generosiis 


[Erased] 



i 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1 633. 



63 



Dovebridge. 
Marson 

Mountgomeiye. 



Wadelye. 



Marson 

next 
Tutbury. 

AsLe. 



Johannes lerland. 

Johannes Bowringe 

Thomas Raborne ? 

Ricardus Gilberte. 

Ranulphus Cowpe, jiw;/. (yeoman). 

WillehBUS Prince, generosus. 

Georgius Cowpe, yom. 

Johannes Woolley. 

Johannes Conway, fc. 

Willelmus Ditch. 

Ricardus Stubbinge, generosus yErased\ 

Johannes Froggatt [Erased]. 

Willelmus Bower. 

Anthonius Loton. 

Edwardus Burton. 

Nicholaus Loton, seiiex [Erased]. 

Walterus Bagnold. alloc. 

Samuell SHgh, Armiger. Consil\iarius\ 



Repton et Gresley. 

Wilsley. Georgius Abney, Armiger. 

Catton. Christoferus Horton, Armiger. 

Stretton. Johannes Browne, ^/v/z/V^/-. albre.].C 

Repton. Godfridus Thacker, Armiger. 

Cauldrt'all. Callingwood Saunders, ge/ie?-osus. 

Horteshorne. Johannes Benskyn, generosus. 

Jacobus Royle, generosus. 

^^'alton. Samuell Whyttinge, generosus. alloc. 

Staping hill. Johannes Coxe, generosus. 

Chealeston. Johannes Olliver, generosus. 

Ricardus Whyniates, generosus. 

Melburne. Henricus Cundy, generosus. 

Heathcott. Johannes Adames, generosus. 

Chilcote. Ricardus Vernon, eenerosus. 



64 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1 633. 



Walton. 


Johannes Tealer. 


Cauldwall. 


Willelmus Caliingwood. 




Edwardus Holland. 


Walton. 


Radulphus Tayler 




Ricardus Tomlinson. 


Linton. 


Henricus Caliingwood. 




Johannes Burton. 


Donishthorpe. 


Johannes Daweman. 


Okethorpe. 


Walterus Hartle [£/-ased]. 




AValterus Tayler. 




Robertus Teatte. 




Franciscus Dethicke. 


Coton. 


Thomas Tayler. 


Repton. 


Johannes Cantrell, generosiis 




Gilbertus Hyde. 




Ricardus Weate. 




Ricardus Measume. 




Henricus Weate. 




Ricardus Hunt. 


Miltonne. 


Thomas Hill. 




Gilbertus Browne. 


Kinges Newton. 


Robertus Ragg. 




Willemus Bucknall. 




Brianus Cantrell. 




Johannes Cantrell. 


Appleby. 


Thomas Houlden. 




Willelmus Spencer. 




Ricardus Prowdraan 




Carolus Wright. 




Edwardus Heafeild. 




Ricardus Earpe [Erased]. 




Matheus Pratte 


Chelleston. 


Willelmus Roberts. 




Willelmus Rose. 




Edwardus Roberts. 




Willelmus Sore. 



Mortims. 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OK DERBYSIIIUE, l6^ 



Harteshorne. 

Swarson. 

Winshill. 

Stapenhall. 

Edingale. 

Ticknall. 

Potlocke. 
Osmaston. 



Litleover. 



Willelmus Wilder. 

Tiiomas Hopkyn. Serz'i/s. 

Johannes Bancrofte. 

Johannes Henshawe. 

Henricus Bee 

AVillelmus Moseley. 

Franciscus Poker (sic). 

Robertus Gillter [altered to Gilbert] 

Ricardus Weate. 

Robertus Carter. 

Saintlow Dawson. 

Laurencius Ball. 

Johannes Steare. 

Willelmus Leaper. 

MORLESTON ET LiTCHURCH. 



Ricardus Vickars. 
Georgius Porter. 

Willelmus Porter \Erased\. ? Senex. fcaf 
Gabriell Hopkyn. 
Humfredus Hall. 
Thomas Shepheard. 
Johannes Shepheard. 
Willelmus Twigge. 
Ranulphus Wade, generosiis. 
Weston Underwood. Robertus Bamforde. 

Franciscus Mundy, Armiger, 
Johannes Agarde. 
Henricus Barker. 
Edmondus Smyth. 
Radulphus Baker. 
Carolus Hope, generosics. 
Henricus Hunter. 
Isaaciis Smyth, Armiger. 
Jacobus \'^x\^\, generosus. 
Ricardus Ryley. 



Marketou. 



Allestree. 



Kilburne. 

Padley feildes. 
Ripley. 



7 



66 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



Codnor. 



Loscoe. 

Denby. 
Heynor. 

Langleye Heanor. 
Milne Hay. 
Kirke Langley. 



Mackworth. 

Lockoe. 

Okebrooke. 



little Chester. 

Draycott. 

Breason. 



Johannes Wathie. 
Willelmus Boultby. 
Georgius Hunter. 
Robertus Ryley. 
Johannes Clarke, i:;efi(i-ost/s. 
Zouch Wilde. 

Thomas Wilson, alloc hre. J.C. 
Johannes Piggen. 
Christoferus Dakyn. 
Willelmus Stubinge. 
Ricardus Clarke. 
Thomas Johnson, geiierosus. 
Thomas Vickers, generosus. 
Vincencius Lowe, Armiger. 
Edvvardus Bludworth. 
Robertus Dodson. 

Johannes Thwates, Armiger. alloc bre. 
Ricardus Parker. 
Johannes Malton \Erasea\. 
Willelmus Malton. 
Willelmus Botham. 
Thomas Gilberte, Armiger. alloc. 
Robertus Piggen. 
Johannes Adames. 
Michaell Jellicocke. 
Willelmus Battle. 
Thomas Cooke. 
Ricardus James. 

Johannes Cowper [Altered to] TJwnias. 
Ricardus Saunderson. 
Mick James. (?) 
Nathaniell Bate, Armiger. 
Humfredus Carter. 
Michaell Whitehead. 
Jervacius Whitehead. 



VILI,S AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERP.YSHIRE, 1 63 3. 



67 



Rysley. Henriciis AVilloughby, Barr[oiie/fits\ fcaf. 

Long Fliton. Michaell Pyni, genetvsiis. 

Ricardus Howett. 
Edwardus Burton. 
Johannes Dodson. 
IVm. Crofte. 
Aston super Trent. Johannes Hunt, generosus. 
Robertas Cowper. 
Johannes Roulston, Ju)i\ior\ 
Sliardlowe. Robertus Porter, generosus [ Erased^ Mortiiiis. 

Ricardus Sales, generosi/s. 
AVillington. Godfridus Meynell, generosus. 

Finderne. Johannes Wilson. 

Robertus Wilson. 
Johannes Knight. 
Thomas Hopkyn. 
Johannes Cooke. 
Franciscus Houlden. 
Hugo Roome. 

Johannes Wilder [altered to " \\"m."] 
Michaell Porter. 
Georgius Wilson. 
Mickleover. Ricardus Earle. 

Ricardus Jessopp. 
Willelmus Botliam. 
Joh;mnes Porter. 
Henricus Butler. 
Johannes Cowper \Erased\ 
Gabriell Spencer. 
Johannes Tabarer. 
Edwardus Newton, generosus. 
Robertus Jackson \^Erased\ v:il\itaris'\ ferr[a] 
Willelmus Cotchett. 
Henricus Hanson. 
Little Eatnn. Edmondus Parker, generosus. 



68 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1 633. 



Frichley. 
Watstandwell. 

Barrow. 



Darley. 



Bircheover. 



Winster. 



Stanton. 



Yolgrave. 



Over Haddon. 



Ricardus Frichley. alloc bre. 
Anthonius Wylde. 
Jacobus Oates. 
Willelmus Sales, geiierosus. 
Rogerus Gilberte. 
High Peake. 
Johannes Braddowe. 
Georgius Gladwin. 
Willelmus Watson. 
Ricardus Beresford. p'rarator (sic). 
Rogerus Eyre, geuerosus. p'arcator (sic). 
Johannes Tomlinson. 
Ricardus Halley. fcator. 
Ricardus Ashmore. 
Willelmus Parker \Erased\ 
Willelmus Watson. 
Edwiirdus Parker. 
Radulphus Bache, generosus. 
Ricardus Cawton. 
Georgius Sternedale. fcaf. 
Willelmus Birdes, \^generosus erased]. 
Nicholaus Gilberte, Armiger. alloc bre. 
Johannes AVhitacres, generosus. fcatormort. 
Johannes Briddon, generosus. 
Ricardus Garratt. alloc bre. 
Samuell Roberts. 

Franciscus Bradbury, generostis. alloc bre. 
Franciscus Foxe, generosus. Mortuusest. feat, 

[Erased.] 
Fraiicisctis Foxe, generosus. 
Ricardus Greaves, generostis. Cap\italis] 

Const\abularius. ] 
Ricardus Hodgkinson. 
Hugh Newton. 
Georgius Brodehurst. 



VILLS AND FKEKHOLDtRS OF DERBVSHIUE, 1 633. 



69 



Bakewell. 



Lees. 
Eeely. 



Basloe. 
Hassop. 



Pilsley. 

Longston Magna. 

Sheldon. 

Monyashe. 



Georgius Hodgkinson. 
Johannes Woodhouse, generosns. 
Franciscus Burton. 
Johannes Twigge. 
Rogerus Bretnor. 
Franciscus Sterndale. 
WilleUmts Riddyard 
Georgius Riddyard. 
Edward Hea ward, 
Henricus Lees, generosns. 
Henricus Hardye. 
Robertus Norman. 
Johannes Heald. alloc I' re. J.C. 
Henricus Norman. 
Robertus Wright. 
Johannes Froggatt. alloc b re. 
Johannes Greaves, generosns [Erased]. 
Godfridus Chapman. 
Tliomas Eyre, Armiger. 
Joliannes Townrowe [Erased] . mil[itaris'\ 

ferr\a\. 
Henricus Townrowe. alloc bre. 
Rolandus Harrison, generosns. p\ 
Radulphus Pennyston. 
Henricus Hey ward, viilltaris terra p'c. 
Henricus Greenesmyth. 
Franciscus Rippon de Pilsley. 
Willelmus Wright, generosns. 
Willehnus Winscombe. 
Thomas Barker. 
Rogerus Dicken. 
Henricus Sheldon. 
Rogerus Harrison. 
Cliristoferus Iley. alloc bre. 
Humfridus Goodwin. 



7° 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERbYSHIKE, 163^ 



Hunilowt'. 

Flagge. 

Clielmerton. 



Taddington. 



PrestclifFe. 



Twichell. 
Stadon. 



Thomas Newton 

Ricardus Dale \Oiie or hvo words folUnvini;:, 

blotted out\ 
Thomas Harrison. 
Josephiis Goodwin. 
Edwardus Briierton. 
Robertas \)7AQ.,i^enerosus. fcaf. 
Edwardus Platts \Erased'\ in mijioritate. 
Thurstanus Dale, [erased.] mil\itaris\ter[ra\. 
Radulphus White. 
Robertus Dakyn. alloc bre. 
Willelmus Robinson, alloc bre. 
Robertus Buxton. 
Thomas Robinson. 
Symo Buxton. 
Jo : Buxton. 
Elizeus Dicken. 
Ricardus Foxlowe. 
Robertus Innocent. 
Johannes Newton. 
Robertus Bagshawe. 
Thomas Buxton. 
Henricus Booth. 
Edwardus Jackson. 
Rogerus Harrison. 
Willelmus Bretnor. alloc bre. 
Willelmus Dakyn. 
Johannes Wilson. 
Henricus Eaton. 
Rogerus Wibbersley. 
Radulphus Lees. mil\itaris\ ter[ra]. 
Robertus Warde. alloc bre. 
Willelmus Bateman. 
Rolandus Morewood. 
Andreus Morewood. alloc bre. 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OK DERBYSHIRE, 163^ 



71 



Eyam . 



Waidlowe. 

Holme. 

Highlowe. 

Offerton. 

Fearnelee. 



Grindleforde bridge. 
Hatheisedge. 



Carrhead. 
North lees. 
Thornhill. 

Aston. 



Ashopp. 

Birchenlee. 
Dingebanke. 
Over Sliatton. 
Biugh. 
Hope. 



Bra(i\\all. 



Thomas Bray, generosus* 

Nathaniel! Middleton. 

Ricardus Gregorie. 

[Blank] Bennett. 

Barnardiis Wells, generosus. 

-Tliomas Eyre, Armiger. 

Radulphus Glossopp. 

Ricardus Bennett. 

Leonardus Lowe. 

Thomas Lucas. 

Johannes Eyre. 

Lionell Smilter. 

Laurencius Walehead. 

Johannes Wilcockson. 

Willelmus Savage. 

Thomas Thornhill, /^///[/t;;']. alloc b re. J.C. 

Johannes Poynton. 

Thomas Balgey, generosus. 

Willelmus Darwend. 

Johannes Ashton. 

Tliomas Howe, generosus. alloc bre. J.C. 

Robertas Morten. 

Edwardus Haighe, generosus. 

Robertus Eyre, generosus. 

Ricardus 'S)tt\t\'\'&o\'\, generosus. 

Franciscus Ashton. alibi. 

Oltuellus Smyth, alloc bn. J.C. 

Thomas Stevenson [Erased\ 

Nicholaus Hatfield, alloc bre. 

Johannes Haliam. 

Willelmus Marshall. 

Milo Marshall. 



* Franciscus Hraye de Eyam, generosus, interfcctusapud Bradvvay, parochia; 
do Norton, sepullus fuit in ecclesia parochiali de Norton, post inquisitionem 
factam in causani ejus inlerfectionis viccsimo octavo die Julii, 1611. (Norton 
Register. ) 



72 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



Redseates. Stephanus Staley, j^^e/ierosits. 

Edall. Roberlus Hall, alloc b7e. 

Wheston. Johannes Bodon \_Allered to '■'■ James. "'[ 

Jacobus Peake. 

Radulphus Cantiell. 

Thomas Middleton. alloc bre. 
Tideswall. Henricus Cocke, alloc bre. 

Willclmus Walker. 

Ricardus Marsliall. 

Robertus Walker, alloc bre. J.C 
Wormhill. Jervacius Torr. 

Tunstidd. Johannes Wright. 

Hardwicke wall. Humfridus Thornhill. 

Meadott'e. Nicholaus Palfreyman. 

Anthonius Torr. 

Robertus Wilson. 
Nether Shatton. Thomas Yj^x&,generosiis. 

Milhousdale. Johannes Bagshawe, recus\aits\ 

Litton. Johannes Creswell. 

Thomas Outfeild. 
Longson Parva. Anthonius 'Lowg's,ox\., generosus. 

Johannes Melior. 
Abney. Franciscus Wilcockson. 

Bowdon. Georgius Bowdon, generosus. 

Bowdon head. Willelmus Lowe \_Erased\. 

Georgius Lowe. 
Slackhall. Johannes Lingard, generosus. 

Forde. Nicholaus Creswell, ^'f;/t'/6>j-«j. 

Lidiate. Radulphus Gee. 

Martinside. Arnoldus Kirke. 

Lane side. Thomas Bodon. 

Shalcrose. Johannes Shalcrosse, Arniiger. 

Ridge. Thomas Bagshawe, Arniiger. 

Marshe. Nicholaus Browne, Arniiger. 

Ollerenshawe. Anthonius Ollerenshawe, generosus. 



VILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1633. 



73 



Blackshawe. 

Highgate 

Swallowe houses 

Mellor. 

Blackbrooke. 

Ollerselte. 

Courses. 

Warmebrooke. 

Strines. 

\Vhithough. 

Underecles. 

Gorstilowe. 

Parke hall 

Sterndale. 



Bugsworth. 
Cowdale. 



Fairfeild. 



Pigtor. 



Heyfeild. 



Johannes Dande, generosus. alloc bre. J.C. 
Willelmus RoUinson, generosus- 
Franciscus Eyre. 
Willelmus Radcliffe, Armigcr. 
Johannes Carrington, generosus. alloc. 
Edmondus Bradbery, generosus. 
Henricus Kirke. 

Georgius Tliornhill, senior, alloc. 
Georgius Thornhill, generosus. 
Franciscus Clayton, generosus. 
Thomas Kirke. 
IVm. Carrifigton. 
Carolus Ashton. p'ca alloc bre. 
Willelmus Platts. 
Robertas Mellor. 
Robertus Micocke. 
Nicholaus Longden. 
Jacobus Carrington, generosus. 
Johannes Olliver. 
Edwardus Bennett. 
Thomas Heathcott. ' 
Anthonius Barker. 
Rolandus Swanne. alloc bre. 
Willelmus Dakyn. 
Jacobus Carrington. 
Johannes Higginbotliam. 
Rolandus Morewood. 
Edmondus Goodwin. 
Radulphus Fearne. 
Willelmus Micocke. 
Robertus Lomas. 
Dakin Micocke. 
Robertus Micocke. 
Johannes Goodwin. 
Johannes Waterhouse. 



74 



ILLS AND FREEHOLDERS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1 633. 



Woolowe. 
Cowlowe. 

Nether Cliffe. 
Castleton. 



Stony Middleton. 



Johannes Hill. 
Alexander Goodwin. 
Georgius [Erased]. 
Robertas Hatfeild. 
Rolandus Moorewood. 
Robertas Hall. 
Franciscus Lowe. 
Franciscus Sharpe. a//oc. 



[Opposite the name Robert Dale, gent., of Flagge, occurs the 
following : p'caf p'fer p corp (?) com ad px ass^- The proof 
sheets of this list have been kindly perused by Mr. Benjamin 
Bagshawe, of Sheffieki, to whom I am obliged for not a few 



[FiNIS.J 



75 



#u ti^c ^ttsusttuian pnoi'i) of ttjc I^oIp 
Erinitg at JHeptou, IScviJgsljirc. 



By W. H. St. John Hope, B A., F.S.A. 




HE subject of the architectural history of the Priory at 
Repton has not hitherto been gone into at any length ; 
partly on account of the fragmentary nature of the 
buildings, and also because the arrangements of a 
medieval monastery are generally but imperfectly understood. 
Recent excavations on the site have brought to light the ground 
plan of the church and other buildings, and we are now able to 
ascertain, pretty clearly, the extent of the Priory and the disposition 
of its several parts. 

It is not my intention to enter at length into the 
history of the ecclesiastical establishments which have from 
time to time flourished at Repton, but a few words are necessary 
to make the distinctions between them quite clear. I cannot 
pretend to add anything to what has been already printed by 
various historians, and more recently by Mr. Cox,* but the recent 
excavations have thrown much light on the history of its buildings, 
which, of course, was not available to previous writers. 

There are very few places in England which can lay claim to so 
peculiarly interesting a history as that of Repton. Under our 
Old-English ancestors it was the capital of the kingdom of the 

* Churches of Derbyshire, Vol. iii., 423. [Bemrose, Derby, 1877.] See 
^\ioV>\g'>h^\ History of Repton. [London, 1S54.] 



76 REPTON PRIORY. 

Mercians, and its ecclesiastical importance actually dates almost 
from the introduction of Christianity into this country. 

Shortly before his accession as king of the Mercians, in 655, 
Penda wished to marry a daughter of Oswy, king of Northumbria, 
but his suit was refused on the grounds of his being a pagan. 
He therefore embraced the Christian Faith, and was baptized by 
Finan, bishop of Lindisfarne. His attachment to the new reli- 
gion appears, however, to have been more sincere than mere form 
for a wife's sake, for on his return from the north he brought back 
with him four priests to preach the Faith to his people. One of 
these priests, Diuma by name, was consecrated as first bishop of 
tlie Mercians in 656, and at his death, two years later, was buried 
at Repton. The seat of the bishopric remained here until the 
consecration of S. Chad in 664. when it was removed to Lich- 
field. 

About this same period we have evidence of the existence at 
Repton of a monastery for men and women, under the rule of an 
abbess,* but whether founded by Penda or not is uncertain. 
What became of it is unknown. According to Ingulf, it was 
destroyed when Repton was despoiled by the Danes in 874, but 
he seems to be the only chronicler of the fact. We do not yet 
know where the Old-English town stood, so it would be in vain to 
attempt to localise the site of the first monastery. If it was 
destroyed in 874, it is useless to attempt to identify the earliest 
remains of the present parish church with it, as they pertain to a 
much later period. 

When affairs had become more tranquil, after the confusion and 
turmoil of the Danish inroad, a parish church seems to have been 
built at Repton and dedicated to S. Wystan, a pious Mercian 
prince, who was murdered in 849, and buried in the monastery at 
Repton by the side of his mother .Elfleda. Mr. Irvine has stated 
his opiniont that this church was originally a wooden edifice, but 
in the time of Edward the Confessor the present chancel was 
rebuilt of stone, while the pilLirs and vaulting of the crypt are 



* Tanner's Notitia Monastica. 
"^ Journal of the D. A. and N. H. Society, Vol. v. 



REPTON PRIORV. 77 

insertions of Norman date. At tlie time of the Domesday Survey 
there was here a church and two priests, which, as Mr. Cox has 
pointed out,* speaks of the size and importance of the building, 
and is shared by Bakewell alone of all the other Derbyshire 
churches. It must, nevertheless, be borne in mind that this 
building was at no time of its existence anything else than a parish 
church, and had not any connection with the medieval priory, 
other than being a chapel of ease served by the canons. 

We now come to the history of the foundation of the Priory of 
Augustinian Canons which existed at Repton for nearly four 
centuries. 

Shortly after the Norman Conquest a Priory of Canons Regular 
of the Order of St. Augustine was founded at Calke, and dedicated 
to St. Giles. Who the founder was, and the year of the founda- 
tion, are uncertain, but the Priory existed here as such for about 
a century. 

During the episcopate of Walter de Durdant, bishop of 
Coventry (1149 — 1161), Matilda, countess of Chester, granted to 
God and St. Mary, and to the canons of Calke, the working 
(cultura) of the quarry of Repton, beside the Trent, together with 
the advowson of the church of S. Wystan, of Repton, and all its 
appurtenances, on condition that, as soon as a suitable opportunity 
should occur, the canons of Calke were to remove to Repton, 
which was to be their chief house, and Calke Priory was to 
become subject to it. 

The removal of the canons from Calke to Repton is usually 
assigned to the year 11 72, but I know not on what real authority, 
and the earliest portions of the conventual buildings seem to be 
anterior to that date. 

The continuous acquisition of lands and other property by 
which the Priory was enriched is a subject into which I do not 
propose to enter ; all that is necessary for my purpose being the 
fact that it was well endowed, and that its property was much 
increased during the reigns of Edward I. and his son. The 

* Churches of Derbyshire, Vol. iii., 425. 



78 REPTON PRIORY. 

Valor Ecclesiastictis (27 Henry Vlll.) gives the gross annual 
value of the temporalities and spiritualities as ^id"] i8s. 2^d., a 
sum equal to at least ;^'3,ooo per annum of the present time. At 
the visitation of the monasteries by Doctors Leigh and Layton, a 
few years previous to the suppression, the annual rental was 
^180. 

The Priory was suppressed in 1540, and the whole of its build- 
ings and possessions were assigned to Thomas Thacker, of Heage, 
a steward of the malleus monachorum, Tliomas, Lord Cromwell. 

A very full inventory of the goods and possessions remains in 
the Public Record Office,* of which a transcript is here given : 

Herafter Ensueth the names of all & ev'y such person & 

persons as was by Thomas ligh doctor in the lawe & Wyllmus 

Cavendyshe Auditor Commissiono's Appoynted by the Kyng o' 

sov'aigne lorde for the dyssolucon of thes Monasteryes folowengj 

by them Indiferently chosyn and sworne of and for the valuyng & 

ratyng & app'syng of all & singler the gooddes & Catelle cumyng 

& beyng found at the surrenders taken in the same late dyssolvyd 

Monasteries & p'ories w"'in sundry sheres or Counties the names 

as well of the seyd howses as of the persons so sworne foloweng 

herunder wryghten in order 

That ys to say 

/Edmund Currer\ / Anthony Bott \ /'John Wiyght 



Darby, j Kycl^aM lytster I ^^, ) hugh Manyrye ( ^^^, I George Smyth I ^_ 
Repton^ William day j - ^ Raffe holytoke | ■ j henry Bowyston y 
(henry Cokken j ^Rychard hay ) (^ Rye' Bowilston j 



* Augmentation Office Book, 172. 
J Viz., Merevale, Warwickshire ; Brewood, St. Thomas nigh Stafford, and 
Dieulacres, Staff"ordshire ; LilleshuU, Salop; Darley, Dale, and Repton, 
Derbyshire ; Gracedieu, Leicestershire ; Pipewell, Northants ; and Barnwell, 
Cambridgeshire. 



KEPTON PRIORY. 



79 



XlbC lat6\ herafter foloweth all suche parcells of Imple- 

P*Ot^ Ot ments or houshould stuffe corne catell Orna- 

IRcptOll tU rments of the Churche & such otherlyke found 

the Countye 1 w} thin the seid late p'ory at the tyme of the 

of Derby dyssolucon therof sould by the Kyngs Com- 

missionors to Thacker the xxvj day of 

October in the xxx yere of o"' sov'agn lorde 

Kyng henry the viij"" 

That ys to saye 

' fifirst at the hye aulter v great Images . j . table\ 
of alebast' w"* lytell Images . iiij . lytle Candle- 
styks of latten . j . ould payr of Organs one 
laumpe of latenn the Stalles in the quere 
certein oulde bokes . j . rode / In seint Johns 
Chapell . j . Imag of saint John . j . table of 
alebaster . j . partition of wode / in o'' lady 
Cliapell . j . Image of o" lady tS; . j . table o 
alebaster . j . table of wode befor the alter . j . 
hercloth upon the same alt' . j . laumpe of 
latenn . j . grate of leron oulde stoles . j . 
partition of tymber / in saint Nicholas Chapell 
'CbC J • j • Imniag of seint John &: . j . Image of 
CbUtCbC 1 s^'"^ Syth . j . table of alebaster in partition 
of tymber . j . Roode & a Image of seint 
Nicholas . j . table of alebaster the partitions 
of tymber & in the body of the Churche vij 
peces of tymber & lytell oulde house of 
tymber the xij Apostells . j . Image of o' lady 
in o' lady of petys chapell / . j . table of of 
{sic) wood gylte . j . sacryng bell & . j . 
partition of tyml)er seled ouer in seint Thomas 
Chapell . j . table of wode the partition of 
tymber & . j . sacryng bell . j . longe lader . j . 
lytell table of alebaster sould to Thaker 

for 



8o 



Ube 
vestry 



Xlbe 
Clo^st' 

Ube 
Cbapter 

house 

Ube 
H)ortev 

Ube 
tttater 

Ube 
balle 

Ube 
JSutter^ 



KEPTON PRIORV. 

It' the Roffe glasse leronn the pavemet & | 
gravestones in the seid Churche 
It' ther . j . Crosse of Coper too tynacles of , 
baudkynn . ij . albes .j. sute of blake 
baudkynn .j- sute of oulde baudekynn w' 
Conys on them . ij . Copes of velvet .].oi 
tauny baudkyn . ij . of grene baudekynn . ij . 
of counterfeit baudkynn . j • Cope of Reysed 
velvet iiij towells & iiij alterclothes ij payented 
alterclotlies . j • great presse of woode one 
oulde cheste ij leron stoles . j . ould tynacle 
ij holy water stokes . j . of brasse the other of 
, leade soulde for 

(It' the Chanons seats the glasse leron & the, 
I pavement & a laver of lead ar soulde for ) 

(it' the glasse and pavement &a lectron of_ 
j wode are sould for | 

I It' the Chanons Sells & • j • bell ar sould | 
(for 



soulde 



iiij /i 



fit' v tables .j . bell soulde for 



v']S 



Ube 
priors 

Chamber 



fit' ther iij tables iij formes . j . Cupborde . j .| 

1 oulde banket & . j • payented clothe * 

/It' ther vj oulde tableclotlies vj ould towells\ 

iiij Coberdclothes xij napkyns . v . aletubbes' 

iij oulde Chestes vj Candlestyks of laten & 

. j . bason & an ewyar sould for 

II' ther . j . Bedstedd . j . fetherbedd . j • , 
blankett.j.quilte.j-Cov'lett.j.boulst'.j.j 
pyllowe . j . tester of payented clothe ij I 
Cov'letts of Blewe lynyon clothe the heng- 
yn-s of grene saye ij fouldyng tables iij i 
,chayers iij formes ij Coffers .j. payre of 
tonges & . j . aundyronn sould for 



l]S 



xs 



RKPTON PRIORY. 

Xlbe inner f if ther . j . matres . j . Cov'lett .\: . j . boulster ) 
Chamber tsoulde for f 



xrbe 
oar&^n 

Chamber 

Zbc nejt 

Chamber 
ther 



Ubc balle 

Ciiamber 



/It' ther .j. fethcrbedd .j. boulster. j . pylluwe] 
I . j . cov'lett ij blanketts . j . tester of dornyx | 
j the payented hengyngs . j . ionyd Chayr j | 
ICupborde . j . forme soulde for I 

' It' ther . j . matres . j . boulster ij Cov'letts | 
soulde for I 



xxd 



fli' ther . j . fetherbedd . j . boulster ij Cov'letts] 
. j . tester of lynyann clothe . j . oulde table & h xs 
[. i . forme soulde for ) 



Chamber 



Ube 
Ik^cbenn 



( It' . j . fetherbedd ij matresis ij boulsters iiij | 
I Cov'letts very oulde. hengyngs of redd saye & Y 
(. j . Chayie soulde for j 

r It' ther . V . brasse potts ij spytts ij pannes 
• j ■ dryppyngpann . j . fryeng panne . j . barre 

j of leronii . iiij . benches to heng potts upon 
. j . payr of Rostyng leronns . j . gridiron . j . 
Skymer . j . ladle . xvj . peces of peuter vessel 
oulde hordes & . j . ladder soulde for 



\-i]S 



xLf 



XTbe ( It' ther . j 
lar&Cr ' soulde for 



oulde borde & . j . oulde table i 



vi'ijd 



i It' ther . ij . bruyng leaddes . j . mashfatte .] .] 

VlbC !u.._i.-.. c. _-i-_.-- :i ...ij- u_,j_^ 11 [ IXVJJ 



Brubouse 



Zbc 



buckett & a chene . ij . oulde hordes . ij . 
tubbes . ij . Covvles & ij Skyppes soulde for 



\-uyf 



I It' ther xvj Kelyngleades and ij mashfattes ' 

^^I^'^Q j soulde for 
house 



82 



RKPTON PRIORY. 



' It' ther ij troffes . j . boultyng huche & . j • , 



Boult^no 

house 



Syve sould for 



Ube 
bouse 



It" .j . heyr upon the kyll & . j . Sestiron of xxjj 



I lead soulde for 



viij^ 



(Brapne 

at tlie p'ory 



' It' . j . q^rt' of Whete — viijf, It' ij q^rt' of Rye 
at vijj the q^rt' — xiiij^ It' xv q^'rt' of barly 
at iiijj- the q"rt' — Ixj-, It' iiij q^rt' maulte — xxj- 
It' vj q^rt'of pese at iiij^f the q'rt' — xxiiiji-, 
It' X lodes of haye at ijs viij^ the lode 

\aniuntyng to the summe of — xxvjj- viij^ 



vij // 

xijj 
viij^ 



It' ther founde . iij . kye 
oulde Cartes . s . f . — 



It' x horssys & ij 
iiii // 



Catell 
Ipese 

SOUlo -j It' . j . Reke of pese at Nutonn sould for vij// 

at Nutonn 



It' Receyvyd of John Smyth & Rychard haye for 
money by them Imbesulyd from the seid late p'ory 
cxxij// xvijs vyi 



Uhc summe to^ ot aii the . 

guddes soulde late app'teynyng j 

to the seid late p'ory w"' cxxij /t \ clxij // xixj- vjc/ 

xvij^y vj^ Rec' for money im- I 

besulyd from the said p'ory J 



REPTON PRIORY. 



83 



ffprSt to S' Rauffe Cleroke 
subp'or x\s 

IRewar^es^it-t^j^hnWood xi. 

gyventothe^j^, ^^ Thomas String' x\s 

Covent of T^, . T • i 

j It to Jamis yong xls 

the seid late T.. »^ t u a uu 1 

It to John Asshby xls 

It' to Thomas pratt xls 

It' to Thomas Webst' xh 



p'ory at y 
dissolotion 
th'of 



xviij // 



It to Robert Warde xls 

It to Thomas Brainston... xls 



ffyrst to Rauffe lathbury...vjf viij^/ 
It' to V men that founde 

certein plate xxv5 

It to the Sheperd xvs 

It' to Richard yuse xiijj in]d 

It' to Robert Gierke . ...xs 

It' to Kynton xiijj iiij</ 

It' to John Browne xx.f 

It' to Thomas Gysborne xxs 
It' to Robert Stephinson xiijs ui]d 
1ReVV>arC>eS It' to William Kynton ...vijs \jd 
gyven to the if to John Kyngchesse...xxj 

s'vants ther jit' to Thomas byrch vijj vjd 

It' to hugh Kynton xiij^ iiijd 

It' to John Webster vij^ vjd 

It' to Robert Rutter vijs \]d 

It' to Robert Eynysworth xvs 

It' to Robert hudson ...xxs 

It' to Robert at Oven ...xiij^ iiij^ 

It' to Thomas Mitchell, .xviji- v]d 

It' to John Richardson. .x\]s 

It' to William Abney ....xiijj- \n]d 

It' to John Webster xiji- 

It' to ij boyez plowdryvers iiijf 
It' a guyde from Repton to 
Gracediewe xx^ 



at the same 
tyme lyke- 
wyse 



xxxiij// 
viijj xd 



xv/i 

vujs 

xd 



84 



RF.PTON PRIOKV. 



dates 
bouobt 



,It' in Gates bought & spent at the 

tyme of the Commissiono's being 

ther for to dyssolve the seid p'oryj cvij^ 
land for the saffe kepyng of the[viij^ 

guddes and Catell to the seid mon' 

late apperteynyng duryng tlie tyme 

Ube summe of Ixxxviijz/xvj^ vj^ 

the pay mentes aforseid ) 

. /Hit) ther remayneth a specialty of j 
x// upon Thaker for money by hymi 
due for the guddes & Catell of thej 
forseid p'ory by hym bouglit payable ; x// 
at the fest of the nativite of Seint| 
John the baptist whych shalbe in^ 
the yere of o' lorde god m' d xxxix 
aWD SO remayneth in the seid\ 
Commissiono's handes of the money Icxiiij // wjs 
Rec' for the guddes before soulde ) 
CCVtCyU guddes or stuffe late 
belongyng to the seid late p'ory 
whyche rem' unsoulde 
ffyrst ij chalesis x spones all whyte 
wayeng — xlij oz 
(It' ther Remayneth unsould iiij^ 
remaynyng ] belles wayeng xxiiij hundreth at 
unsould [the G valued at 

ICaOC j j^, ^.j^gj. yg estemed to be xxxixl 
remaynyngeH ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^ iiij// the fother .... [ 
unsoulde ^ ' 

/^^& ther remayneth unsoulde all 
the housys edyfyed upon the scite of 
the seid late p'ory the glasse leron 
& pavement in the Cloyst' the glasse 
leron & pavement in the Chapt' 
house sould & only exceptid 



Mbste 
plate 

Belles 



REPTON PRIORY. 85 

/IDt) that Thacker was put in possession of the scite of the 

seid late p'ory & all the demaynes to yt apperteynyng to o' sov'aigne 
lorde the Kynges use the xxvj day of October in the xxx yere of 
o' seid sov'aigne lorde Kyng henry the viij"' 

PCUCiOUS appoynted & allottyd to the Covent of the seid 
late p'ory 

ffyrst to Rauffe Clarke vj// 

It' to John Wood Cvj^ viij^ 

It' to Thomas Stringar Cvj^y viijd 

It' to Jamis yonge Cvjs viijd^ 

It' to John Ashby C^ 

It' to Thomas pratt Cs 

It' to Thome's Webster Cs 

It' to Robert Warde iiij// 

It' to Thomas Brauncetonn iiij//' 

It' to Thomas Cordall Cvj^ viij^/ 

Sm" \/t vjs viiy^ 

tlCC0 aU& Annuities grauntyd out by Covent Seale before the 
dyssolucon of the seid p'ory. 

ffyrst to Thomas Bradshawe xxvjj viij^ 

It' to M' boUes xL- 

It' to henry Audley liiji" iiij*^^ 

It' to s' John Stelys pryst \\s 

It' to the Deacons offyce of the parysshe Churche 

of Rypyngdon Iviij^ Vu]d 

It' to Robert lago vycar of Wyllyngton liiji iiij(/ 

It' to John Smyth xls 

It' to Richard haye xls 

It' to Robert Sachev'ell xxvj.f viij^ 

It' to humfrey quarneby iiij// 

It' to Robert hudsonn for hys Corody ij Chanoiis ryghtes 

It" to Margaret Croftes for her Corody i Chanons ryght 

Sm" xxij// xviiji viij^/ 



86 REPTON PRIORY. 

DetteS OW^ng to the seid late Monastery by dyvers persons 
ffyrst Thomas leason parson of Castell Ashby ...Ixv // 

It' the seid parsonn for mares & folys iiij/' 

It' the seid parsonn for ij q^rt' of Maulte x^ 

It' Thomas Morley vj// 

It' Rychard Wakelyn xiij^ iiijd? 

Sm* Ixxxj/i iij^ iiij^ 

H)etteS OW^llQ to dyvers persons by the seid late p'ory 

ffyrst to Isabel Rowe xiij/z vjs viij^ 

It' to Robert baynbrygge xj// 

It' to to (si^) Jolm Damperd p'ste ...xiiij// xvs xi ob 

It' to John lawrenson p'ste liij.s' iiij^ 

It' to John Debanke p'ste • Ixxiiiji- iiijW 

It' to Thomas Bagnall p'ste Ivj 

It' to Thomas Walker of Burton xxvjj 

It' to John hyde of potlake xvijy 

It' to Robert bakewell xl^ 

It' to Rychard pusy for hys lyv'y xs 

It' to John Smyth Ixiij^ 

It' to Rychar haye xvj^ viij</ 

It' to Robert Stephyn xs 

It' to Thorn's Guysbo^ne xs 

It' to John Kynton xs 

It' to Thomas Mychell xxviijj 

It' to John Broune \vs m]d 

It' to William Kynton x^ 

Sm' Ixiij// xiiiji^ ob 

The priory buildings were not destroyed immediately after the 
suppression, but appear to have remained fairly intact until 
fourteen years later. 

Thomas Thacker, the grantee, died in 1548, leaving his 
property of the late Priory of Repton to his son and heir, 
Gilbert. This person, according tp Fuller, " being alarmed with 



REPTON PRIORY. 87 

the news that Queen Mary had set up the abbeys again (and fear- 
ing how large a reach such a precedent might have), upon a 
Sunday (belike the better day, the better deed) called together the 
carpenters and masons of that county, and plucked down in one 
day (church-work is a cripple in going up, but rides post in coming 
down) a most beautiful church belonging thereto, saying ' he 
would destroy the nest, for fear the birds should build therein 
again.' "* That tlie church was a beautiful structure anyone 
can judge for himself from the remains now uncovered, but how 
far Fuller's account be true is not evident, for there are no traces 
of such dislocation of walls and shattering of easily broken stones 
like molded bases, etc., as would have resulted if the building had 
been hastily and violently demolished. 

In choosing the site of a monastery the first consideration of 
the old men was the water supply. The domestic needs of the 
house, the mill, and the sanitary arrangements all depended on 
this, and the whole disposition of the buildings was regulated by 
the relative positions of water and site. 

The parish church at Repton stands at the extremity of a 
lofty ridge or spur, which once overlooked and formed the right 
bank of the river Trent. The stream has, however, been diverted 
since the suppression of the Priory, and the "Old Trent," as it is 
now called, is reduced to a mere sedgy pool. On the same 
ridge, but a few yards east of the parish church, the monastery 
was placed. The site was in every way an admirable one, for 
its height above the alluvial flat through which the Trent flows 
rendered it secure from floods, and the immediate proximity of 
the river supplied the necessary water course for sanitary and 
domestic purposes. Eastward of the Priory the ground slopes 
down to the level of the plain. 

The usual plan of a monastery consisted of a square cloister 
enclosed on all sides by buildings, the church always forming 
one side and the fratry (or refectory) the opposite one. The 
east side was bounded by the dormitory, and the west by the 

* Fuller's Church Hiiloiy, Bk vi. p. 358. 



88 



KEPTON PRIORY. 



cellarer's buildings for guests and stores. ^Vhen the site per- 
mitted, the church occupied the north side of the cloister, so that 
the north walk of the latter, which formed the living room of the 
inmates, might have the benefit of the mid-day sun, and shelter 
from the north winds. If, however, the water supply lay to the 
nortli, the church formed the south range, and the fratry the 
north. Whatever be the origin of the monastic plan, it is cer- 
tainly a most admirably contrived one for its purpose, and that 
it perfectly answered the needs of the inmates is shown by its 
persistent adoption throughout the middle ages. The church was 
always cruciform, and the cloister square invariably joined the 
nave.* The cloister was an open court, enclosed round its four 
sides by covered alleys, which served different purposes. The 
alley next the nave was the living room of the brethren, and 
furnished with bookcases against the church wall, and reading 
desks or "carols " in the window recesses looking out on the 
central area. The western alley seems to have been used for the 
novices, and the other two were passages. The eastern side of 
the cloister was bounded by one arm of the transept of the church, 
next to wiiich was the chapter house, and beyond that the calefac- 
torium, or common-house, as it was called at Durham — a long 
vaulted apartment with a fire-place. Between these three 
buildings were often placed other small apartments or pas- 
sages, such as the vestry and the regular parlour^the 
latter bein» a place where necessary conversation might be 
carried on, for the Statutes of most of the Orders for- 
bade speaking in the church, cloister, fratry, and dormitory. 
Over all these apartments was the dormitory. It usually had 
two staircases, one descending directly into the transept to 
enable the brethren to go to matins at midnight without going 
through the cold cloister, the other communicating with the 
cloister itself. At the end of the dormitory was the ?iecessarium, a 
building always of considerable size, and most admirably contrived 



* The only exception at present known is Rocliester Catheilral Priory, 
where it is on the south side of the choir, .-ind even this is probably a 
later alteration. 



RLPTON PRIORY. 89 

for its purpose. It was well ventilated, and the waste water 
of the monastery, or the mill race, constantly ran through it 
and effectually flushed it. On the opposite side of the cloister 
to the nave was the refectoriut/i, or fratry, a long and lofty hallj 
usually in canons' houses raised upon an undercroft. In the 
side wall was a pulpit, from which portions of pious works were 
read every day during meals. There was often a passage from 
the cloister between the east end of the fratry and the dormitory 
range. At the west end of the fratr)^ was the buttery and kitclien, 
the latter being sometimes semi-detached. The whole of the 
western block of buildings pertained to the cellarer, who had 
charge of the stores, and upon whom devolved the care of guests. 
His range was, therefore, ahvays two, and sometimes three, stories 
high, the lowest being cellars for provisions, etc., and the first 
floor a long hall where guests might eat and sleep. The sick 
and infirm brethren had a separate dwelling called the vifirmi- 
torium, which was much the same sort of establishment as our 
modern almshouse, and furnished with its own hall and chapel. 
It usually stood on the east of the monastery, so as to secure peace 
and quiet. The bakehouse and brewhouse and other offices 
were placed in the outer court, which was entered by a gatehouse, 
with porter's lodge and almonry adjoining, and a lodging-house for 
tramps, etc. There was sometimes a small chapel nigh the gate. 

The Priory of Repton differed in no marked way from the 
usual plan, but owing to the water being on the north, the 
cloister, with its surrounding buildings, was placed on that side 
of the conventual church. 

Of the churcli itself we are now able to say a good deal, 
and as the excavations proceed we shall know very much more. 
The \\hole of the nave and tower have been completely cleared 
out to the floor line, and the limits of the transept and choir can 
be fixed by holes dug for the purpose. Portions of the north east 
and south east angles of the choir have been exposed for many 
years. The usual type of a canons' church was aisleless and cruci- 
form — aisles having been added afterwards as necessity demanded 
or increased wealth permiited At Repton, the augmentation of 



go REPTON PRIORY. 

tlie possessions of the Priory during the reigns of the Edwards 
appears to have enabled the canons to rebuild their church out of 
the ground with aisles to the nave as well as the choir. What the 
plan of the eastern arm was is not yet quite certain. It seems to 
have had either double aisles, or a single one on ea.ch side, with a 
large southern chapel. The choir proper was twenty-six feet wide, 
and the stalls were returned against the pulpitum, or choir screen, 
which stood under the eastern arch of the central tower. A notch 
cut in the base of the tower pier shows that a wooden screen was 
carried along between the piers behind the stalls, and separated 
the choir from its aisles. The aisle immediately to the south was 
lo feet wide, and the arch opening into it from the transept 
had a wooden screen, as may be seen from the holes cut for its 
reception. The pier which divided this aisle from the chapel to 
the south, and whose beautiful base I uncovered in the summer of 
1883, has been strengthened at some period very shortly after its 
own erection, by adding a respond on its eastern face. This was 
apparently done when the chapels which lay to the east of 
the transept were extended eastward to form aisles. The 
arch to the south of this base has also been filled by a wooden 
screen, and in front of this, as may be seen from the traces left by 
the masonry against the pier, stood an altar. The south transept 
was about 20 feet wide, but its area has only been partially 
cleared, and its length and arrangements are not yet ascertained. 
The central tower measured about 25 feet from north to south, by 
215 feet from east to west, and its walls were 5 feet 2 inches in 
thickness. It is of later date than the nave and transepts. 
Between the eastern pair of piers stood thepulpituiii, a solid stone 
screen 5 feet 4J inches deep ; it had a central door 4 feet 45 inches 
wide, with molded jambs, flanked on either side by a buttress. 
The face of the screen was perfectly plain, and when I uncovered 
it in 1883 showed no traces of colour, though the moldings of the 
door were brightly painted with red and black. In the north half 
of the screen was a straight stair 3 feet 2I inches wide, leading to 
the loft above, on which stood ".j.ould payr of Organs." The 
step from the nave still remains in front of the " quere dore," but 



REPTON PRIORY. 9 I 

singularly enough there is a step of descent into the choir itself, 
much worn by the constant tread of the canons' feet. It should 
be noticed that the pulpitum is an integral part of the tower piers, 
and lias the same hollow chamfered plinth, showing the work to be 
contemporaneous. The north transept is still buried beneath five 
feet of rubbish, but from holes sunk during the past summer its 
length has been found to be about 33 feet. What its arrange- 
ments were, and how its eastern aisle opened into it cannot be 
known until the area is cleared. Traces ought to be found of the 
stairs leading from the dormitory. 

The nave must have been one of the most beautiful in this part 
of the country. The work was all of exceptionally good 
character and design, and pertained to the transitional period of 
architecture which prevailed during the reign of Edward I., 
when the severe simplicity of the Early English was merging into 
the more flowing lines of the Decorated. The nave itself was 
95 feet 6 inches long, and 23 feet 2 inches wide. It was separated 
from the aisles by an arcade of six arches, supported by clustered 
pillars of good design. The first two pair of pillars are, however, 
of different plan to the other three and the western responds, for 
though both consist in the main of a great quatrefoil with nook 
shafts, the former have the principal members keel shaped, and 
the angle shaft was a beautiful triple one ; wliile the latter had a fillet 
on each face, and a circular shaft in the angles. Again, the former 
rise straight from the floor without a plinth, but the latter stand on 
a square edged plinth set lozengewise. There cannot, however, 
be very much difference in date between the two designs ; but 
the fact is interesting, as showing how the work was done piece- 
meal as funds allowed. There are signs of a screen having stood 
between the first pair of piers, and an altar has been placed against 
the western face of the second pier of the south arcade. On the 
north side only the first base is left ; the next three have quite 
disappeared, and of the fifth only the square footstall remains. 
The first south base has also disappeared, but the other four 
remain in a more or less perfect state. Against the west wall of the 
nave, but not of the aisles, is a stone bench table. One jamb of the 



92 KEPTON PRIOKY. 

inner arch of the great west door remains. A heavy wall 
has been built along the top of what was spared of 
the west end at the demolition of the church, and until it is 
removed nothing can be said as to the plan and design of 
the doorway. Of the south aisle, which was 12 feet wide, 
nothing is left except a few feet of the wall at either end, where it 
joined the transept and the west front ; all the rest has been 
entirely removed. In its west wall is the doorway and lowest 
steps of a circular stair, 2 feet 3 inches wide. The base of the 
north aisle wall remains intact for its entire length to a height of 
2 feet ; it has the usual doorway at each end communicating with 
the cloister, though now carefully blocked up.. In the wall 
opposite the first pier is a small semi-octagonal respond, showing 
there was an arch thrown over the aisle at this point. The reason 
of this is not clear, for there could have been no lateral thrust ; 
and the base is not an insertion, but contemporary with the wall. 
In the first bay is also another curious feature. Immediately to 
the east of the cloister door is a low, but acately pointed arcli, 
only I foot loi inches wide, opening into a small recess. A 
modern cesspool has been built against it on the north side, 
to receive which it has been much cut about, and in the wall 
above it a chimney shaft appears to have been constructed ; a fire- 
place it can hardly have been, but since the tower piers are not 
large enough to carry a staircase, we most probably have here the 
entrance to a circular vice leading on to the aisle or transept roof, 
whence there would be another up the tower. To the east of this 
arch the wall suddenly turns north at a small angle to a remarkable 
straight joint in the wall. The existence of this is puzzling, but I 
think it may be explained thus : when the arch opening into the 
aisle from the transept was constructed, the present aisle wall 
was not built, but an aisle was contemplated of slightly greater 
width than was eventually carried out ; also, when the recon- 
struction of the nave was taken in hand, it was begun at the 
east end, as far as the arcade was concerned, but the work 
came to a standstill after it had got as far as the third arch, and 
when the final resumption of the work took place, it commenced 



REPTON PRIOKV. 93 

at the west end. The aisle was then set out on slightly narrower 
lines than had been projected when its eastern arch was built, and 
the work having been carried up too high to permit of an alteration, 
the junction with the transept wall was made in the curious way 
we now see. 

There is one more interesting point to be noted before we leave 
the church. Previous to the excavations, I was at a loss to explain 
how it was that the nave joined so awkwardly with the present 
school block, which is structurally the cellarmm of the monastery ; 
for when a conventual establishment was first planned its buildings 
were generally arranged with some regard to symmetry. I have, 
however, since found that at a distance of 4^ feet from the present 
north aisle wall there is the foundation of a wall, 6 feet thick, 
running parallel with it, which is exactly in line with the south 
end of the cellarium. It is obvious, therefore, that the nave was 
at first aisleless, and that when the rebuilding began the new lines 
were so set out that the work might proceed as far as possible 
before the old walls were removed, for tiiere was room to con- 
struct the new wall while the old wall was standing. I have not 
yet been able to recover the old south wall. 

In the centre of the nave is a stone covering a grave ; another 
lies in the south transept, and a third has been removed from its 
position in the south aisle. 

Of the cloister and its surrounding buildings not much can be 
said. The parts that were not demolished at the suppression were 
subsequently converted to the uses of the school, and the sites 
have been encumbered by still more recent structures. The 
cloister area in particular has been divided by a wall, and so 
encroached upon by various out-buildings- and enlargements of the 
school block, that its original square form is only evident on plan. 
Nothing is now visible of any of its arrangements. The east wall 
remains in situ, but sundry recasings and patchings have quite 
obliterated all traces of the various doorways. 

Of the buildings that surrounded the cloister, commencing on 
the east, we have first the chapter house. It immediately adjoined 
the transept, but only part of the north, and tlie much patched 



94 REPION PRIORY. 

west walls remain above ground. The junction of its south and 
west walls was uncovered during my excavations in 1883, from 
which the width was found to be about 27^ feet. Its extent east- 
ward is unknown, but the length can hardly have been less than 
40 feet. Part of the jamb of one of the window openings that 
flanked the door may be seen on the cloister side of the west wall. 
Very interesting discoveries of tombs, etc., may be looked for 
when the area is excavated. 

To the north of the chapter-house is the slype, or covered 
passage from the cloister to the cemetery on the north east. It is 
I if feet wide by 25 J feet long, and still retains its roof, a plain 
barrel vault without ribs, springing from a chamfered string. The 
segmental rear arch is the only part of the west door that remains 
in a perfect state. Nothing can be made out of the west doorway, 
and the east end has had the opening enlarged in recent times. 

Next to the slype was the calef actor iuin, but its site is so 
encumbered with out- buildings and offices that no more can be 
said about it, beyond the fact that it was 25^ feet wide, and 
covered by a vaulted roof, probably carried by a row of pillars 
down the central line. The segmental rear arch of a door 
from the cloister remains in the south west angle. This door 
may, however, have been that to the dormitory day-stairs. 

Above the chapter-house, slype, and calcfadoriiwi was the 
dormitory. It was 25 feet 6 inches wide, but its length cannot 
now be ascertained. From the inventory of 1540 we know it was 
divided into cubicles for the canons. 

Towards the north end of the dormitory we should look for the 
tiecessariuin, but its site and extent have not yet come to light. 

On the north side of the cloister, and forming the whole of 
its length, was the fratry or dining hall. It appears to have 
been built, as was customary amongst canons, upon an under- 
croft. One of the north windows of the latter remains, and at its 
east end was a slype from the cloister to the building now called 
the " Hall." The fratry itself was about 96 feet long and 24 feet 
wide. Its north wall does not range with the north end of 
the cellariuni, and perhaps shows that when the new north aisle of 



1 



REPTON PRIOKV. 95 

the church encroached upon the cloister the fratry was rebuilt a 
few feet furtlier north too, though such a proceeding would 
hardly be necessary. 

The western side of the claustral buildings consisted of the 
block under the charge of the cellarer, called the cellariiun. It 
is here complete to the roof as far as the structure is concerned, 
but the original round-headed windows have been superseded by 
larger ones, and sundry partitions and insertions have quite 
destroyed its ancient arrangements. The ground floor consists 
of a large hall about 90 feet long by 26^ feet wide, divided into 
two alleys by a row of six massive Norman circular columns with 
scoUopped capitals. The two southernmost have, however, been 
removed. At the south end of the hall is a chamber \\\ feet wide, 
which doubtless originally served a two-fold purpose as the slype to 
the cloister and the outer parlour, where conversation was carried on 
with secular persons, and the ordinary business transacted. Its use 
as a passage must, however, have ceased when the north aisle was 
rebuilt, as the new wall blocked up the doorway. The north end 
of the cellar ium is formed of a space 2 1 feet long by 26 J feet wide ; 
originally one room, but afterwards divided irregularly into three, 
so that the eastern half forms one room and the western half two. 
The northern of the latter is 9 J feet wide and about 15^^ feet 
long, with a groined roof. The ribs were intended to be orna- 
mented with the dogtooth molding, but the work was begun and 
never finished. The three apartments may form the kitchen and 
larder. The main hall was probably used for stores. The first 
floor consists, like the undercroft, of a long hall, with a large square 
chamber at the north end, and a narrower one at the south end. 
It was used for the housing and entertainment of guests of the 
better sort, and the hall probably had originally a row of pillars 
down the middle, forming two alleys, one of which was divided 
into cubicles, perhaps forming the various chambers enumerated 
in the 1540 Inventory. The cellarium appears to be the only 
remaining part of the original Norman monastery, built when the 
canons migrated here from Calke, in the middle of the twelfth 
century. 



96 . REPTON PRIOR V. 

The block of buildings now called the Hall has been so com- 
pletely modernised, with the exception of Prior Overton's brick 
tower at its east end, that it would be useless to discuss its 
probable arrangements. Since tlie prior had a chamber in tlie 
monastery, this cannot have been his house, for the Statutes did not 
permit it. and there can be little doubt the building was really the 
iitfirmitoriutn, or abode of sick and infirm monks. 

The monastery was approached by a gatehouse on the south- 
west, the outer arch of which still forms the entrance to the priory 
precinct. Originally it had a gatehouse hall with upper chamber, 
and a room for the porter. There seems also to have been a long 
building extending from it northwards along the edge of the 
churchyard, which would contain the almonry and a lodging for 
tramps and paupers. 

The precinct of tlie monastery was enclosed by a high stone 
wall, much of which remains. 

The excavations were commenced under my direction and 
supervision on August 30, 1883, and have since been continued 
under Mr. Blomfield's direction. Many beautiful fragments and 
tiles have been discovered, but as the subsequent excavations will 
lay bare many more, a description of them, together with the 
entire ground plan, must be reserved for another paper. 

When Doctors Legh and Layton visited the Priory preparatory 
to the suppression, they reported concerning Repton :— 

" Superstitio. Hue fit peregrinatio ad Sanctum Guthlacum et ad eius cam- 
panam quam solent capitibus imponere ad restinguendum dolorem capitis." 

It is possible that in clearing out the choir and transepts 
some traces may be found of St. Guthlac's shrine. 

The full consideration of the architecture and arrangements of 
the church must await the completion of the excavations. 



97 



Some ^otcs on 'Mxi^ov HoU). 



By Rev. J. Charles Cox. 



[Reaii to the Society at Arbor Loiv, on August 4th, tSSj.^ 




RBOR LOW was first described with any degree of 
detail, almost a century ago, by tiiat eminent Derby- 
shire antiquary, Dr. Pegge, in a paper read before the 
Society of Antiquaries on May 29th, 1783, which was 
entitled " A Disquisition on the Lows or Barrows in the Peak of 
Derbyshire, particularly that capital British Monument called 
Arbelows." '■■' The article is illustrated by a plan, sections, and 
perspective view of the circle. The following are the actual 
details of the writer's description of what he terms " the temple " 
as distinguished from the adjoining lows or barrows : — 

" It is surrounded with a great circular rampire, measuring by 
an inward slope seven yards high, and by the outward five. The 
fosse, which is within, and not on the outside of the rampire, is 
five yards over in the bottom. The inclosed area is a circular 
flat of fifty-eight yards diameter, and has been encompassed by 
thirty-two very large stones, or more, of limestone, or grey marble, 
placed circularly. The stones formerly stood on end, two and 
two together, which is very particular, and different from any other 
stone circle now known ; however, they ail lie flat now, and are 

* ArchtTologia^ Vol. viii., pp. 131 — 148. 



98 SOME NOTES ON ARBOR LOW. 

some of them so much broken by their fall that it requires some 
attention in observing and numbering them ; for the fragments 
are not only some bigger than others, as would necessarily happen, 
but sometimes lie at a small distance from the principal or larger 
piles to which they respectively belonged. However, that they 
stood in pairs at first is very obvious, and it is probable that they 
were brought, as there is no quarry nearer, from Fairdale, or 
Ricklow Dale, which is very near ; for they are apparently the 
same sort of stone, but blanched by the weather. The two 
entrances into the temple, nine yards each, are nearly south and 
north, but inclining to the south-west and north-east, and, as was 
observed, the slight rampire from the other low comes up to 
the southern entrance. The entrances are level, being banks of 
earth across the fosse (the earth in these places having never been 
dug away), and they both of them had, on each hand, one of the 
stone pillars above-mentioned, between which you entered into 
the grand area. I call them pillars now, though they are flat 
stones, because, as has been already noted, they stood on end,, 
and were so lofty. In the area lies one very large stone, four 
yards one foot long, two yards two feet wide, perhaps not less than 
three or four ton weight. There is another to the north of it, 
and a third on the east side, which appears to have been much 
broken. If ever there was a fourth on the west side it is now 
gone." I make no apology for thus quoting at length from 
Dr. Pegge's description, as it is interesting for us to note, now we 
are on the spot, what degree of deterioration and change this 
monument has suffered in a century. 

Dr. Pegge then proceeds to argue as to what nation this great 
structure belonged. British, Roman, Saxon, or Danish ? And 
he rightly decides that it is British. In arguing, in the second 
place, as to the object of such a structure, he returns at some 
jength to his contention of the original uprightness of these stones. 
His conjectures on this point are highly probable, though they 
have since been combatted, and he adduces one piece of evidence 
— namely, that one William Normanshaw, then about sixty years 
jld, testified that some of the stones were standing in his memory, 



I 



SOME NOTES ON ARBOR LOW. 99 

that is about a hundred and fifty years from the present time. 
On the question of the object of the structure, he concludes that it 
was either a sepulchre or a temple, with a decided preference for 
the latter theory. 

Mr. Thomas Bateman, the well-known antiquary of Lomber- 
dale House, published an account of Arbor Low circle in 1848,* 
and treated further and with more detail of the exploration of its 
adjacent tumuli in a later work published in i86i.t The follow- 
ing is the most important part of the description of this structure 
as given by Mr. Bateman, and it is right that you should have 
here placed before you the theories of that careful mound-digger, 
although I shall directly combat his conclusions: — "The area 
encompassed by the ditch is about fifty yards in diameter and of a 
circular form ; though, from a little declination of the ground 
towards the north, it appeais somewhat elliptical when viewed 
from particular points. The stones which compose the circle are 
rough, unhewn masses of limestone, apparently thirty in number ; 
but this cannot be determined with certainty, as several of them 
are broken ; most of them are from six to eight feet in length, 
and three or four broad in the widest part ; their thickness is 
more variable, and their respective shapes are different and inde- 
scribable. They all lie upon the ground, many in an oblique 
position, but the opinion that has prevailed, of the narrowest end 
of each being pointed towards the centre, in order to represent 
the rays of the sun, and prove that luminary to have been the 
object of worship, must have arisen from inaccurate observation, 
for they almost as frequently point towards the ditch as otherwise ; 
whether they ever stood upright, as most of the stones of Druidical 
circles do, is an inquiry not easy to determine, though Mr. Pil- 
kington was informed that a very old man, living in Middleton, 
remembered, when a boy, to have seen them standing obliquely 
on one end. This secondary kind of evidence does not seem 
entided to much credit, as the soil at the basis of the stones does 



* Vestiges of the Antiqttilits of Derbyshire, pp. 109 — 1 1 1. 
t Ten Years' Digging in Celtic and Saxon Grave Hills, pp. 17 — 20. 



lOO SOMK NOTES ON ARHOK LOW. 

not appear to have ever been removed to a depth sufficient to 
ensure the possibility of the stones being placed in an erect 
position. Within the circle are some smaller stones scattered 
irregularly, and near the centie are three larger ones, by some 
supposed to have formed a cromlech or altar, but -there are no 
perceptible grounds for such an opinion. The width of the ditch 
which immediately surrounds the area on which the stones are 
placed is about six yards ; the height of the bank or vallum on 
the inside (though much reduced by the impairing hand of time) 
is still from six to eight yards ; but this varies throughout the 
whole circumference, which, on the top, is about two hundred 
and seventy yards. The vallum is chiefly formed of the earth 
thrown out of the ditch, besides which a little has been added 
from the ground which immediately surrounds the exterior of the 
vallum, thus adding to its height and to the imposing appearance 
it presents to anyone approaching from a distance. To the 
enclosed area are two entrances, each of the width of ten or 
twelve yards, and opening towards the north and south. On the 
east side of the southern entrance is a large barrow, standing in the 
same line of circumference as the vallum, but wholly detached, 
except at the base. This barrow has been several times unsuc- 
cessfully examined, and remained an antiquarian problem until 
the summer of the year 1845, when the original interment was 
discovered, of a nature to prove beyond doubt the extreme 
antiquity of the tumulus, and consequently of the temple. About 
a quarter of a mile from Arbor Low, in a westerly direction, is a 
large conical tumulus, known as Gib Hill, which is connected 
with the vallum of the temple by a rampire of earth, running in a 
serpentine direction, not dissimilar to the avenue through the 
celebrated temple of Abury. To any believer in the serpent 
worship of the Celtic tribes this fact will be of interest." 

In 1 86 1, that careful writer, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, published a 
paper on Arbor Low, with an excellent plan and accurate mea- 
surements.* 

* Join nal of the Archaological Association, Vol. xvi. 



SOME NOTES ON ARHOR LOW. lOl 

Mr. James Ferguson, the well-known architectural writer, pub- 
lished, in 1872, his great work on "Rude Stone Monuments," 
which has revolutionised the careless theories into which so many 
antiquaries had heedlessly drifted, and an important section of 
the book is devoted to Arbor Low and remains of a like character 
in Derbyshire.* 

Mr. Ferguson's arguments as to the historic character and com- 
paratively late date of such monuments have remained up to the 
present time unanswered, and no serious attempt has been made 
to refute them. True, a long series of papers in supposed reply, 
from the pen of Mr. Goss, on the old Druidical lines, were 
printed in the Reliqtiary, t but no one worthy of the name of 
antiquary, or possessed of any power of weighing evidence, could 
regard these papers as any serious contribution to the question. 
They were entitled " Arbor Low," but not one-hundredth part of 
their contents had any connection with this erection. 

At the meeting of the British Association at Sheffield, in 1879, 
Sir John Lubbock, the great author of " Prehistoric Man " and 
other kindred works, was appropriately chosen to read a paper on 
Arbor Low upon the spot itself. A copy of this paper has been 
recently kindly forwarded tome by the author^ His paper was 
characterised by that modesty which is not uncommon in really 
able men, and lias a value of its own, notwithstanding the vague- 
ness of its conclusions. From it I take the following extracts : — 
" There can be no doubt that Gib Hill and the tumulus here 
were places of burial, but the original purpose of the circle is not 
so obvious Mr. Bateman called it a temple, but the temple is 
the house of the Deity, and even when perfect this can scarcely 
have been regarded as a house. Still, just as the tomb was the 
house of the dead, sometimes a copy of the dwelling, nay, in some 
cases, the very dwelling itself of the deceased, so by an obvious 
chain of ideas the tomb developed into the temple. Now, we 



* Rude Stone Monuments in all Countries ; Their Age and Uses (John 
Murray, 1873). 

t T/ie Reliquary, Vols, xvii., xviii., and xix' 
1' I tiiid that ihis paper has been reprinted in the Reliquary, Vol. xx., pp Sl-85. 



I02 SOiME KOTES ON AkBUR LOW. 

may regard a perfect megalithic interment as having consisted of 
a stone cliamber, communicating with the outside by a passage, 
covered with a mound of earth, surrounded and supported at the 
circumference by a circle of stones, and in some cases surmounted 
by a stone pillar or ' menhir.' Sometimes, however, we find the 
central chamber standing alone, as at Kits Coty House, near 
Maidstone, which may or may not have been covered by a 
mound ; sometimes, especially of course where stones were scarce, 
we find the earth and the mound alone, sometimes only the 
menhir. The celebrated stone avenues of Carnac, in Brittany, 
and the stone rows of Abury, may, I tliink, have been highly 
developed specimens of the entrance passage ; in Stonehenge and 
many other instances we have the stone circle. In fact, these 
different parts of the perfect monument are found in every com- 
bination, and in every degree of development, from the slight 
elevation scarcely perceptible to the eye — -excepting perhaps when 
it is thrown into relief by the slanting rays of the setting sun — 
to the gigantic hill of Silbury ; from the small stone circle to the 
stupendous monuments of Stonehenge or Abury. . . . Now, 
the natural question will arise, when vs'as this monument erected, 
and I can but give the simple answer, I do not know. Only last 
week I was opening a banow in Wiltshire with one of our best 
archaeologists, Mr. Cunnington ; he was asked the same question. 
'I do not know,' he said; 'nobody does know, and nobody 
ever will know.' I should not like to go so far as that, why 
should we despair ? When Bruce asked iiis negro guide what 
became of the sun at night, the man said that it was no use 
troubling ourselves about questions which were beyond the range 
of human intellect. More recently, Caunt laid it down as an 
axiom that we could ascertain nothing about the heavenly bodies 
excepting their mass and movement, yet he was scarcely dead 
before we had analaysed the very stars. I fully hope, then, that 
one day this question also may be answered. But if we cannot 
reply in terms of years, still, some answer, I think, may be given." 
In a book published in 1880 by Mr. Kains Jackson on ancient 



SOME NOTES ON ARBOR LOW. 103 

monuments, there is some account of Arbor Low, but nothing 
original or much worth quoting. * 

Arbor Low is happily scheduled in the Ancient Monument Act 
of last session, and the nation is now responsible for its due pre. 
servation. A great debt of gratitude is due from all antiquaries 
to the quiet perseverance of Sir John Lubbock with this measure, 
a persistence that at last overcame the crass prejudice of the 
selfish and wanton. 

As I am about, as briefly and concisely as I can, to set my 
own views before you about this stone circle, and its probable 
intention and age, and that in more positive terms than have 
been used by men so much more able than myself, as Sir John 
Lubbock, I wish first to state that I am doing so at the unsought 
request of our Society, and in supposed default of any one here 
to-day of better qualifications. Ecclesiology has for some time 
been my chief hobby, but in speaking to you of Arbor Low I am 
returning to an old love. In past years I have given a good deal 
of close attention and time to the consideration of our Rude 
Stone Monuments, not only in England, but also those famous 
ones at Carnac and Lockmariaker, as well as many less known 
ones in Brittany and in the south of France. When the British 
Association were at Sheffield, in 1879, I was invited to choose the 
Derbyshire excursion on which to address them, and originally 
selected Arbor Low, but on hearing that the services of Sir John 
Lubbock might be secured, I was the first to suggest that it would 
be right to invite him. The views, therefore, that I put forth are 
the same that I should have had the temerity to lay before that 
august Association. And I do so chiefly as a disciple of Mr. 
Ferguson's, whose suggestions have never yet been seriously 
contradicted. 

Here, then, we are standing in a circle of some thirty or forty 
stones, originally, in all probability, standing upright and perhaps 
in pairs. The comparatively imposing position that it presents 
from a distance is owing to this circle being placed on an 

*Our Ancient Monuments and the Land around them, pp. 14 — 16. 



I04 SOME NOTES ON ARBOR LOW. 

artificially raised platform, formed by digging out a circular fosse. 
Measurements that I took here in 1869 gave 18 feet as the average 
width of the fosse, 21 feet as the average height of the vallum on 
the inside, and 173 feet as the diameter of the central platform 
The longest of the prostrate stones that I could then measure was 
8 feet 3 inches. To this enclosed area there are two wide 
entrances, opening north and south. On the east side of the 
south entrance is a barrow or tumulus, attached in an irregular 
way to the outer vallum. This was first explored about 1770, 
again by Major Rooke, in 1782 ; thirdly, by Mr. William Bateman, 
in 1824; and fourthly, with success, in 1845, by Mr. Thomas 
Bateman. It was found to contain a cist of irregular shape, con- 
sisting of thirteen limestone blocks. The principal objects found 
therein, in addition to calcined human bones, were two rude food 
vases or jars, a bone pin, a piece of flint, and a piece of iron 
pyrites. 

Some 350 yards to the west of Arbor Low is a large conical 
tumulus, called Gib Hill, which used to be undoubtedly con- 
nected with the circle by a rampart of earth, now in most places 
worn level. It was explored in 1848 by Mr. T. Bateman. The 
interment was found close to the summit. The cist, consisting of 
five blocks of limestone, was removed, re-erected in the gardens of 
Lomberdale House, where I have seen it, and where I believe it 
yet remains. A small vase and calcined bones were found 
within the cist. In other parts of the tumulus were found " a 
battered celt of basaltic stone, a dart or javelin point of flint, and 
a small iron fibula, which had been enriched with precious 
stones." 

The occupation of this island by man is usually divided by 
archseologists into five great peiiods : — 

I. Palaeolithic or First Stone Age, when the climate was very 
severe, and when man was coeval with the mammoth and woolly- 
haired rhinoceros, the hippopotamus, reindeer, white bear, and Irish 
elk. Stone implements were then used, but only rudely chipped. 

II. Neolithic or Second Stone Age, when the climate had 
grown more temperate, causing the disappearance of the now 



i 



SOME NOTES ON ARBOR LOW. 105 

exlinct animals, and when man had learnt to grind and polish his 
stone implements, and also to make rude pottery. 

III. Bronze Age, when man's implements were of a combina- 
tion of copper and tin. 

IV. Iron Age, when that metal superseded the use of bronze. 

V. Historic Age, from the advent of the Romans to the 
present day. 

These conclusions have been arrived at from the careful study 
of the contents of grave- mounds, or barrows. Denmark abounds 
in these ancient interments, and the theory of the successive ages 
of stone, bronze, and iron, was propounded by antiquaries of that 
country. To Sir John Lubbock we are indebted for the useful 
division of tlie Stone Age into Palaeolithic and Neolithic. Ac- 
cording to the hard lines of the Danish system, when a barrow or 
tumulus contained bronze, it was assigned to a period beginning 
one or two thousand years before the Christian era ; if iron, from 
the Christian era to about a.d. iooo ; if no metal, but stone or 
bone implements, then its date was at least looo b c, probably 
2000 B.C., and possibly 10,000 or 20,000 B.C. But, true as is 
the order of succession of these ages, more accurate observation 
certainly establishes the fact that all these ages very considtrably 
overlap each other. The mingled and various contents of English 
barrows, and in none is this mingling and variation so remarkable 
as in the Derbyshire barrows opened by Messrs. Bateman, prove 
conclusively the absurdity of drawing absolute conclusions from 
the presence of weapons that originated at a si^ecial era. Take 
four Derbyshire barrows as samples. At Cross Flats there were 
found with the skeleton, an iron knife and a flint spear head ; at 
Gatley Lowe, a gold necklace set with garnets, a coin of Honorius, 
a flint arrow head, and a piece of iron stone ; at RoUey Lowe, a 
brass coin of Constantine, a brass pin , some ornamented pottery, 
and several flint weapons ; and in a barrow on Ashford Moor, iron 
and flint arrow heads side by side. Roman coins and Anglo- 
Saxon ornaments have been found in various other barrows in this 
immediate neighbourhood in conjunction with iron and stone 
implements. All the customs and habits of our daily life show 



lo6 SOME NOTES ON ARBOR LOW. 

how foolish it would be to attempt to give dates on the authority 
of single articles. The Derbyshire oatcake, once so universally 
used, has had its day, but it is still to be found in the Peak, side 
by side with the wheaten loaf. Croquet still lingers and dies hard, 
notwithstanding all the counter attractions of lawn tennis ; and if 
weapons were now buried with us, the mallet and the racquet 
might be found side by side. Or to take a graver instance, archery 
was practically used in warfare by English bowmen, several 
centuries after the almost general use of gunpowder, both in 
cannons and muskets. Therefore, the remains of a bow in an 
Englisli interment would not prove that it was of fourteenth or 
thirteenth century date, for it might be sixteenth or even 
seventeenth. 

The contents, then, of barrows that may be connected with 
Megalithic remains are really no positive guide to their date. 
Those who desire to consider them pre-historic can of course 
point, if they will, to flint chips or bronze weapons ; but those, on 
the contrary, who consider them historic are equally entitled to 
point to iron helmets. Christian ornaments, or Roman coins. To 
argue, as is often done, that all instruments or traces of later ages 
have been added in subsequent interments, or that Roman coins 
have been dropped and stamped in by the tourists or picnic 
parties of those days, seems to me almost unwortliy of serious 
discussion. 

That rude stone monuments such as this of Arbor Low were 
Druidical temples, is an assertion much easier to make than in 
any way to prove. There is not a solitary sentence in any of the 
classical or ancient authors, upon whom our whole knowledge of 
the Druids rests, that directly or indirectly in any way connects 
the Druids with the stone temples or stones of any kind. Had 
such temples existed in the days of Caesar or Tacitus they could 
hardly have failed to be mentioned. Before 1700, no one ever 
dreamt of such monuments as Stonehenge and Avebury being 
pre-historic. Dr. Stukeley's silly fictions about Druids and 
serpent worship, and the serpent-like dispositions of stones 
extending over miles of hill and dale, are wholly due to his own 



SOME NOTES ON AKBOR LOW. I07 

lively imagination, anil it is astounding that they gained the 
credence which for so long a time pertained to them. Those who 
have argued that Stonehenge and other circles such as Arbelow 
were astronomical observatories or orreries of the British Druids 
or earlier races, have hitherto failed to produce a single rational 
account of the way in which these stones could be used for such a 
purpose. As Mr. Ferguson says, " They have not as yet pointed 
out one single observation that could be made by these circles 
that could not be made as well or better without them." If we 
were here at the right times we could doubtless see tiie sun rise 
over some of these stones of Arbelow, and set behind others, but 
our observations would be equally interesting and valuable if the 
stones were altogether sunk below the sward. 

The views, then, with respect to rude stone monuments, that I 
wish very briefly to put before you, are these — and again let me 
refer all interested in this subject to the scholarly, interesting, and 
unanswered work of Mr. Ferguson on this subject — 

I. That they are generally sepulchral, or connected directly 
with the rites of the dead. About three fourths of our English 
stone circles, for example, have yielded sepulchral deposits to the 
explorer, and the remainder are practically unexplored. 

II. That they are not temples in any usual or proper sense of 
the term. The assertions that they are temples are merely built 
on unsupported surmises, and their size, position, open character, 
lack of ornament, and a score of other reasons, all militate against 
such conclusions. 

III. That they were generally erected by partially civilised 
races after contact with the Romans. 

In October, 1873, I was specially visiting and minutely examin- 
ing that greatest and most famous of Megalithic monuments, 
Carnac, in Brittany. By great good fortune at the time of my 
visit, the authorities of the department were moving back one of 
the finest stones, that measured nearly 12 feet from the ground, 
in order to widen tiie public roadway. The base was buried some 
6 or 7 feet in the ground. I was the first to descend into the 
hole from whence it was taken. In the closely pressed ground 



T08 SOME NOTES ON ARPOR LOW. 

below its base was wedged a Roman tile ! Mr. Ferguson, in an 
admirable chain of reasoning, contends that Carnac was a national 
monument to commemorate the battle wherein the Romans were 
overthrown, circa s.c. 400. Is not this tile irrefutable evidence 
that the Carnac stones are historic? 

The great stone circles are a class of Megalithic remains peculiar 
to England, and are apparently the product of one people about 
the same time. The probability is great that they are military 
trophies of victory in connection with the burial of prominent 
leaders, and easily erected when large bodies of troops were 
present in the very sparsely inhabited districts where they are 
usually found. The probability is also great that their date is circa 
A.D. 500, and that they commemorate a series of battles fought 
by the Britons against the Saxons, and which are attributed l)y 
Irennius to King Arthur. 

At any rate, so far as Arbor Low is concerned — and I have only 
been able to give a very few of the arguments in the most meagre 
skeleton form — I have been myself convinced, after the closest 
and most unprejudiced study, that its date is subsequent to the 
Roman occupation of Britain, and that it was erected as a trophy 
of victory on a spot where a commander fell, or where the crisis 
of a battle was decided. 

As to the Etymology of Arbor Low, the lowe is of course a 
barrow. Dr. Pegge connects the first half of the word with either 
arar, a hero, or with Arbila, a British chief, mentioned in 
Scholiast, or Juvenal's Fourth Satire. Either of these support our 
theory, but the most probably correct of all the proffered deriva- 
tions is also in favour of its military character, viz.. arrhber, which 
is Celtic for a fort. This gives it the same origin as Cold 
Harbour — col, hill, and arrhber, tort, that is the hill fort. 

Those who have not hitherto made any study of our rude stone 
monuments, and may be disappointed at the size of Arbor Low, 
will not quarrel with Dr. Pegge's description of it as " a capital 
British monument," when I mention that there are only five 
circles that are larger. 




R. KEENE, DERBY 



ANCIENT CROSS, EYAM 



109 



autr Sales, in tfjc It^'cav 1858. 



By Richard Keene. 




HOUGH a quarter of a century counts for very little 
from an archaeological point of view, it means a good 
deal in a man's life ; and during that time many 
changes take place, both in himself, his thoughts and 
feelings, and in the world around him. I have thought that a 
paper, compiled from my Journal of a Ramble in the Peak of 
Derbyshire some twenty-five )ears ago, might prove not uninte- 
resting to the. Members of this Society, being a narrative of facts 
and ffeelings experienced during a week's tramp through some of 
the most lovely and interesting scenery of our beautiful county. 
If it serves no other purpose, it may act the part of guide to 
those amongst our members who have not explored the hills and 
dales of Derbyshire, by pointing out how pleasantly and profitably 
a few days may be spent without going far from home ; and 
tiiough I have not dwelt on the archaeology of the route, sufficient 
of the antiquities have been noticed to show what a rich field for 
further investigation lies before the patient antiquary. To the 
artist and lover of nature the journey would afford infinite 
occupation and delight, though it only embraces a very small 
portion of this wild and picturesque neighbourhood. Since the 
Journal was written, two of our party have joined " the great 
majority ;" other changes have taken place, but I have thought it 



I ro RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

best to keep the facts of the time in which they were written 
unaltered. 

Without further preface I shall therefore commence my narra- 
tive of 

A Six Days' Ramble over Derbyshire Hills and Dales. 

MONDAY. 

" not unrecompensed the man shall roam, 

Who at the call of summer quits his home, 

And plods o'er some wide realm, o'er vale and height, 

Though seeking only holiday delight." 

Looked forward to for many weeks with anticipated pleasure, the 
time at last arrived for our photographic ramble in the Peak of 
Derbyshire, and on the 26th of July, 1858, w-e left Derby by the 
6.30 train, as happy a quartette as one could wish to see. We 
breakfasted at the " Thatched House Tavern " at Ambergate,* while 
waiting for the train which was to convey us onward to the ter- 
minus at Rowsley.t We had to spend two long hours here, though 
eager to get on, and had it not been for the good breakfast and 
soothing matutinal pipe, I don't know how we should have 
endured it. We watched the shunting of luggage- wagons ; we 
counted the long row of chimneys at the lime-kilns ; and we 
criticized the dauby pictures in our room, and got what fun out 
of them we could — amongst them the Temptation of S. Anthony 
is especially fine, and represented the time when 

" The worsest devil of all " 
had commenced her fascinating allurements. The next shows a 
bibulous boor sitting doubled up in a rickety chair, as though the 
sour beverage had been too much for his stomach ; while another 
represents a couple of boosey-looking personages perambulating a 
wine-cellar in search of the choicest cask, armed with a formid- 
able centrebit ! Tired of the pictures, tired of the lime-kilns, 

* Since pulled down, and in its place the Hurt's Arms Hotel, 
t At tliis time the Midland Railway did not penetrate further. 



RAMliI.E OVER DERDVSHIRE HII.I.S AND DALES. Ill 

and the everlasting shunting, we were heartily glad when the train 
from the north arrived, and we were once more in motion along 
the beautiful valley of the Derwent. 

From Ambergate to RoAvsley is a most charming railway ride — 
the green meadows and fine river — the noble tree-covered hills, 
with many a peep beyond — the passing glimpses of Lea Hurst on 
one side, and a pretty cascade on the other — of pine-crowned 
Stonnis, the Gothic-arched bridge and park-like meadows at 
Cromford — Willersley Castle, Matlock Bath, Oker Hill, Darley 
Dale Church and its celebrated yew, the wood-covered heights of 
Stanton, the meeting of the Wye and Derwent, and a hundred 
other unrecorded objects — make it one of the prettiest routes by 
rail in the kingdom. 




"the peacock," rowslev. 

Arrived at Rowsley, I may as well, before proceeding further, 
describe our turn-out. Our party consisted of J- A. Warwick, 
W. Hirst, myself, and Tillett, who had charge of the cart, a light 
iron frame with good springs and large wheels, made specially for 
the work. On this cart was mounted a large box containing our 
photographic apparatus, waterproof coats, etc., closely packed ; at 
one end outside this box swung a keg of bitter beer, and at the 
other was fastened a large waterproof pocket containing our linen 



112 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

and other matters. The wheels were furnished with drags for 
descending steep hills more easily, while to the front part of the 
vehicle were attached ropes for pulling up-hill. The whole outfit 
would weigh about 3 cwt. as near as I can guess. 

Rowsley has great attractions for angler and artist, and good 
accommodation too, at its famed " Peacock "' Hotel ; but our work 
commenced not here on this occasion, so off we started to 
Chatsworth, passing Beeley, with its lecently-built vicarage and 
ancient tree embosomed church, on the road which keeps 
company with the river till we get to the rude lodge and gates* at 
the southern extremity of the park. The storms of Saturday and 
Sunday had laid all the dust and freshened the hedgerows ; the 
wild honeysuckle, the beautiful blue wild geranium and harebell 
embroidered the roadside ; the river sparkled in the sun, a fresh 
breeze moved amongst the trees, and light fleecy clouds chased 
each other o'er " the blue ethereal field." 

We are now within the largest park in the county ; an enchant- 
ing region of hill and dale, wood and water, patches of bracken 
and broad sweeps of greenest turf, enlivened by cattle and herds 
of deer. Soon we come to a halt on the south-west of the stately 
hall, "the Palace of the Peak," as it has been fitly termed; and, 
while taking a view, are informed by an old man at work on the 
carriage-drive, that sixty tons of glass hat! already arrived to 
repair the damages of the storms of last June, when upwards of 
five thousand pieces were smashed by the hail in the great 
conservatory alone ! Another view from the north-west, and on 
we go to the northern and principal entrance to the park, taking 
the house built for Sir Joseph Paxton on the way — called, I 
believe, Barbrook Hall. Turning to the left, after leaving the 
lodge, and passing the pretty house of Mr. Condell, which, like the 
other Chatsworth buildings, is also in the Italian style of archi- 
tecture, we entered the village of Bt^slow. Close by the Derwent 
stands the Church, a picturesque structure, in the Later English 
style; the chancel has lately (1853) been built. While Mr. W. 

* A preUy lodge and gate have long since replaced ihese. 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 113 

was taking a stereograph of the church, I made a sketch in my 
note-book of the lid of an ancient stone coffin, with an elegant 
foliated cross and two keys, which is reared against the churcliyard 
wall,* close by a noble beech; and W. H. occupied himself in 
copying a quaint inscription from one of the stones of the 
thickly-inhabited churchyard. Near by is the old bridge over the 
river, from which some good views are obtained, especially on the 




south over Chatsworth Park. While we stood there admiring, the 
Emperor fountain sent forth its fine jet of water and added no 
little beauty to the scene. There is a curious old stone watch-box 
on this s.de of the bridge, of which it forms a part, well worthy 
of a sketch, but we were in haste to get on to Stoney Middleton 
and could afford no longer time by the way. 



* On my last visit this had disappeared. 



114 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

From Baslow to Stoney Middleton the road gradually rises and 
runs by the left bank of the Derwent. The little village of 
Bubnell appears amongst the trees on the opposite side of the 
river, while on our right frown the precipitous masses of 
Baslow and Curbar Edges. Crossing the river at Calver, close by 
the large cotton mills, and leaving its course for the present, 
another mile-and-a-quarter brought us to the village of Stoney 
Middleton, often spoken of as a most picturesque place — it had 
not that appearance to me. The stone houses looked too dirty 
and too much alike, though the inequalities of the rocky ground 
on which they are built break up their monotony : there is a want 
of gardens to the cottages, and trees to take away the bareness 
of the scene. Such were my first impressions. The church is of 
an octagonal shape, added to an older tower, and is exceedingly 
ugly. In the churchyard, near the porch, is an old font of eight 
unequal sides, three of which are ornamented with shields ; two 
of the shields are plain, and the other has a clievron, the arms 
of the Eyres, of Hassop ; it is most probable this font belonged 
to the old church. We photographed it. Near the churchyard 
is the tepid bath supposed to have been used by the Romans. 
The Hall, the residence of Lord Denman, is an old building on 
the right of the road just before entering the village. The 
Parsonage is built on the hill side, commanding fine views. We 
saw the effect of the late storms in this village, many Avindows 
still testifying to the force of the hail and ice that had battered 
them so thoroughly. The lower part of the village had been 
inundated, and in one house we saw marks on the walls showing 
where the water had risen to nearly four feet in height ; many 
hundred tons of mud brought from the hills had to be removed 
from the brook -course and street. I observed in this place 
several chimneys crowned with an inverted W (^) of slate or thin 
stones, with a heavier stone on the top to prevent them being 
blown away ; a smoke preventer I imagined. 

Refreshing ourselves at the " Moon " Inn, we continued through 
the village till we arrived at the entrance of its far-famed Dale. 



RAMBLK OVER DKRBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. II5 

Here we found William Wood,* the historian of Eyam, who had 
been waiting for us some time at the " Lover's Leap" Inn. We took 
two views here, showing the fine rock, which Mr. Wood assures 
us is a genuine Lover's Leap ; that a young woman of the name 
of Baddaley, about a hundred years ago, threw herself in a fit 
of disappointed love from this height, and miraculously escaped 
with her life, her petticoat forming a parachute, and her fall being 
further broken by the boughs of a small yew-tree growing in the 
crevices of the rock ; she fell into a saw-pit, and, though bruised 
and disfigured, was able to limp home, where she lived many 
years in a state of single blessedness. 

The smoke from the lime-kilns in the valley beyond, drifting 
this way, made photographing very difficult, and sometimes 
impossible ; and, much as Mr. Rhodes and others have praised 
the fine effects thus produced, we thought differently. Apart 
from all photographic considerations, it was really too much of a 
good thing — all the kilns appeared to be of one mind, and 
smoked away like Dutchmen during our whole time in the Dale. 
We managed, however, to get a view of the Castle Rock, a noble 
piece of Nature's handiwork, 

" Oil whose veteran front 
The storms that come at Winter's stern behest 
Have beat for ages. " 

This we got from the opposite hill side, just behind a picturesque 
paint mill, itself a study. Here we were joined by two artists, 
who proposed sketching the grand and castle-like rock from the 
same point. They were delighted at the bo-peeping of the rock 
behind the smoke-clouds. Some of the old kilns here are very 
fine studies, resembling the gateways of castles built in the rudest 
ages. The scenery of Middleton Dale is very bold and striking ; 
on the right, huge masses of rock of fantastic shapes tower above 
the winding road, and threaten to hurl their tottering summits on 



* Died June 27, 1865, in his 6ist year. An excellent memoir of this self- 
made man, written by Mr. Peter Furness, of Eyam, appeared in the 6th Vol. of 
7 he KeUqtiary. 



Il6 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

passers-by. The other side of the Dale is not so abrupt, but rises 
with a steep ascent to a greater height, covered with scanty 
herbage and numberless wild flowers, amongst which I gathered 
the wild thyme, marjoram, ladies' bed-straw, scabious, cranesbill, 
etc. ; some large thistles, too, spread their tufted flowers of bright 
crimson in the warm rays of the sun, which was shining down the 
valley most charmingly, lighting up the gray rocks with fine effect. 
We had promised ourselves several nice pictures here, including 
the bold rock at the rear of the " Golden Ball,'' an old-fashioned 
wayside inn at the junction of Eyam Dale, but the smoke beat us; 
so we consoled ourselves by taking a small view of the hole, or 
cavern, close by the roadside, known by the name of Carl's-work, 
in which the skeleton and clothes of a pedlar were found some 
fifty years ago, about half-a-miie from the entrance. Mr. Wood 
can remember some of the clothes lying in Eyam church, where the 
unfortunate man's remains were left many years for identification. 
It is supposed by some that this opening communicates with a 
string of caverns reaching as far as Castleton ! — but this can only 
be conjecture. 

Passing by the end of Eyam Dale on our right, and one of the 
smoking kilns on our left, we presently came to the entrance of 
the Delf, Delve, or Cussy Dell, as it is variously called, branching 
off to the right, and guarded by rocky turrets on either side. A 
little furtlier on we were clear of the smoke, and were enabled to 
take a couple of views looking down the Dale. There it was 
very pleasant, lying on a grassy knoll, to watch the white clouds 
chasing each other along the azure sky, while listening to the nmsic 
of the water that babbled by in its artificial bed on the roadside, 
as though it rejoiced at its escape from the Watergroove Mine 
further up the valley ; pleasant it was to watch the jackdaws and 
listen to their cawing as they hovered about the tree-crowned 
rocks that jutted out from the steep grassy slopes ; the sun was 
getting low, and his level rays struck the bold prominences with a 
golden glow of light, which brought out their forms most clearly, 
and showed the glistening leaves of the creeping ivy in minutest 



1 
J 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 117 

detail. We wandered up the Dale as far as the Upper Cupola,* 
where we used our last plate for the day. The sun had set to 
us. though the upper portion of the view was still illuminated by 
his beams, and as it was too late to get any more work done, we 
retraced our steps to the " Golden Ball," and overtook Tillet half- 
way up Eyam Dale, tugging away at the cart. It was a stiff bit of 
work to finish off with. 

Eyam, standing on a rocky platform of considerable elevation, 
is approached by the steep winding road which runs up the rocky 
chasm of Eyam Dale, some half-mile in length ; and glad were 
we when the top was reached. It was seven o'clock before we 
arrived at Mrs. Fox's, where we had arranged to stay during our 
sojourn at Eyam ; and after despatching a hearty tea, which 
included some genuine Derbyshire oat cake, we set out for an 
evening stroll, under the guidance of Mr. AVood. Passing along 
the western portion of the village, we visited the tomb of 
Humphrey Merril, which stands in a field about half-a-mile to 
the nortli-west of the church. The sun had set, and a gentle 
breeze, laden with the scent of new-made hay, stirred the grass 
that waved round this lone tomb. While contemplating the fate 
of Humphrey Merril, and listening to the quiet, but clear and 
interesting account ot the plague from our. friend, a pensive 
feeling came over us, and we could not but admire the heroic 
spirit and the self sacrificing principle which had induced him, 
thr9ugh all the horrors of the pestilence, calmly to await his own 
doom sooner than be the means of spreading the contagion to 
other parts of the country. All honour be to tlie memory of this 
brave man and his compatriots ; peace to their ashes and rest to 
Jheir souls ! By the twilight gleam, on the end of his tomb we 
could discern tlie initials " H.'M., 1666." He died on the ninth ' 
of September, one of the latest victims. 

Retracing our steps till we came nearly to the Hall, We turned 
off to Cucklett Dell, or the Delf as it is commonly called, the 



Derived from the Saxon cntel-.lozve, „i wiiKl-furnace, and still so pronounced 
by ihe natives of this locality. 



Il8 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

upper ground of which we explored by the dim evening light, as 
far as its junction with Middleton Dale. Cucklett Church* 
was shrouded in shadow, and, standing beneath its rocky arches, 




CUCKLETT CHURCH. 

we could scarcely see between the dark overhanging branches of 
the surrounding trees to the bottom of the Dell : 

" So hushed, so shrouded its deep bosom lies." 
At the extremity of this secluded ravine, on the point of rock 
guarding its eastern entrance, we had a most beautiful view of 
Middleton Dale, though perhaps too dark to show it to the best 
advantage. Wending our way back again by the same rough 
route, through the long and dewy grass, we next went to the 
churchyard, just to notice the positions of the cross, Catherine 
Mompesson's tomb, etc., so that we might arrange for the 
morrow. It was a glorious evening, and with pleasant remini- 
scences of a former visit, I proposed a walk through the village 
and on to the Sheffield Road, towards the Riley graves, and we 



* "Cucklet, or Cuckletts, is the name of certain fields, or plots of land, 
west of the rock where Mompesson preached ; the name is said to be a corrup- 
tion of the words, Cook's Lot, — that is, land that once belonged to a family 
named Cook." — IVood. 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. II9 

soon found ourselves on this elevated highway overlooking a vast 
stretch of country ; we 

" Saw the hills 
Grow larger in the darkness." 

Down in the vale at our feet lay Middleton, half shrouded in the 
assembling mists, tlirough which twinkled many a cottage light ; 
while above all in the calni sky we watched the red moon rising 
to assume her starry throne. It was a scene not easily forgotten, 
and, had we no thought for the morrow, should doubtless have 
wandered a good way further. It was half-past nine when we 
reached our cottage. 

Supper in Mrs. Fox's old-fashioned room, and a chat over our 
tobacco with her, round the fire, was not the least pleasant sensa- 
tion of the day. This cottage where we were staying stands at a 
short distance to the west of the church, and next to the house 
where the plague broke out in the memorable 1665 ; indeed it is 
under the same roof, and was built at the same time. The walls 
are of immense thickness and well built, the floors are of stone 
nicely sanded, and the roof is covered with the same material ; it 
would almost seem as if it was intended to stand as long as the 
rock on which it is built. Inside, the walls are washed with a 
bright blue colour (a favourite fashion in the Peak), and behind 
our venerable hostess hangs a row of glittering household 
utensils ; an antique clock ticks against the wall, surmounted by a 
curious old jug made in the shape of a bear, a great curiosity, 
and as ancient as the clock; a bright fire-place and good fire; the 
door open till late in the night, whereat tlie jessamine peeps in 
and nods its star-like flowers ; and the four travellers round the 
fire, kicking up their slippered feet, complete the picture. Old 
Mrs. Fox* is telling us stories of by-gone days, and pufling at 
intervals her long clay pipe, which she seems thoroughly to enjoy. 
The air grows chill, the door is closed, and we sit till midnight 
listening to our nncient friend's details of the plague, the gibbet 



Mrs. Fox died June 4, 1872, at the advanced age of 96. 



I20 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

on Wardlovv Mires, and other interesting matters connected with 
the locahty. Having spent the greater part of her Hfe in the 
village, she has handed down many of the traditions of the 
plague, which Mr. Wood has embodied in his interesting History 
of Eyam. Amongst the stories we heard, she told us how, many 
years back, through burning the Christmas holly (which was a very 
unlucky thing to do !), a chimney took fire in the next house, 
where the plague had first appeared, and that it made the wall of 
her bedroom so hot that she could not bear her hand on it ; that 
a sort of wooden flue, or passage for steam from the copper 
opened into the chimney ; this getting on fire, was hastily chopped 
down, when a pair of old leathern stays fell therefrom. These 
stays were very heavy, and she supposes full of money sewed in 
them, and that they were hidden there in the time of the plague, 
instead of being burnt, as was most of the clothing. She never saw 
theiii again, and her neighbour said they were burnt for fear of 
infection ; but he soon after left the house and appeared in much 
better circumstances. Thus, instead of ill-luck, the burning of 
the holly proved a very fortunate event for him. 

We heard the midnight hour toll from the neighbouring church 
before we retired to rest. 



TUESDAY. 

" Among the verdant mountains of the Peak, 
There lies a quiet hamlet, where the slope 
Of pleasant uplands wards the north-winds bleak ; 
Below, wild dells romantic pathways ope ; 
Around, above it, spreads a shadowy cope 
Of forest trees ; flower, foliage, and clear rill 
Wave from the cliffs, or down ravines elope ; 
It seems a place charmed from the power of ill 
By sainted words of old : — so lovely, lone, and still." 

We rose soon after six o'clock, and while breakfast was preparing 
I strolled out in my slippers to the churchyard — one of the 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 12 j 

prettiest I know.* Fine rows of limes surround it, and as I 
stood meditating beneath their scented boughs, the hum of 
myriads of bees rifling the sweet bunches of flowers fell on my 

" Like sound with which a dream is filled." 
Truly this is an interesting and sacred spot, and to a thoughtful 
mmd, full of the most thrilling associations : the runic cross with 
Its interlaced knot-work and rude figures carrying one back in 
imagmation to the days of good King Alfred; the church itself. 




though little is left of its original ' work, has witnessed many 
changes that have been wrought in this land ; but Us chief charm 



rist.c<. Increase of population Tnd ,1 -5 }^" ^'°''^ ^""^es characte- 
obli.erate every trace or[;to;dE„i;]?shJ.^Ia7"'"''"'°' "■^^^^> "'» -- 



122 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

lies in having been the scene of the worthy Mompesson's labours, 
and the burial-place of his dear wife, Catherine — 

" Where tears have rained, nor yet shall cease to flow." 

— and many other victims of the plague. 

After a quiet stroll about the churchyard, looking at the famous 
dial over the porch, and taking a general survey, I joined my 
friends at the breakfast table, where we did ample justice to the 
eggs and bacon prepared for us. Thus primed for a good day's 
work, we commenced in the churchyard, taking several views, 
including a good one of the cross. Our next picture was a view 
of Eyam, looking west. Mr. Wood, who had again joined us, 
showed us at the east end of the village, at the rear of his house, 
in a small meadow, two flat gravestones to the memory of the 
Darbys, victims of the plague. Continuing our walk eastward, we 
visited the Riley graves, the approach to which is by a road 
branching off the Sheffield turnpike, about a quarter-of-a-mile 
from the village, through a plantation ; the golden gorse, the 
graceful harebell, and the stately foxglove decorating the sandy 
banks on either side. Emerging from the shade of the trees into 
the open fields, ascending all the while, we soon came to the Riley 
graves. They stand on the steep slope of the hill, in the middle 
of a field, and are surrounded by a rude wall, in shape resembling 
a heart, which serves to protect them from the cattle ; nodding 
ferns and foxgloves springing up from the rank grass decorate this 
rude cemetery, where sleep the plague-stricken forms of John 
Hancock and his children. The view hence is extensive and 
beautiful, embracing a vast stretch of country right away to 
Masson, where it meets the horizon. 

Never shall I forget the stroll to the Riley graves, nor how we lay 
on the grass basking in the sunshine, while William Wood narrated 
in his straightforward, earnest, and simple manner, how the poor 
mother buried her husband and family, as one after the other they 
died of the plague — how she was seen of the people in Stoney 
Middleton, to drag them one by one, by the aid of a towel tied 
to their feet, to the shallow graves she scooped out on the moor- 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 



123 



side — and he pointed out a tree some fifty or sixty yards off, 
where the house of the Hancocks stood at tlie time. 

But we must up and away, after taking a stereogram of the 




^^«>«(* 



THE RILEY GRAVES. 



graves, to the house of the Talbots, now called Riley Farm 
House, some quarter-of-a-mile distant. The family of Talbot 
were all carried off before the Hancocks, and we saw^the tabular 
tomb where they are interred in the orchard close to the house. 



124 RAMBLE OVER DEKBYSHIKK HILLS AND DALES. 

The inscriptions of these various tombs are all given by Wood in 
his exhaustive history, so that I shall not repeat them here. 

We continued our walk on to the Moor, up a very rough road, 
high above Eyam, to see Mompesson's Well, as it is called, which 
consists of a stone, covering the source of a tiny mountain 
rivulet in a hollow on the left as we ascended, the upper surface 
of which is carved in the form of a cross. This was one of the 
points, on the imaginary line drawn around the village, which 
none were to pass, where provisions and other necessaries were 
brought for the villagers, and where the money used in the 
transactions was washed in the pure water of the spring, so that 
the contagion might not spread.* We returned by an upper road, 




MOMPESSON S WELL. 



whence we had a fine view of Eyam, and passed through some 
fields with further memorials of the plague north of the church ; — 
the same fields where the young- and beautiful Catherine JVIom- 
pesson, the loving wife of the heroic rector, walked on the 
twenty-second of Angust, 1666, when she exclaimed to her 
husband what a sw'eet smell there was, and -was immediately 
possessed by the plague, with which she struggled "for, a few 
days, when her spirit took its flight to the regions of bliss." Our 
way continued through the churchyard, where we saw her tomb in 



* Similar precautions were used at Derby in the time of the pestilence, a 
relic of which is now placed in the Arboretum, called the Headless Cross, 
which once stood ujjon Nun's Green. 



RAMBLK OVER DERBYSHIRE HILI.S AND DALES. 



125 



a tolerably good state of preservation ; a yew tree had recently 
been planted at its foot. 

There is a curious custom in this churchyard of placing stone 
pillars at the four corners of the tomb, as shown in the accom- 
panying illustration. 

The interior of Eyam Church contains but little worthy of 
notice. 

After lunch, we went down Eyam Dale to take a picture of "The 
Haunted House." Truly it is an " unked " place ! and I suppose 
the scene of some outrage, which has caused its desertion and 




consequent decay. A gloomy sky and overhanging trees added 
to the melancholy of the spot, and we were not sorry to leave 
it for the more open part of the dale lower down, which is very 
picturesque. The woods of the Rock Gardens on one side, and 
the bold projections of limestone on the other, terminating with 
Blackwell Tor, a winding road and mumuring streamlet, the 
distance filled in with the green slopes of Middleton Pastures and 
the higher Moor, make up a fine picture. The " Golden Ball " 
public-house at the end of Eyam Dale, with Blackwell Tor in its 



126 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

rear, compose well, but the lime-kiln opposite was kicking up such 
a pother we could not take it. We turned to the right, and 
fighting our way through a luxuriant bed of nettles breast high, 
made our way into the Delf once more. It was getting almost 
too late to take photographs, but we secured one of Cucklett 
Church, from whose rocky arches Mompesson, after the church 
was closed in the time of the plague, was wont to address his 
daily-declining congregation as they stood or reclined apart from 
and afraid of each other. 

" Arch meeting arch, unwrought of human hands, 
Form dome and portals. On its roof the air 
Waves leafy boughs ; the Alpine flower expands ; 
It seems a spell-constructed bower." 




It was too dark to get a view of the Salt-pan, as the narrow 
ravine at the upper end of this Dale is called, so we wended our 
way to Humphrey Merril's tomb, which we took in the dull 
evening light. HoUins House, where he lived, is only about a 
hundred yards distant. 

A slight shower turned us homeward. On our way we noticed 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 1 27 

the remains of President Bradshaw's House,* now used as a barn 
and cow-shed ; and finished the day's work at photographing with 
a view of the village looking east. 

After tea I went again into the churchyard, and was copying 
inscriptions from gravestones till the wind and rain drove me 
indoors. We spent another cozy, chatty evening ; and, after 
talking over the next day's route, and regretting we could not 
bring in a visit to Wet-Within's Druidical circle on the Moor, went 
to bed rather earlier. 

Amongst the inscriptions, I copied the following from a quaint 
tablet to the memory of Anne Sellars and her husband : — • 
Here Li'th 

Ye Body of Anne Sellars Bu 
Ried by this Stone. Who dy 
ed on Jan.y. 15 Day 1731. 
Likewise Here lise dear Jsaac 
Sellars my Husband & my 
Right. Who was buried on 
that Same Day Come seuen 
years 1738. In seuen years 
time there Comes a Change 
Obsarve and Here you'll See 

On that same Day come 
Seuen years my Husbands' 
laid by Me. 
Cunningham, a curate at Eyam near a century ago, has left 
behind him, on the tombstones in this churchyard, several 
specimens of his poetic ability. The following verses are said 
to have been written by him : — 

To the Memory of 

Edward, the son of 

Thomas & Mary Froggatt 

Who died December IV 

A:D:MDCCLXXIX: 

Aged XVIII years. 

* See notice of this place by Mr. Furness, in The Reliquary, Vol. 2, p. 219. 



128 RAMBLE OVF.R DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

How eloquent the monumental stone, 
Where blooming, modest Virtues, prostrate lie ! 
Where pure Religion from her hallow'd Throne, 
Tells man " it is an awful thing to Die." 

Is Happiness thy Aim ? Or Death thy Fear ? 
Learn how their Path with Glory may be trod. 
From the lamented Youth who slumbers here, 
Who gave the Flower of his Days to God. 

The above is on a tombstone in the south-west part of the 
churchyard, near the path. At the east end of the church, " In 
memory of Sarah Cooper," is a stone with the following : — 

In sure and steadfast hope to rise. 
And claim her mansion in the skies, 
A Christian here her flesh laid down. 
The cross exchanging for a crown. 

Meet for the fellowship above 
She heard the call. Arise my love : 
I come, her dying looks replied. 
And lamb like as her Lord she died. 

I also copied the inscription on the tomb of Catherine 
Mompesson : — 

CATHERINA VXOR 

GVLIELMI MOMPESSON 

HVJUS ECCLESI^ RECTS, 

FILIA RADVLPHI CARR, 

NVPER DE COCKEN IN 

COMITATV DVNELMENSIS 

ARMIGERI : 

SEPVLTA VIC ESS I MO 

QVINTO DIE MENSIS AVGTI. 

ANO. DNI. 1666. 

Besides this, at the west end of the tomb is an hour-glass with 
wings and the words Cavete 7iescitis horam ; and at the east end a 
death's head with the motto, Mors mihi lacrum. The following 
inscription is from a lichen-stained stone placed by the east wall 



J 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 



129 



of the porch : — " Abell : the Sonne . of . Thomas . & Alice 
Rowland . was bvried . Jan. the 15th 1665." 




CATHERINE MOMPESSON's TOMB. 



WEDNESDAY. 

" To sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell, 
To slowly trace the forest's shady scene, 
Where things that own not man's dominion dwell, 
And mortal foot hath ne'er or rarely been." 



" In changeful shapes the shadows fall 
On rugged Higger Tor, 
A mellow'd glory fills the dell, 
And gilds each darksome scaur." 

Rose at six o'clock, and breakfasted early ; took a view of 



130 RAMBLF. OVER DERP.VSHIRK HII.I.S AND DALES. 

Catherine Mompesson's tomb, and started on our journey to 
Padley, first providing some bread and cheese, and filling our 
barrel with excellent beer from the " Bull's Head," opposite the 
church. This reminds me that Tillett, hearing one of us talking 
about the Cussy Dale, thought we were speaking of the cussed ale! 
which he immediately took up cudgels for, and heaven knows he 
ought to be a judge ! 

The morning was cloudy and gray, but cleared up as we 
proceeded on our way along the Sheffield Road. We had a 
beautiful view of Stoney Middleton and Froggatt Edge, but too 
hazy for photographing. It soon cleared, and 

" With nought to bear us coippany, 
Save the goodly sunlight glancing free 
From ever)' stream, and rock, and tree," 

we strode along joyfully, in good health and spirits, exhilarated by 
the fresh mountain air. 

A turn in the road brought us in viewx)f the Derwent, at our 
feet, with Stoke Hall and its beautiful surroundings. The cart 
ran very easily now, all the way down to Grindleford Bridge ; but 
after crossing the river, it was all up-hill work for a long, long 
way. 

Not knowing exactly where to look for the ruins of Padley 
Chapel, and being in a totally new neighbourhood, it is not to be 
wondered at that we passed the gate where we ought to have 
turned off the high road, and continued our up-hill course till we 
began to doubt — we knew our quest lay to the left, and that we 
should have to cross the brook, for this much the Ordnance map 
told us. However, we found a gate on the left, with a good road 
through the wood, which we determined to explore till we found 
the ruins ; and O, what an enchanting region we had lighted on ! 
The following quotation from Bryant will give a better idea of the 
place and the feelings it excites, than any words of mine : — 

Stranger, if thou hast learnt a truth, which needs 
Experience more than reason, that the world 
Is full of guilt and miser)', and hast known 
Enough of all its sorrows, crimes and cares, 
To tire thee of it, — enter this wild wood, 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. I3I 

And view the haunts of Nature. The calm shade 

Shall bring a kindred calm, and the sweet breeze, 

That makes the green leaves dance, shall waft a balm 

To thy sick heart. Thou wilt find nothing here 

Of all that pained thee in the haunts of men, 

And made thee loathe thy life. The primal curse 

Fell, it is true, upon the unsinning earth, 

But not in vengeance. Misery is wed 

To guilt. And hence these shades are still the abodes 

Of undissembled gladness : tlie thick roof 

Of green and stirring branches is alive. 

And musical with birds, that sing and sport 

In wantonness of spirit ; while, below, 

The squirrel, with raised paws and form erect, 

Chirps merrily. Throngs of insects in the glades 

Try their thin wings, and dance in the warm beam 

That waked them into life. Even the green trees 

Partake the deep contentment : as they bend 

To the soft wind, the sun from the blue sky 

Looks in and sheds a blessing on the scene. 

Scarce less the cleft-born wild-flower seems to enjoy 

Existence, than the winged plunderer 

That sucks its sweets. The massy rocks themselves. 

The old and ponderous trunks of prostrate trees, 

That bend from knoll to knoll, a causey rude. 

Or bridge the sunken brook, and their dark roots, 

With all their earth upon them ; twisting high 

Breathe fixed tranquillity. The rivulet 

Sends forth glad sounds, and tripping o'er its bed 

Of pebbly sands, or leaping down the rocks, 

.Seems with continuous laughter to rejoice 

111 its own being. Softly tread the marge. 

Lest from her midway perch thou scare the wren 

That dips her bill in water. The cool wind 

That stirs the stream in play shall come to thee. 

Like one that loves ihee, nor will let thee pass 

Ungreeted, and shall give its light embrace. 

Amongst the wonders of this wonderful region we had wandered 
into, the numerous gigantic ant hills stand foremost in my 
memory — great living heaps of insect life, and short sticks and 
straws — hundreds of them, each three or four feet in diameter, 
and each containing myriads of ants. The ferns next claimed 
our admiration, growing in plumy clumps in every direction, and 
bilberry bushes hiding the rocky ground from whence they spnuig. 



132 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 



We were often tempted to turn aside, but held our downward 
path till we came to the gurgling brook, which, leaping amid the 
huge masses of rock that had tumbled down from the hills above 
in some remote period, hurried along its varied course from lin to 
lin till it reached the Derwent below. A rustic bridge here and 
there crosses the brook, and seats are scattered about for resting- 
places in the most charming nooks. We did not know where we 




SCENE IN PADLKY WOOD. 



were (but fancied we were trespassing) till afterwards, when it 
appeared that these delightful walks, where the wildness of nature 
is not marred by man's improvements, belong to the neighbouring 
shooting-box of Longshaw, the property of the Duke of Rutland, 
and is known by the name of Yarncliffe, or Padley, Wood. The 
game was abundant, and so were thfe pictures, and we wandered 
about amidst the choicest " bits," hardly knowing where to 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 133 

commence. We roamed up the steeps on the other side of the 
stream, 

" Old as the hills that fed it from afar," 

till we reached the open moor, where we saw the curious pile of 
rocks called Owler Tor, some half-mile off. This gave us a better 
knowledge of our precise position, and we descended again into 
the leafy labyrinth, where 

" The chequered earth seems restless as a flood 
Brushed by the wind. So sportive is the light, 
Shot through the boughs, it dances as they dance, 
Shadow and sunshme intermingling quick, 
And darkening and enlightening (as the leaves 
Play wanton) ever)' part. " 

We explored to the south, and presently came to a bower on an 
elevation overlooking a most delightful prospect ; this must be 
Cicely Tor, mentioned by Dr. S. T. Hall in his '^ Loiferings near 
Longs/iaru." Numbers of brilliantly-coloured fungi which were 
scattered about the moist earth were very beautiful. Part of our 
explorations were made while Tillett was unpacking and packing 
our apparatus. All of us were loath to leave this charming spot, 
but time was flying very swiftly, and we had taken several pictures, 
and were anxious to get some of the old chapel ; so after a stiff pull 
we reached the road again, and retraced our steps till we came to 
the gate leading to the Saw-mill and Upper Padley. 

We found the farm-house of Mr. Seth Thorpe, and, close by, 
the ruin we were in search of, now used as a barn and cow-house, 
I explored its interior, and in the hay-loft saw some good carved 
corbels for supporting the roof-timbers. Sir Thomas Fitzherbert, 
who married the heiress of Sir Arthur Eyre, lived at Padley Hall, 
and here it was that, in the year 1588, two Catholic priests were 
arrested, and afterwards barbarously executed in Derby, together 
with another priest, Richard Simpson. The two priests taken at 
Padley were Nicholas Garlick, one time schoolmaster at Tides- 
well for the space of seven years, and Robert Ludlam, who was 
born near Sheffield. Tradition says the estate was confiscated, 
and that the Earl of Shrewsbury, then Lord Lieutenant of the 



134 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

county, used his autliority with great severity towards the family 
at Padley.* 

After photographing this relic of olden time from every point of 
view, we retraced our path amid the erratic blocks of gray lime- 
stone with which the field is scattered over, and continued our 
upward route on the high road, with woods on either side, till we 
halted at a moss-covered milestone, close by the wood-gate 
leading down to the Burbage Brook, where we had first wandered. 
Here we enjoyed our bread and cheese, and finished the beer ; 
and whilst resting, a gamekeeper and his assistant came up the 
road. We entered into conversation, and were invited to look 
over the grounds we had so lately left ! 

Up ! up ! up ! it is a long pull, but there is Longshaw. Not a 
very pretentious, but a comfortable-looking place, and I dare say, 
the Duke enjoys himself at this shooting-box quite as much as he 
does at 

" Belvoir, art's masterpiece and Nature's pride." 
Some repairs are going on at the house, a distant view of which 
we take from the road. 

Fox House Inn was next reached, but at this moorland hostelrie 
we only stop for a slight refreshment, and on again, for the sun is 
getting very low, and we must reach Hathersage this night. The 
rocks of Owler, like the Cheesewring in form, on the left, the road 
before us, and the vast moors on our right -what shall we do? 
The road to Hathersage is good, whence the most gorgeous views 
are obtained ? Shall we look for the Druid stones on the other 
side of the road below Owler Tor, or shall we cross the moor, and 
try to find our way to Hathersage, leaving Tillett to take the cart 
by the road ? The latter course seemed the best, as having more 
of adventure in it, besides, I very much wished to get the rocks 
of Higgar and the ancient British wall at Caelswark, if sufficient 
light were left. 

The Burbage Brook crosses the road a little below Fox House, 
on its wild way to the recesses of Yarncliffe Wood, where we first 
made its acquaintance. A little further on we came to a strange- 

* See Rhodes" Peak S:emry and Wood's History of Eyar.i. 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 1 35 

looking rock, projecting over the road on the right, called the 
Toad's Mouth, a large black mass of sandstone very much 
resembling that reptile, or like some antediluvian monster 
crawHng down from the moor and becoming fossilized in ages 
past. It was at the Toad's Mouth we left the unfenced road, and 
turning sharp to the right, struck out across the wild, free moor. 

" Bearing up to the right, knee-deep in ling, bilberry wires, ferns, 
bents, and mossy stones, we came, in about another half-mile, to a 
place known even now by its old Saxon name of Caelswark, />., 
the work of the Gaels or Gaels — the earliest inhabitants of this 
island.* I cannot tell the precise extent of these stupendous 
masses; but they occupy a lofty oval platform of perhaps two 
acres, and overlook a vast outstretch of country to the south of 

east The platform presents its sublimest aspect to the 

east, where an enormous stone (is it in rude imitation of the ark ?) 
appears half launched into the sky from the top of a rocky pro- 
jection, and beneath which two wedges of gritstone seem just to 
sustain it in its perilous position. Along the southern side of the 
platform, and at its western end, portions of a massive wall, well- 
built, though without cement, yet remain, and it revives some 
curious associations, if we recall the attachment of the Druids to 
that tree when a stunted oak, probably, from its appearance the 
successor of one more powerful but now decayed, is seen,t waving 
its branches in this part of the ruins. ... On the north and 
north-eastern sides it would seem that the vast piles of stone, most 
of them many tons in weight, had all been undermined, and 
plunged in one dread commotion deep into the valley beneath, 
where, lying one upon another, they now form a scene of desolation 
indescribable." For this very reason I have used the above words 
of Dr. Hall, in his chapter on " Caelswark and Hic-gaer," the best 
chapter he has written in his Peak and the Plain. We were struck 
witli astonishment and lost in awe and admiration. 

We had some difficulty in getting over a bog before we reached 
Caelswark, and the labour of walking through the stiff vegetation 



See note in The Reliquary, VoL I., p. 163, for further information. 
+ There were no signs of a tree when we were there. 



136 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

of the rock-Strewn moor was very heavy. We succeeded in 
obtaining a small photograph of the wall, and then by planting 
the camera on the top of it, where it is level with the earth above, 
a general view of the whole area. The overhanging rock men- 
tioned by Dr. Hall has a basin on the top which contained about 
two gallons of rainwater on our visit. There are some fine rocking 
stones amidst the vast assemblage — one on the south could be 
easily moved, the large one in the centre also vibrated under our 
pressure ; it is above seven feet high, and twelve or fourteen feet 
in diameter.* The scene on the north side of Caelswark is one of 
dreadful confusion, immense masses of sandstone lying on the 
steep descent in thousands ; while from this eminence the pro- 
spect beyond and all around is grand and overpowering. A lurid 
light illumined the dusky moors, which stretched away to the 
far horizon, and the solitude is almost unbroken ; save a keeper's 
lone house on the other side of the Burbage Brook, which springs 
from the mosses of this moor, and another (Morten's) which cuts 
against the sky on the north-west, there is no sign of human life 
on the broad and ocean-like expanse. About half-a-mile away, 
the immense stones of Higgar, with the Slifter Tor on the extreme 
left of the pile, tower in majesty against the northern sky ; towards 
this eminence we now pushed our way, and stiff work it was. We 
reached the pile near its centre where the great cromlech-like 
stones, so prominent in its distant outline, stand. By the very 
faint light now left to us, Mr. Warwick tried to take a view of this 
curious assemblage of rocks on the north side, while I made a 
sketch of their more imposing but darker front from the south, 
from which the accompanying cut is taken. It was above half- 
past seven o'clock and getting dusk, but we examined the Slifter 
Tor, which is separated by fearful chasms from the main pile, and 
found a trap for weasels on the top. 

* The Rev. J. C. Cox, in his able paper on the Archaological Needs of the 
Couiily, speaking of Cael's-wark, says, " Within the last fifteen years some of 
the most Cyclopean part of the work has been dislodged and worked up into 
millstones. Surely ot<r Society might have this ancient fort carefully surveyed, 
which has never yet been done, and then perhaps move Sir John Lubbock to 
procure its being scheduled in the next Session." — Derby Mercury, Jan. 23, 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 1 37 

Regretting again and again there was no light by which to take 
some views of this magnificent temple of Nature, this City of 
God as it has been called,* the gloom of the place still clinging to 
us, we reluctantly descended on the north side to make the best 
of our way to Hathersage. The number of grouse we disturbed 
was wonderful, the place hereabouts seemed to swarm with them, 
and on after consideration it seemed strange we were allowed to 
pursue our way unmolested by the keepers, especially as it was so 
near the time of grouse shooting. f However, we had accom- 
plished our heart's desire of crossing a real Derbyshire moor, and 
did not then care for all the keepers in creation. Down, down, 
down we went, plunging and perspiring, through the bilberries ; 
now sinking in deep moss, now treading on a stone, till we came 




HIGGAR. TOR. 

to a rough road which seemed to be used by Dame Nature for a 
watercourse when necessity required. We crossed the road, 
jumped the wall ; then down again, steeper still, another piece of 
moorland, amongst the whirring grouse, till, panting with exertion, 

* "It is called by the inhabitants of the neighbourhood 'Higgar,' which I 
take to be a corruption of ' Hu Gaer', i.e., the city of God. — Dr. S. T. Hall. 

t Sir Gardner Wilkinson, speaking of Caelswark, says, " I regret not having 
been allowed to make a plan of it ; but researches among ancient remains on 
these moors, whether camps, or sacred ciicles, are greatly interfered with by 
the importance of the still more 'sacred grouse,' and the keepers ruthlessly 
prohibit any examination of the antiquities wilhin their beats." — Keliguaiy, 
Vol. I, p. 163. 



138 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

we reached a decent-looking road that promised to take us down 
to Hathersage, — which it did. 

We saw, at a lone house, a garland stretched across the road, 
with a wreatli and a pair of gloves cut in paper suspended from 
the centre. 

Calling at the Vicarage to see the Rev. H. Cottingham, I was 
informed he was in tlie church ; here I found him, and I shall 
never forget the beautiful effect I both saw and felt on entering 
the fine old edifice. He was in the chancel practising the choir 
by candlelight, and the mysterious gloom of the place, here and 
there only partially broken by the twilight creeping through the 
richly-stained glass windows, produced a Rembrandt-like effect 
with the stronger light which illuminated the faces of the choristers 
as they woke the slumbering echoes of the sacred pile with their 
melody. 

" The music bursteth into second life ; 
The notes hixuriate, every stone is kissed 
By sound, or ghost of sound, in mazy strife ; 
Heart-thrilling strains, that cast, before the eye 
Of the devout, a veil of ecstasy ! 

My friend recommended us to the "George" Inn at the bottom 
of the village, which we found quite full. On our way thither we 
found Tillett had taken up his quarters with the cart, and was 
refreshing at the " Ordnance Arms, by Richard Perks," so we 
returned to the same place, and partook of a good substantial tea. 
A smoke in the bar afterwards made us very comfortable, and at 
peace with all the world. 



THURSDAY. 

" The rocl<y parapets of Peak I see, 

And in those mountain holds my spirit pants to be." 

We rose at six o'clock in the morning (I need not record that we 
slept well), and went to the churchyard, where we took some views. 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 139 

Little John's grave was rather a disappointment in a photographic 
point of view, as it consisted only of two very small stones at a 
very great distance apart, '< only this and nothing more ;" and if 
Little Johns head touched one and his toes reached the other he 
was indeed John le Tall ! At a short distance to the south-;ast 
of the church is the ancient cottage where he came to die-Jenny 
Sheard s cottage/:= We found the cottage, but Jenny Sheard was 
dead; her nephew, however, lived in it, an old man, and on 
askmg him whether this really was the cottage in which Little John 
died, he replied, "Ay, I reckon this is it." AVe got a large view 
of this. 

Hathersage Church is a fine structure, in the later style of 
English architecture, with a handsome crocketed spire It had 
recently been restored at a considerable expense, and both church 
and churchyard showed signs of great taste and care in their 
proper preservation. The stained glass is very beautiful, though 
modern, and the west window, presented by Mr. George Eyre and 
his three sisters, I thought particularly good. A fine altar-tomb 
on the north side of the chancel, richly-sculptured, has had a new 
marble top, in which are inserted the old brasses. It bears the 
eftgies of Robert Eyre, who fought at the battle of Agincourt and 
his wife, two fine figures ; both are in the attitude of prayer He 
IS in armour, at his feet a lion. Above their heads is a shield 
and below their feet a row of children. The date of this tomb is 
1459- I got rubbings as well as I could in my note-book of the 
shield, and a male and female child from the row, to show the 
costume. There are three other brasses on the south wall of the 
chancel, a triple trefoiled sedilia, and an elegant projecting piscina 
with trefoil arch. The chapel on the north side of the chancel 
contained nothing worthy of note, and is occupied by new plain 
slabs to the Shuttleworths. A fine octagonal font, richly decorated 
with the arms of the Eyres, etc., stands near the south entrance. 

We visited Camp Green, just outside the churchyard to the 
east^ supposed to be a Danish fortification. It is a grassy mound 

* .Since pulled down. 



140 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

of circular form, about a furlong in diameter, surrounded by a 
dry moat once fed by the little stream running down from Car 
Head. 

The Vicarage, close by the west end of the church, completed 
our photographic operations here ; and, after breakfasting, we 
hurried away on our northward course, not daring to stay any 
longer in Hathersage, though it contains much we should have 
liked to have taken away with us on our magic plates. 

The old hall of North Lees was our next point, about a mile- 
and-a-quarter from Hathersage. We started at ten o'clock, and 
a very pleasant walk we found it on this bright summer morning. 
How beautiful everything appeared in the warm sunshine ; and 
what delightful sounds fell on the ear, from the throbbing music 
of the soaring lark, high up in the fervid sky, to the ringing of the 
mower's scythe in the fields below ; the ceaseless hum of happy 
insects, and 

" the blended voice 
Of happy labour, love, and social glee " 

of the rustics who are tedding the swaths of grass, or turning and 
spreading the scented hay. How refreshing are the sights, the 
scents, and sounds of summer, out in the green fields or on the 
hill-tops, by the babbling brook or in the deep wood. 

" O God ! methinks it were a happy life 
To be no better than a homely swain." 

Derwent Chapel was our destination, and we had planned to 
take North Lees en route, but the way being rather rough and 
hilly we had sent Tillett by the highway again, down to Mytham 
Bridge and along the Derwent valley to Ashopton, where we pur- 
posed to meet him. 

A curious incident occurred to us just before reaching North 
Lees : — a little dog belonging to the house seeing us advancing 
along the unfrequented road, barked at us with all his might, but 
finding we took no notice of him, he ran off to an adjoining field 
where the haymakers were busy, and, going to a distant tree, 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 14I 

presently returned with a large shepherd's dog, who also com- 
menced growling and barking, showing a menacing front ; but we 
sent them both off with stones. That the little dog fetched the 
larger one, we had not the least doubt, but by what language or 
signs he procured his friend's assistance I know not. 

We took two small views of the fine old Elizabethan house 
of North Lees, and were very kindly received by Miss Eyre, 
her brother and sisters being in the hay-field. I believe they are 
descendants of the Eyre who built this house, and whose 
monument I noticed in Hathersage Church. We were shown 
over the house, and hospitably invited to some capital bread and 
cheese and porter. What a jolly old room we sat in ! Great 
muUioned windows with I-atin sentences over them in the plaster- 
work, an ornamental frieze filling up the remainder ; the furniture 
all of dark oak, quaintly carved. One piece, I remember, had the 
emblems gf the crucifixion, etc., cut in a very rude fashion.* 
There was an old mezzotint after Morland, and a date over the 
west window, 1594. We went up the spiral staircase, formed out 
of solid oak blocks running round a great pole or newel, right to 
the top of the house, and on to the flat lead roof, from the battle- 
mented parapet of which we had an extensive and beautiful view 
over the valley of the Derwent to the heights of Sir William in the 
distance. I forgot to name a fine carved bedstead on the first 
floor from Derwent Hall. This house is said to be one of those 
built by Robert Eyre for one of his eleven sons. The kitchens 
and back part of the house are comparatively new, and this view 
we took from near the beehives in the garden. 

Thanking our kind hostess for her hospitality, we enquired the 
way to the ruins of the old Chapel, which we found after crossing 
three fields to the north-west. Rank nettles and ash trees of 
considerable growth occupy the area of the ruin, which is about 
forty feet in length. The west end has a low round-headed door- 
way, and the east end is shown in the accompanying illustration. 
This chapel stands on the hill side between North Lees Hall and 

* This is now at Fox House on Hathersacre Moor. 



T4: 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 



the paper mill. The walk was very beautiful and tempting to 

wanderers in search of the picturesque like ourselves ; we 

" often paused, so strange the road, 
So wondrous were the scenes it show'd." 

The brook which served the paper mill seemed to solicit an 
exploration, and pictures for the camera abounded in every 
direction. We could see in the distance, looking back, the forms 
of Higgar and Owler towering against the sky ; at our feet lay the 
valley of the Derwent ; and beyond, the Vale of Hope, with the 
majestic form of Win Hill on our left. Our way now lay beneath 




RUINS OF CHAPEL AT NORTH LEES. 

Bamford Edge, over the moor, and we soon got down to Ashopton 
Inn and Tillett. Fiddling and fuddling seemed the order of 
the day here, being the wakes, but we " refreshed and travelled 
on," keeping by the side of the river Derwent, which here flows 
over a rocky bed along a rather confined valley, Derwent Edge 
keeping us company on our right. 

From Ashopton Inn to Derwent Chapel is a mile-and-a-half, and 
the road being very rough we had all to tug at the cart. I 
noticed great quantities of meadow- sweet growing by the river side. 
It was nearly three o'clock when we reached Derwent Hall, the 



RAMBLE OVER DERPA'SHIRE HILLS AND DALES. ,43 

residence of George Newdigate, Esq.,* an old mansion built by 
one of the Balguy family in 1672. The gardens on the south are 
large, and we took a view of the house from hence for the stereo- 
scope, and some larger views from the road. Near the Hall the 
river is crossed by an old bridge, formerly used by pack-horses • 
this made a beautiful subject for us. We dined in the entrance 
hall, which contains some fine tapestry. On the south-east is a 
large fish-pond. On the keystone of the front doorway are carved 
the arms of the Balguys, and a quaint old dial is fixed on the 
garden wall to the right of the house. Thanking Mr. Newdigate 
for his hospitable reception, we turned our faces southward and 
retraced our steps to Ashopton. 

The evening was beautiful, -but the walk a long one, and the 
rough road added much to our labour. Tillett fell down with the 
cart handle on the sharp stones and cut his knuckles badly 
fortunately I carried some sticking-plaster and bandaged him up' 
The road improved after passing Ashopton Inn, but we were all 
getting tired. Six miles further, and we reached the village of 
Hope, regularly done up. We turned into the Inn near the Church 
and soon had our dry throats moistened with a mixture of ale and 
ginger beer. Thus refreshed, we once more took to the road, for we 
could not rest in Hope. It was too late to examine the 
interesting old church, and we proceeded on our way to Castleton, 
beyond which a gorgeous spectacle was spread before our eyes bv 
the setting sun— it is soon over, and 

" No wreck of all the pageantry remains."— 

Venus is left in the twilight sky to reign supreme. It was nine 
o clock, and dusk when we reached Castleton, 

" The castle, looming dimly, 

Stands out in bold relief; 
Mam Tor is faintly gleaming 

In the clear and cloudless west. 
And the chimes in warning numbers 

Ring— 'tis near the hour of rest. " 



Now the Shooting-box of the Duke of Norfolk. 



144 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

We entered the "Nag's Head," had a jolly good meal, stretched our 
tired limbs, and smoked a pipe or two as we talked over the events 
of the day, and retired at 11.30. 



FRIDAY. 

" All scattered round in breadth and beauty lies 
A scene most charming to a poet's eyes. 
Behind, the Castle-hill uprears his head ; 
In front, the vale, magnificently spread — 
Bounded by lofty peaks on either side." 

Turned out of bed at 5.30, and made an exploring excursion in 
our slippers up Cave Dale, to the Great Cavern, and up the 
zig-zag to the Castle. Another stiff day's work was in store for us, 
so we each made a hearty breakfast and then set to work. 

Our first view was of Peveril Castle on the east side. There is 
a turret at the south-east corner. The ashlar-work has nearly all 
tumbled off from this part of the old keep,* and the hard mortar 
projects beyond the time-worn stones it so tenaciously holds 
together. There is a small piece of zig-zag moulding on the 
inside of the wall, and ashes and scyamores spring from the floor. 
Very little else remains except this old tower or keep, and from 
the size of the area, and the crumbling outworks still existing, 
it would appear that Peak Castle was never a very large place, but, 
from its insulated position, almost impregnable. Looking down 
into the chasm and over the entrance to the Great Cavern, it is a 
sheer precipice of great depth. The Castle is quite unapproach- 
able from Cave Dale ; and from the only side whence it is 
accessible, it has to be reached by traverses on the steep face 
of the hill. The view from the Castle yard is most imposing and 
beautiful ; including the village of Castleton at our feet ; the giant 
Mam Tor on the west ; Lose Hill, Win Hill, Bamford Edge, and 

* Croston. in his On Foot throiii^h the Peak, says that these beautifully- worked 
stones have been stripped off by some former churchwardens to repair the 
church ! 



RAMRLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. I45 

away to ihe heights beyond Hathersage on the east. The delighted 
eye wanders over the wide and luxuriant Vale of Hope, spread 
out in slyvan beauty, and contrasting with the savage grandeur by 
which it is almost surrounded. 

Cave Dale is reached through an exceedingly narrow pass, 
on looking back through which, the church and hills beyond form 
a pleasing view, Win Hill filling in the distance ; this we photo- 
graphed. It was very delightful up this secluded ravine, lolling 
about on the dry grassy slopes, and looking back at the Castle, 



PEVERIL CASTLE. 



with the bold jutting rocks in the foreground ; while in the azure 
vault above, the clouds kept rising rapidly from the near horizon, 
then sailed away 

" Like ships upon the sea." 

The wind was brisk and exhilarating, and not having much foliage 
in our views, was not so objectionable as it usually is to landscape 
photographers. We took several pictures in Cave Dale, some of 
which include the Castle, and show the angle-shaft with Norman 
capital. The casing of the walls too on this side has been 
unmolested. It is rather curious that the Castle should have been 
built with sandstone when all the surrounding rocks are of moun- 
tain limestone. 

The Great Peak Cavern, as it is usually called now (though it 



146 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

boasts of several aliases), next claimed our attention ; and we were 
soon within sight of the truly wonderful entrance to this far-famed 
wonder of the Peak, than which nothing is finer in the whole 
county : the immense span of the natural arch, with the 
enormous precipice above, and the gloom of its deep recesses, all 
give it a grandeur unsurpassed. From the comparatively small 
amount of light in the deep ravine where the cavern is situated, 
we were obliged to give our plates a very long exposure ; in the 
meantime we were much amused in watching the busy groups of 
twine-makers as they walked to and fro, into and out of the dark- 
ness, as they followed their employment, while ever and anon 
a singing shout of " tur-r-r-n !" assailed our ears, and round went 
the great wheels and reels. I sat here, close by the guide's hut, 
watching their nimble movements and listening to their mono- 
tonous cries with a running accompaniment of caws from tlie 
jackdaws in the rocks and trees above, till I fell into a doze, from 
which I was awakened by my companions when the place was 
done. So long had been the exposure that the moving figures left 
no trace in the picture, which turned out a very good one. 

The guide told us that since my last visit here the innermost 
recesses of the cavern had been made more easy of access, and 
that visitors had not now to lie on their backs in the flat boat to be 
pushed over the " first water." What a pity ! I remember well 
that it was about the most exciting and interesting part of the 
underground journey, for I was afraid of my fair companion 
setting fire with her candle to the straw in which we lay ! There 
was no jumping up out of the way of fire in such a case, for the 
solid roof of rock came down to within a few inches of our noses. 

We had no time for exploring caverns* now, for we wanted to 
get on our journey, yet it was four o'clock when we left Castleton 
by the rocky pass of the Winnats, or Wind-gates, for the wind is 
supposed always to be blowing great guns up here. Before 
reaching the Speedwell Cavern, we came across Soft Sammy, — or 

* Besides the Great Peak Cavern, Castleton boasts of the Speedwell and 
Blue John mines, each worthy a visit. The Odin mine is still worked, and is 
one of the oldest lead mines in the kingdom. 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 



147 



more correctly speaking, he came across us, for it is his business to 
waylay all strangers — but he was not soft enough to help to pull 
our cart up the Winnats, not he ; however, as he was not willing to 
work, he got no pay, and soon left us. Hercules ! what a pull it 
was up that steep and stony road. The wind whistled through 
the rocky portals, and we puffed and blowed too — one ought not 
to be short of wind to pull a cart, be it ever so liglit and springy. 




GREAT PEAK CAVERN, CASTLETON. 



up the Wind-gates ! But turn and behold the scene at your feet, 
where the sweet A^ale of Hope lies mapped out in liglit and shade. 
Look at the everlasting hills in grand array stretching away into 
the dim distance, fleckered over with the shifting shadows of the 
clouds ! " The eye can hardly wander over a more delightful 
scene than is here displayed." Turn again, and precipitous slopes 
and rugged rocks make up the savage scene ; and " the tale of 



148 RAMBLE OVER J)ER1!VSH1RE HILI.S AND DALE?. 

horror " comes to mind, liow a lover and his lady fair were foully 
murdered near this spot whereon we stand. We rested while a 
view was taken, and again, further up the defile, hemmed in by 
mountains on every side, we took another ; but never will any of 
us forget our journey up the Winnats — and yet this was once the 
coach road ! 

We got over the ground much quicker after we reached the top 
of the pass, and three miles further on we came to Perryfoot, 
where the stream that runs through Peak Cavern is engulphed. 
These sivalhics, as they are called, are very numerous in the Peak 
of Derbyshire. Eldon Hole, on our left, was passed about a mile 
further back, but we had neither time nor inclination to visit 
either it or the ebbing and flowing well, for we wanted to get on 
to Peak Forest, another three miles, where we intended to pass 
the night. 

Nothing of note occurred on our walk round by Sparrow Pit to 
Peak Forest; the shades of evening were closing over us rapidly, 
and we hailed the appearance of the village with delight. Our 
appearance .seemed to afford unlimited pleasure and curiosity to 
the young Peakrels, who evidently took us for travelling showmen 
or tumblers, or somebodies of that ilk. The village seemed all 
alive ; what could be the matter ? We soon learned to our sorrow, 
for on enquiring for beds at the first inn we came to, we were told 
that it was the eve of the wakes, and that there was no room for 
us. Here was a pretty state of affairs ! We tried all three of the 
inns, and we tried their beer, but they would none of them let us try 
their beds ; we were told, however, that a quarter-of a-mile further 
on there was an inn at Mount Pleasant where we should most likely 
get accommodated. After at least half-a-mile's walk all up-hill, in 
the dark, we saw a gloomy building looming before us — and this 
was Mount Pleasant 1 — it was not a pleasant mount for us at any 
rate ! Now for something to eat, and then to bed, that '' heaven 
on earth for a weary head," and legs and back too, Thomas Hood. 
We are not quite sure if the house has not itself retired to rest, all 
looks very dark. No, there is a light under the door, and in we 
go. A damsel receives us, and on enquiry, says we can have 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 1 49 

beds ; so we begin to inwardly congratulate ourselves on getting 
housed at last, when we observed a lean old man in the chimney 
corner talking to two other Peakerins, and jve seemed to be the 
subject of their conversation. After calling the girl to him and 
some further confabulation, the old man, who it appeared was the 
Lindlord, spake up and addressed us with, "An what might yo'r 
bizziniss ba?" We told him we were on a tour through the Peak, 
taking views, and that we had a little vehicle at the door, — where 
could we put it for the night ? He had supposed us railway 
surveyors. " Well, yo' canna sleep here," said Boniface. He 
evidently did not quite like the looks of us, either from two of our 
number wearing beards, or from the stated object of our journey, 
which to him no doubt seemed a very frivolous one for four able- 
bodied men to employ themselves in. We explained that any 
room or rooms would satisfy us, for we were too tired to be 
particular, but the old fellow would none of us. " Yo' canna 
sleep here," was all the answer we could get ; so travel-stained, 
worn and tired, we had to turn our backs on the inhospitable 
house, and once more face the dark road. 

It was nearly 10 o'clock, and a starlight night, when we issued 
from the "High Peak Tavern" (it might as well have been Cavern), 
as it is called in the Ordnance Map, but coming from the bright 
glare of a tap-room fire, we could scarcely see which way to go at 
first ; becoming more accustomed to the darkness, we found 
ourselves on the capital road which connects Chapel-en-le Frith 
with Tideswell, but 

" There is no light in eai ih or heaven 
But the cold light of .stars," 

as Longfellow sings, and the stars did shine most resplendently 
on th.it night. Stars, however, did not suffice to show us the way 
to Tideswell, and more than once I had to strike a light by which 
to study the Ordnance Map, and make sure we were going right. 
A mile-and-a-half brought us to a turning in the right direction, 
and though our candle would not sufficiently illuminate the 
guide-post, the map showed us that it ran parallel with a brook 
right down to Tideswell ; therefore it must be down-hill and the 



150 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES 

nearest road if none of the widest. Little more than a mile then 
along Brook Bottom brought us to Tidser, as it is locally called. 
We did not waste time in looking about for the best inn ; nearly 
all the houses were in darkness, and as we were strangers in the 
land, turned into the first we came to — I believ.e it was called the 
" Reindeer," but at any rate it was an inn, and we took prompt 
possession of the commercial room, ordering tea and meat, and 
beds. Tlie landlord was very sorry, but he had two gentlemen 
staying tliere, who occupied the only beds they had to spare — 
they were going away to-morrow. Yes, and so were we, but not 
before ; we would rather sleep on the sofa and chairs, hearthrug, 
anything, than turn out again ; the idea could not be entertained 
for a moment. We had tea, and some bad frizzled ham, for 
which our host, who was really a very civil and obliging fellow, 
made many apologies ; but we could not touch it, hungry as we 
were, though there was nothing else in the house, and it was too 
late to procure meat elsewhere, so we filled our vacuums with 
bread and butter. The two gentlemen came in, and we sat and 
chatted and had a glass of grog together while we laughed over 
our adventure. Meantime, the landlord, by altering his family 
arrangements, had prepared a little room for us to sleep in, which 
again called forth his apologies, and not without cause, but I 
don't think we should have refused a hay-loft ! It was midnight 
before we went to roost, up a rather narrow staircase, which was 
half taken out of our bedroom ; this and the two beds occupied 
nearly the whole area — indeed there was not space for us all 
to undress at once, and we laughed and joked not a little. The 
door of our room had a wooden latch with a finger-hole, and the 
ill-fitting planks of which it was made ensured a certain amount 
of ventilation ; but the two bedsteads were a much closer fit, 
head and foot they touched each other, and they also touched the 
walls at either end of the room ! Two of us, without much effort, 
could reach the heads of the others by stretching out our toes, 
while they in turn could tap at the latticed window as easily with 
theirs ! We soon got to sleep and slept soundly, notwithstanding 
our queer quarters. 



KA.MI3LK OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 15I 



SATURDAY. 



" Aijain I hear 
These waters, rolling from their mountain springs 
With a soft inland murmur. — Once again 
Do I behold these steep and lofty cliffs, 
That in a wild secluded scene impress 
Thought of more deep seclusion ; and connect 
The landscape with the quiet of the sky." 



In the morning we got up soon after six o'clock, one at a time, so 
as to have room to wash. We were provided with a good 
breakfast, and with many thanks from our host, and further 
apologies and promises of better accommodation should we ever 
honour him again with a visit, we commenced our last day's 
work. 

Tideswell, a small market-town with a large parish and a fine 
church, is a place of considerable antiquity, and takes its name 
from an ebbing and flowing well which once existed here. It 
boasts of a Free Grammar School, founded in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth ; but the chief glory of Tideswell is its church, which 
is of the decorated order of Gothic architecture, though the 
tower with its somewhat heavy pinnacles appears of a later date. 
The interior is very spacious and light, having large windows, all 
void of stained glass, the introduction of which would add much 
to the beauty of the building — there are nine great windows in the 
chancel alone. This church is cruciform, and I noticed that the 
pillars of the transepts were out of the perpendicular from the 
unequal pressure of the different arches supported by them. The 
wood-work of the chancel roof is particularly beautiful, and the 
numerous tombs which occupy this part of the church furnish 
interesting subjects for the antiquary. There is one to Bishop 
Pursglove, who founded the Grammar School and Hospital here, 
which has a particularly fine brass, the most notable one in the 
county, I believe. There is a brass in another part of the church 



152 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 



of the Lytton family. The altar-tomb of Sampson Meverell is a 
very strange one ; the sides being left open reveal an emaciated 
figure, such as one sees in Holbein's Dance of Death, wrapped 
in a winding sheet.* 

After seeing the church, there is little else at Tideswell to 
interest the stranger, and I was not very favourably impressed 
with the general appearance of the town ; so taking a view of the 
church from the south-east, we wended our way over the hill to 
Wheston, along a narrow Peak road, passing the base of an 
ancient cross on the way. Wheston is about a mileand-a-half 
from Tideswell, and possesses a very beautiful cross, which 
formerly stood on the roadside opposite the Hall, now a farm- 
house. This cross is in the farm-yard. It is of elegant propor- 
tions, rising from three steps ; the shaft is square and taper- 
ing, with chamfered corners ; on one side is a mutilated 




MONSAL DALE. 



representation of the crucifixion, and on the other the Virgin 
and Child ; the latter we could not get at, clear of obstacles, for 
photographing ; but it is very accurately engraved in Rhodes' 
Peak Scenery, from a drawing by Chantrey. 



The Rev. S. Andrew, the present vicar, has done and is still doing much for 
the preservation of this noble specimen of church architecture. 



RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 1 53 

Retracing our steps to Tideswell, we purposed making our 
homeward journey through Monsal Dale, but instead of consulting 
the Ordnance Map, we asked our way of a nntive and were mis- 
directed, going out of our way a mile or more, and retracing our 
steps ui>hill. It was a dreary and uninteresting road near Litton, 
and all the way to Cressbrook, and the descent into Monsal Dale, 
just behind Mr. McConnell's mills, required our united strength 
to get the cart down the steep, smooth slope. 

Monsal Dale is a most charming place to spend a day in, but 
we were tired and jaded, and only took one view of " the Arcadia 
of the Peak,'' as it has been called. The best way of seeing this 
famed valley is to come suddenly upon it from Edgestone Head, 
from whence the greater part is seen lying at your feet in sylvan 
beauty, the bright and sparkling river Wye winding along the 
whole length, through meadows of the richest green. Groups of 
fine ash-trees and a few farm-houses and cottages, with a rustic 
bridge and a row of stepping-stones, add much to the beauty and 
interest of this picture, closed in on every side by high hills and 
waving woods. Perhaps the most picturesque part of this pretty 
dale is near the 'Mepping stones ; ' but, lower down the river, 
after its sudden turn westward, in its more secluded part, between 
the giant hills of High Field and Fin Cop, the scenery is very 
fine. On Fin Cop the Romans had an encampment, and at 
its foot stands the curious assemblage of rocks called Hob's 
House.* 

I must not dwell any longer on the beauties of Monsal Dale ; 
our holiday ramble draws near to its eml. We left the Dale by 
the steep road up to Edgestone Head, where we rested awhile, 
and refreshed ourselves at the " Bull's Head." In the house- 
place of this old inn is a curious arrangement for training up 
children in the way they should walk ; neither the old-fashioned 
go-cart nor the modern baby-jumper, but a strange-looking piece 
of mechanism fixed to one of the rafters in the ceiling, a little 
distance from the fire-place, which at first sight I took to be 

* Hobgoblin, Puck, or Robin Goodfellow. 



154 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

some arrangement for drying clothes. It is something after this 
fashion : — 




After a good deal of puzzling, we gave up all attempts at guessing 
its object ; but the landlady explained that it was " to tie the 
baby to," and so help it to walk. A wheel with hook attached 
traverses a long strip of wood which is fastened to one of the 
joists ; a cord is attached at one end to the hook, and at the 
other to the baby, keeping the latter on its feet and thus develop- 
ing and assisting the power of locomotion. 

Two miles furtlier, and we were at Ashford-in-the-AVater, a 
pretty little village noted for its marble works and quarries. The 
church is a small and ancient building ; we got over the wall, (for 
the churchyard gates, like many others, I am sorry to say, are kept 
locked,) to examine the curious piece of old sculpture with a new 
text added to it, near the south door, the base of a cross, and the 
defaced stone carving over the priest's door. We also, found a 
curious inscription on the outside of the north wall of the church. 
But the inside, which we could not see on this occasion without a 
loss of time in hunting up the keys, contains the most interesting, 
though fragile memorials, which are becoming extremely rare in 
our county churches ; I mean the funeral garlands made by the 
friends of unmarried women on their decease, and which after the 
funeral were hung up in the ciiurches. This old custom, like 
many others, now belongs to the past. Miss Seward, in some 
lines on her native village of Eyam, writes : — 



RAMBLE OVER DERHVSHIkE HILLS AND DALES. 155 

" Now the low beams wiih paper garlands hung, 
In memory of some village youth or maid, 
Draws tlie soft tear, from tlirill'd remembrance sprung ; 
How oft my childhood marked that tribute paid ! 

The gloves suspended by the garland's side, 
White as its snowy flowers with ribbands tied, 

Dear Village ! long these wreaths funereal spread, 
Simple memorial of the early dead." 

Later (1818), Rhodes, in his Peak Scenery^ speaking of Hathersage 
church, alludes to this custom as having been prevalent there, but 
rapidly falling into disuse. That it has not yet died out will be 
seen from what I noted last Wednesday in the same parish. As a 
boy, above twenty years ago, I well remember noticiag a paper 
garland of flowers w'ith a pair of gloves hanging in Ham Church, 
which 1 was told had been there a great many years. '^ 

Bakewell, one of the cleanest and prettiest little towns in the 
county, was reached next, after a walk of about two miles. The 
church is partly a very ancient structure, and contains many 
interesting monuments to the Vernon and Manners families, Sir 
Godfrey Foljambe, and others. The west doorway, together with 
the intersecting arches of the arcading above it, are Norman, and 
the arch of the doorway is decorated with what I took to be the 
zodiacal sigiis ; the font is of the same period, I fancy, and has 
rude figures on each of its eight sides. In the churchyard is a 
mutilated cross of a similar style of ornamentation to the one at 
Eyam. On the front of the cross the figures appear to represent 
the birth, crucifixion, entombment, resurrection, and ascension of 
our Saviour ; on the reverse is Christ entering Jerusalem on an 
ass. There are good baths here, and good inns in abundance ; a 
pretty river, good fishing, and charming walks in every direction. 
We had still nearly four miles to walk to Rowsley, along " the 
sweet Vale of Haddon," and, though too late to see its beauties, 
and too tired to thoroughly enjoy them if we could, I cannot pass it 
by without a word, for I think the view of Haddon Hall from the 



Mr. lewitt has an excellent aiticle on Funeral Garlands in The Reliquary, 
Vol. I., p. 5. 



156 RAMBLE OVER DERBYSHIRE HILLS AND DALES. 

north-west, on a fine evening at sunset, most beautiful. Haddon 
Hall is a place one never tires of; each succeeding visit discovers 
new beauties, and different seasons and times produce varied 
effects on its gray old walls and towers. Many a happy day have 
I spent there, and many a picture have 1 taken away. Haddon is 
" a joy for ever '' — and whether we ramble along the sinuous 
banks of the sparkling Wye to obtain delicious peeps through the 
grand old trees, or tread its 

" Silent courts 
Deserted lialls, and turrets high," 

or wander musingly in the old gardens beneath the shade of 
yews ; at every step and every turn, Haddon presents some new 
feature, some new charm to interest and delight the lover of the 
picturesque and the beautiful. 

" I have seen 
Old houses, where the men of former time 
Have lived and died, so wantonly destroyed 
By their descendants, that a place like this, 
Preserved with pious care, but not ' restored ' 
By aide, presumptuous hands, nor modernized 
To suit convenience, seems a precious thing ; 
And I would thank its owner for the hours 
That I have spent there ; and I leave it now, 
Hoping that his successors may preserve 
Its roof with equal tenderness. It gave 
Good shelter to their fathers many a year." 

In half-an-hour after passing Haddon we were once more in 
the train at Rowsley, and soon reached " home, sweet home." 
We have since had many pleasant journeying* together, but 
none more thoroughly enjoyed than this our Six Days' Ramble 
OVER Derbyshire Hills and Dales. 



157 



of %U1)ntin. 




By Rev. J. Charles Cox. 



MONG the capitular muniments at Lichfield is an 
undated manuscript list of the benefices and chapelries 
of the diocese, which also gives the names of the 
officiating clergy, with their degrees and preaching 
license, and their stipend. The manuscript consists of eighteen 
paper folios loosely stitched together, and now much frayed. The 
writing is the same throughout, and is nearly complete for the 
whole diocese, with the exception of the Staffordshire deanery of 
Lapley and Tresull. By a careful collation of the names of the 
incumbents, it is proved that the time of the compilation of this 
list was the last year of Elizabeth, or the first of James I., 1602-3. 
So much of interest has ever attached to the condition of the 
State clergy at different epochs in our national history, that such a 
list as this is of no small value. That one of the immediate 
effects of the Reformation was to materially lower the influence, 
the social standing, and especially the learning of the secular 
clergy, is beyond gainsaying. Several proofs of this are extant in 
clerical rolls of the earlier part of Elizabeth's reign. In the year 
1563, out of the one hundred and sixteen priests of the Arch- 
deaconry of London, forty-two were ignorant of Latin, thirteen 
had received no classical learning whatever, and four were in 
every way " indocti." Thirty-one of the remaining fifty-seven 



158 ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LLST. 

were classed in the Archdeacon's register as " latine mediocriter 
intell," and actually only three had any knowledge of the Greek 
tongue! Strype, in his " Annals of tlie Reformation," states that 
the custom of ordaining unscholarly candidates speedily passed 
away as soon as the urgent necessity had come to an end, and 
implies that the choice of graduates only was the rule after 1573, 
but the manuscript before us conclusively disproves this statement. 
This Lichfield list covers a far wider area than any other that has 
hitherto been made the basis of special comment, and is also of a 
much later date than instances usually quoted, for the first wave 
of the Reformation had fairly settled down by the end of 
Elizabeth's reign. 

The order in which the benefices and chapelries are given is : 
Staffordshire, Derbyshire, Shropshire, and Warwickshire, and 
follows for the most part the division of rural deaneries. In no 
part of England, except possibly Lancashire, and certainly in no 
one diocese, is the change that three centuries have made in the 
population more remarkable. In 1603, Birmingham was content 
with a single parson, one Luke Smith, and Mr. Smith, being a 
pluralist and keeping no curates, was also the single parson at 
Solihull, about seven miles distant. Birmingham of 1884, instead 
of finding occupation for half a parson, keeps upwards of sixty 
ministers of the Establishment in full employment, and that 
exclusive of the suburbs, many of which are now indistinguishable 
from the town proper. Rugby, which is not at first recognised 
under its older name of Rookeby, notwithstanding the founding of 
its great grammar school earlier in Elizabeth's reign, had for a 
parson one who had no degree and was no preacher. 

The total number of benefices and chapelries enumerated in 
this list is four hundred and sixty-one, and the total of clergy four 
hundred and thirty-three. Out of this total of the clergy, only 
about one-fourth were graduates — viz., one hundred and ten, and 
those who were licensed to preach were less than a fifth, viz., 
eighty-two. 

Of the graduates, thirty-eight were Bachelors of Arts, sixty-five 
Masters of Arts, two Bachelors of Divinity, four Doctors of 



KLIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. I 59 

Divinity, and one " Bachelor of lawe." Another gentleman, who 
served the Derbyshire cures of Sutton and Trusley, is entered as 
"Student in Cambridge 7 years." 

The column relating to preacher's license is of special interest. 
Henry VIII. was of opinion that four sermons a year was an 
ample sufficiency. Edward VI enjoined- eight sermons a year in 
every parish church, four of them to be against Papacy, and on 
behalf of the Royal supremacy. The Elizabethan injunctions of 
1559 imply that a licensed preacher should preach in every parish 
church four times a year, and that on other Sundays a homily 
should be read. This Lichfield Diocesan List was drawn up in 
the very year when the present canons of the Church were put 
forth, and was very possibly one of a similar series from each of 
the dioceses of the province of Canterbury that caused the greater 
stringency of canons xlv., xlvi., and xlvii. with respect to preach- 
ing. The preacher's license, now given as a matter of form to 
every raw deacon on his ordination, was then a question of far 
more serious consideration, no doubt in some measure owing to 
the prevalence of political and controversial discourses. The 
possession of a degree by no means implied the preacher. Several 
of the Bachelors, and some few of the Masters in this catalogue, 
are entered as "no preachers;" whereas there are, on the other 
hand, several instances of non-graduates who were duly licensed 
to preacli, though generally "in their own cure." Doctors of 
Divinity were, however, accepted by the Bishops as duly licensed 
by virtue of their degree. The Universities themselves granted 
preachers' licenses to other than Doctors, and which were appa- 
rently also recognised by the Bishops ; in Lichfield diocese there 
was an M.A. holding an Oxford University preacher's license, 
granted 16 years before, and another M.A. and a B.D. both holding 
preachers' licenses of the University of Cambridge. Fifty-one of 
the clergy held a license direct from their own Bishop, seventeen 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury, six from the Archbishop of 
York, one each from the Bishops of Lincoln, Ely, and Norwich, 
and one from two Doctors during the vacancy of the Lichfield 
See. As a rule, licenses once granted in any See seem to have 



l6o ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 

been accepted elsewhere in the case of change of diocese ; but 
there were apparently exceptions, for one of the Lichfield clergy 
held the license of Bishop Jewell of Saram in addition to that of 
his diocesan, and another one held in like addition the license of 
the Bishop of Gloucester. Some of these licenses dated back 
many years. Bishop Jewell, for instance, had been dead 32 
years ; two held licenses of Bishop Bentham of Lichfield, who 
had been dead 23 years; another of Archbishop Parker, and 
another of Arclibishop Sandys, of York. 

The compiling of this list brought to light certain abuses ; such, 
for instance, as the parson who was preaching in his own cure, 
but held no license, and the far graver case of Cutberd Terry, the 
nominal minister of Bardingbury, in Warwickshire, but who is 
declared to be "no parson." 

The final column of this catalogue, in which are entered the 
clerical stipends, is chiefly taken from the Valor Ecchsiasticus of 
Henry VIIL, and is quoted from as "the Kinges Bookes," but 
the sums paid to the curates of chapelries are also duly entered. 
A few even of these entries are somewhat remarkable, as showing 
the way in which the paltry pittance of the country curate was 
eked out by board at the squire's or yeoman's table. The curate 
of Marebrooke Chapel received annually " iiij'' in money and 
his dyott," whilst the curate of Wingerworth, who was a Bachelor 
of Arts but no preacher, received " vj" xiij'' iiij'^ and his table." 

My thanks are due to the Dean and Chapter of Lichfield for 
permission to print this Clergy List in extenso. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



l6l 



Leighe als Lee — 
John Palmer, Parson. 



Dilhorne — 

Richard Cooke, Vicar 'no degree 

Creswell — I 

Kaph Turner, Vicar 

Alveiton — 

Thomas Rawlin, Vicar no degree 

Grindon — 

Lawrence Boxley, Parson bachelor of artes 



Sheene — 

James Humbleton, Curate ...no degree 
Ham — i 

Roger Mosse, vicar no degree 

Chedull— 

Samuell Heron, vie 

Hamlet Carlton, curate [no degree 

Bloare — 

Robtus Elde, vicar 

Matherfield — 

Kobert Wardle, vicar no degree 

Kingsley — j 

Nicholas Steedman, Parson... no degree 
Butterton, cap. — 

Hugo Higenbotham, Cur 
Wetton— 

Richard Alcocke, curate . 
Waterfall — 

Edmundus Okeden, curate ...!no degree 
Roaster — 

Robert Smith, curate 

Bradley chapel — 

Richard Tetlow, curate 
C aid on — 

Robert Wardle, curate.. 
Calton — 

Johes Tetlowe, curate .. 
Bramshall — 

Thomas Key, rector [no degree 



no degree 



no degree 



a preacher licensed jxiiij/?. iiij</. in the 
by the Lordi kings bookes. 
Bush<ipof Covtni 
& Lich : 1 

no preacher viij//. in the kings 

bookes. 



no preacher Iv//. xvjs. in ye 

j kinges bookes. 
a preacher licensedlxv/?'. in the kinges 



by the most 
reverend father 
in God the Lo : 
archbushop of 
Canterbury his 
G. 1583 



no preacher, 
no preacher. 



no preacher 
no preacher 



no degree 

a bachelorof art. 
no degree .... 
no degree 



bookes. 



a stipend of iiij//. 

xiij.y. iiij(/. 
vj/j. xiijj. iiijfl''. in 
the kinges bookes 



xiij//. vj.y. viiji/. 

stipend. 
viij/V. viij.r. in the 
I kings hookes. 

no preacher I'^j'''- xiij'f- iiij^. in 

the kinges bookes 

xv//. xvjj. in the 

kinges bookes. 



v]/i. in money 

stipend, 
v/z'. stipend. 



vj/i. xn}s. iiijf/. 

stipend, 
viij//. 



Alstonfieid — 

Francis Padd no degree 

Longnor chap — 

Humfrey Goodwin, reader ...Uio degree 
Warslowe — 

Henry Smith, reader 'no degree 

13 



no preacher.. 

no preacher.. 

no preacher.. 

no preacher.. 

no preacher vj//. stipend. 

no preacher 

japublique preacher iiij//. in the kinges 
licensed by thej bookes. 
Lord Bp. of. 
Coven. & Lich. 

I preacher a stipend. 

! 
) preacher [a stipend. 

) preacher a stipend. 



l62 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Uttoxeter — I 

Thomas Barnes, vicar | no degree 

Robert Luther preacher thereMr. of artes 



Elkestone, chap — 

Richard Bullock, reader 



William , . . cui 
Seighford — 

John Yardley, Vicar.. 
Raynton & Elynhall — 

Francis Alsop, curate 



no degree 
no degree 
no degree 



Chehsay — 

Hiimfreus Whitmore, Vicar... no degree 
Sandon — 

Petrus Bordman, vicar no degree 

Milwich — 

Thomas Kiddinger, vicar no degree 

Stowe — 

Richard Bolton, curate no degree 

Gaiton — 

George Granger, curate 
Gratwich — 

Richard Fovvell, curate no degree 

Swinnerton — 

John Berdmore, curate no degree 

Stone — 

Barnabas Willet, curate no degree 

Fulton — 

Hugo Meare, curate no dt-gree 

Standon — 

Robert Aston, Parson no degree 

B.irlastone — 

James Baily, curate no degree 

Trentham — 

John Brad wall, curate 'no decree 

Chesvvardine — 

Humfrey Steele, vicar no decree 

Ashley — 

Robert Freeman, Parson a Mr. of art. 



no preacher. 



a preacher by y= 
Ld Bp. of Co 
& Lich : 



no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher. 

no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher.. 



no degree ino preacher 



Muckeston — - 

Thomas Lea, Parson. 



Madley — 

Robert Morrice, vicar 
Meyre — 

John Huntbury, cur 

Talke, cap. — 



A Mr. of art 



no degree 



no preacher, 
no pre.acher. 
no preacher 
no preacher., 
no preacher , 
no preacher., 
no preacher., 
no preacher. 



v//. iij</. ob. in the 
kinges bookes. 

neither benefice 
nor stipend. 



wli. in small tithes. 



yH. xiijj. iiiji/. sti- 
pend, iiij/i. xiijj-. 
xiij(/. stipend. 

\'li. \]s. \\\]d. in the 
kinges bookes. 

vijV/. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 

iiij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 

viij//. stipend. 

a stipend. 
\\s. stipend. 



viij,/. 
iiijd. 



a preacher licensed 
by Thomas Ben- 
tham, late L. 
Bushop of Lich : 

a preacher licensed 
by tlie reverend 
father Thomas, 
late Lord Bushop 
of Lichfield.. 



no preacher. 



xiij//. \]s. 

stipend, 
x//. xiij.;. 

stipend, 
a stipend. 



vij//. in the kings 

bookes. 
a stipend vij//. 

viij//. stipend. 

v//. vj.s.viij./. in the 
kings bookes. 

x//. ijj-. in the 
kinges bookes. 



ex//, iij.c in the 
kinges bookes. 



The tithes are 
valued at ix//. 
In the kings 
bookes iiij//. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



SVeston-upon-Trent — I 

Robert faux, curate no degree 

Betley — 

Raphe Eyton, curate 'no degree 

Awdley — I 

William Kelsall, vicar no degree 

Woolstanton — 

Henry Stevenson, vicar no degree 



Keele chap of Woolstanton- 
Robt. Butterton, curate . 

Biddulfe— 

Richard Badily, vicar .... 

Stoke-upon-Trent — 

Thomas Lightfoot, curate. 



no degree 
no degree 



Bucknall chappell — 
Norton in mores chapell — 
Bur^lem chap. — 

Raphe Wood, curate no degree 

Whitmore chap. — 1 

Tliomas Cowap, curate no degree . 

Newcastle — I 

Arthur Storer, curate Mr. of artes. 



Salt chap. — 
St. Maries in Stafford- 
John Palmer, parson. 



'Mr. of artes. 



Castle church neere Stafford- 
John Coxe, curate no degree . 

Ingestrey — 1 

John Grenwood, parson ...*.-.. iMr. of artes. 

Tixall- I 

Raphe Smith, Parson no degree . 

Marson chapell — 
John Wayte, curate no degree . 



no preacher. 
,|no preacher, 
no preacher. 



a preacher licensed 
by the Lord bu- 
shop of Covn. 
& Lich : 



163 



. ix/j. stipend. 

.'vij/z'. stipend. 

}y]li. xiijx. iiijfl'. in 
the kinges bookes. 
x/z. in the kings 
bookes. 



no preacher 

a preacher licensed 
by the Lo : Bu- 
shop of Covn. 
&Lich 



no preacher, 
no preacher. 



a preacher licensed 
by the Lo : Bu- 
shop of Coven. 
& Lich : 



a preacher licensed 
by the Lo : Bu- 
shop of Coven. 
& Lich : 



John Falknsr, p^s&H ....^o degree .rrrrr 

Blithefield— j 

Henry [torn of}], curate I 

Hanbury— | 

Christopher Capron, curate... Bachelor of artes 



Marchinton chappell within 
Hanbury — 
Richard Hill, vicar of Han- 
bury Mr. of artes 

'' (Erased thu: 



no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher. 
no preaG ber.^ 



xiij//. \]s. \\\]d. in 
small tithes. 



a stipend. 
\'']li. stipend, 
xvj//. in the tithes. 



not valued. 



viij'//. stipend. 

x//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
viij/z. in the kinges 

bookes. 
viij/j. stipend. 



a preacher by ye 
Lo : Archbushop 
of Cant 



x/?. X.S. paid by the 
vicar. 



no preacher. 
.1 



, not valued. 



164 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Bromley Abbots — 
George Stone, vicar 



Burton-upon-Trent — 

Johannes Hassall, curate 

Tudbury — 

Thomas Neale, vicar 

Leeke — 

Roger Banne, vicar 

Rushton chapell — 

James Knight, curate 

Checkley — 

John Raboukl, curate 

Merel:)roolce chapell — 

Wilhn Smalwood, curate .... 
Bedulton — 

Radus Turner, curate 

Horton chapell — 

Richard Michell, curate ... 
Ipstons chapell — 

John Walker, curate 

Oncote chapell. — 
Croxden. — 

Wdliam Allen 

. cote — 

William Penifather, parson 
Chilcote chapell — 

[torn oft"] 

Elford— 

John Hill, parson 



Thorpe — 

Robert Ashton, Parson. 
Shenston — 

Arthur Cresset, vicar 

Midleton— 

Francis Lee, curate .... 
Drayton Basset- • 

George Paston, Parson. 



Walsall— 

Robert Wilson, vicar 

Bloxwich cap. — 

Kichatd Hawkes, curate 
Rushall— 

Jones Good wyn, vicar ... 



Ilampstall Rjdware — • 

Everard Digbv, Parson .. 

Yoxall — 
John Waterhough, Parson 



no degree ja preacher licensed 

by the Lo : Bu- 
shop of Covn 
& Lich 



bachelor of artes 
no degree .. 



no degree 
no degree 
no degree 
no degree 
no degree 

no degree 



no degree . 
no degree . 
no degree . 
Mr. of artes. 



Bachelor of 
Divinity .. 



no preacher, 
no preacher. 

no preacher, 
no preacher 
no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher. 

no preacher. 



a preacher licensed 
by the Lord Bu- 
shop of Gov. & 
Lich 



no preacher, 
no preacher, 
no preacher. 



a preacher licensed 
by the L : Bu- 
.shop of Coven. 
& Lich 



no degree no preacher. 

I 
Mr. of artes. i 



vli. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 



vij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



a stipend of xij//. 



iiij/i. in money & 

his dyott. 
v/i. vj.r. viijf/. 

stipend. 
v/i. vjs. viiyi. 

stipend. 
v/i. vjs. viijd. 

stipend. 



ix/i. v]s. ■vi\]d. in 
the kinges booke.s. 



xiijV/. xvjj-. viiji/. in 
the kinjjes bookes. 



v/i. ixs. ob. in the 
kinges bookes. 

vj/?. in the kinges 
bookes. 

viij//. ia money. 

vij//. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 



xj/t. in the kinges 
bookes. 



elizabf:than clergy list. 



i6s 



Rolestone — 

Edward Roliston, Parson Mr. of artes 

Tatenhill — 

Bruce Babington, Parson 



Barton under Needwood chapell 
John Wilslon, curate 

Whitchnor chapell — 

Thomas Clayton, curate 

Colton — 

Christopher Hunt, Parson ... 



Doctor of Di- 
vinity 



no preacher. 



bachelor of arte.'^ no preacher. 



no degree 
no degree 



no preacher. 



a preacher licensed 
by the L. Bushop 
of Coventry & 
Lichfeld. 



Repindon — 

Thomas Blandee, curate bachelor of artes'no preacher.. 

[hi/cr hand) 

John Horobine. 
Scropton — 

Thomas Stubbing, curate. 
Tickenhall — 

Hughe Cricheley, curate. 
Misham — 

Thomas Asking, curate Mr. of Artes 



Newton Soony — 

Walter Kiner>ley, curate no preacher. 

Ingleby & Formarke — 

William Stokes, curate no degree 

Wildesley — 

Hugh Hanley, curate no degree no preacher. 

Stanton ne.\t the bridge — 

Richard Sacheverell, parson. 
Harteshorne — 

William Delhicke, parson ... bachelor of artes no preacher. 
Melborne — 

William Kent, curate no degree no preacher. 

Stapenhill — 

Christofer Gill, vicar Mr. of artes 

Caldwall — 

John Aston, curate 
Cro.xall — 

George Higges, curate bach: of artes... iby my lo : 

Ravenstone — I 

Richard Salisbury, Parson ...a bachelor of no preacher 



a preacher by my 
1. of Yorke . 



artes 

no degree 



no preacher. 



Walton upon Trent — 

Edmund Clayton, parson 
Roslastone chap. 
Lullington — 

William Folly, vicar. 
Greisley — 

George Ward, cur ite ino degree no preacher 

Sutton in the field — A j 

vicar \ a student in a preacher li- '. 

Robert Wearvvall <- ' Cambridge vij' censed by the ( 

Trusley — i yeares | Lo. bushop of £ 

rector \ coven. & Lich. ) 



-xiij//. xixj-. in the 
kinges bookes. 

xxvjV/. \ci. in the 
kinges bookes. 

xli. in money. 

vij//. in stipend. 



xli. stipend. 



xli. stipend. 



.<//. stipenu. 
xli. stipend. 



iij//. ijj-. ]d. in the 
kinges bookes. 

Tithes lo the value 
of viij//. xs. 



yli. in the kinges 
bookes. 

xvii//. xviijj^. in the 
"cinges boukes. 



ixli. stipend. 

iiij//. in the kings 
bookes. 

vli. in ye kings 
bookes. 



i66 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Stretton-in-le-field — 

Edward Vaughan, parson 
Boylestone — 

John Stone, parson 

Church Broughton — 

Robert Gawdon, vicar 

Brailsford — 

Richard Allen, parson 



Dalbury — 

John Sacheverell, parson. 
Cubley — 
Chr::tsr^:r Yor-T.v., -arse:: | 



mr. of aites. 
no degree . 
no degree, 
mr. of artes. 



Robert Dixon. 



Marston Montgomery, cap de 
Cubley — 

Willmus Smiih, diaconus per 
Shirley — 

Christopher Brest, vicar. 
Somsale — 

Henricus Mellor, Rector. 
LangforJ — 

Georg Blackbern, Vicar .... 



Etwall— 

Edward More, vicar 

Eginton — 

Symon Brest, parson of one 
medieiy of the same .. 



Sudburie — 

John Waterhouse, Parson 
Doveridge — 

Henry Tricket, vicar. 
Barton blount — 

Richard Bristowe, parson. 
l\Iarston next Tudbuvy 

William Bond, Vicar 



Bretby — 

William Stokes, Vicar .. 
Smithesby, impropriate^ 

Richard Nuton, Curate 
Calke. 
Willingto. 



mr. of artes. 
bachelor of artes 



mr. of artes. A 
mister by the 
Bp. of Nor 
wich 



no preacher, 
no preacher. 



a preacher licensed 
by the university 
of Oxford : l6 
yeares thence 



Episcopum Co. 



Mr. of Artes 



no graduate 

a mr. of artes .. 



a mr. of artes... 



Mr. of Artes 



No degree 



a preacher by li 
cense from the 
Lo : arch bp. of 
Cant: his grace 

a preacher licensed 
by Dr. Hutton 
archbpof Yorke 
under seale . 



viijV?. in ye kings 

bookes. 
vj//. in ye kings 

buokes. 



ixli. xixj. ij(/. in 
the kin''es bookes. 



xiij//. v}s. voyd in 
the kinges bookes. 



& Lich. nullius 



a preacher licensed 
by the L. Arch 
bishop of Can- 
terbury his grace 



no preacher 

a public preacher 
by license of the 
Lo. Bps of Glo 
cester & Lich 
field & Coven. 

a p : : by my L. 



by my lo. Archb 
of Cant, 



gradus. 



iii/z. viiij. in the 
kings bookes. 



viii//. in the kings 

bookes. 
value of the me- 

diety S/i. iis. 

viiuH. ob in the 

k : bookes. 



no preacher. 



No degree no preacher. 



xli. in small tithes. 



xiii//. vis. viii;/. in 
tithes. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



167 



Kniveton. 

All Sts. in Derby — 

Edward Bennet, Curate 



St. Peters in Derby — 
Robert Mason, vicar. 



St. Warbuis in Derby — 
John Bailie, Vicar 



St. Michaels in Derby — 
The vicarage is void. 

St. Alkmundes in Derby — 
Thomas Swetnam, curate. 



Mackworth — 

George Eyre, vicar 

Mickleover — 

Robert Bancroft, vicar . .. 
Litleover — 

P^dvvard Goodwyn, curate. 
Fynderne — 

William Bancroft, curate .. 
Swarkestone — 

George Herod, Parson 

Weston-upon-Trent — 

Richard Sale, Parson 



Aston-upon-Trent — 
Robert Portar, Parson 

Chelastone — 

John Hill, curate 

Elvastone 

cum Ockbrook chap ■ 

Richard Cloves, vicar 



John Dinis, curate 

Alvastone / 

Boulton \ 

Edward Newam, curate 

Osmastone juxta Derby- 
Gilbert Dracot, curate ... 

Kedlastone — 

William Fowler, Parson 



Mugginton ) 

Pinckstone ) 

Robert Bamford, Parson 



Kirk Laiigley — 
Thomas White 



Bachelor of artes a preacher by li 
censeof hisgrace 
of Canterbury 



a bachelor of 
Artes 



a bachelor of 
artes 



no preacher, 
no preacher. 



no degree 

No degree 
no degree 



a preacher by the 
Busliop of Coven 
& Lich 



No preacher 
no preacher.. 



no degree no preacher. 

no degree no preacher. 



no degree 'a preacher by the 

archbp of Cant 
his srrace 



Mr. of artes ...by the L: Bp of 
! Co : & Lich. 

no degree no preacher 



no degree 
no degree 



a preacher not li- 
censed 

no preacher 



no degree no preacher 



no degree no preacher. 



mr. of artes.. .. 



mr. of artes. 



a preacher by the 
L: bp of Coven 
& Lich 



a preacher by the 
L : bp of Coven 
& Lich 



, mr. of artes no preacher 



viii. in the kinges 
bookes. 

vi//. xiis. in the 
kinges bookes. 



vii//. \h. viiif/. in 
money. 



viii/?'. in the kinges 

bookes. 
viij//. in the kinges 

bookes. 



v//. in small tithes. 

v/i. in the kinges 

bookes. 
xj//. in the kinges 

bookes. 



tithes to the value 
of viij//. 

v/i. iijx. i\(/. 



a donative, in the 
kinges bookes 
iiij/z'. 

iiij//. a donative. 

v/i. in the kinges 
bookes. 



ix/i. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 



i68 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Breadsall — , , 

Francis Robinson 'mr. of artes byniylo: ofYorke 

Morley i 

cum Smalley chap. — 

William Bennett, Parson I no degree. 

Nicholas Duboiley, curate, 
Heynor — 

William Ashby, vicar. 
Kirk hallum — 

Thomas lowe, curate no detrree 

West hallum— 

Henry Holme, Parson no degree. 

Ilkestone — • 

Georg Mellor, vicar bachelor of artes no preacher. 

Sandiacre — 

Elize Coson curate 

Horsley — 

Robert Tymme, vicar no degree no preacher. 

Alestrey — 

John Ridge, curate 

Spoondon — 

John Birch, vicar 



Chadesden chap. — 

Nathanaell Birch, curate 
Stanley — 

Thomas Wrighte, curate 

Duffield— 

Richard Ward, vicar 



Belpar. 
Headge — 

Wm. Hutchinson 

Turnedich — 

Robert Wardlow, curate 
Criche — 

Geoffrey Jackson, vicar 



Mr. of artes 

no degree ., 
no degree . 

no desiree . 



no degree 
no degree 
no degree 



Pentrich — 

VVillm. Trowell, vicar no degree 

Stanton neer Dale — 

Vacat. 
Radborne — 

Jo: Whittrance, parson no degree 

Normanton — 

Robert Davie, curate no degree 

Barrowe — 

Willm. Mather, vicar no degree 

Twiford chfipell — 

Willm. W^ilde, curate no degree 

Chesterfield — 

Cutbeard Hutchinson, vicar no degree 



No preacher 

no preacher., 
no preacher.. 



preacher by 
Edwin Arch- 
bishop ofYorke. 



no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher by ye 
Lord Arch- 
bishop of Cant : 
his grace .... 



v//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



vj//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



vj//. .\iiij.r. in the 
kinges bookes. 



a stipend. 

stipend xvj. nobles 
in money. 

viij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



■As. 

vj//. xiijj-. iiijr/. in 
the kinges 
bookes. 



I preacher viij//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
' preacher |,\U. stipend. 

no preacher ;v// in the k : 

I bookes. 
no preacher Iv//. j.v. X(/. 

no preacher xv//. in the kinges 

bookes. 



FXIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



169 



Brampton — 
John Walker, curate. 



jree a preacher licensed v//. in small tithes. 

by the L : arch- 
bishop of Cant: 
his Grace 



Wingerworth — 

Elias Lomax, curate ja bachelor of no preacher vj//. xiijj-. iiijt/. & 

artes. 



Brimington chap. 
Langwith — 

Edward Dennett, parson 



Eckinton — 

Thomas Sale, parson. 
Killamarsh — 

John .... 
Norton — 

Henrie Taylor, vicar. 
Stavy — 

Edward Kay, parson. 



South Winfield — 

Ralphe More, vicar 

Beighton — 

John Higdon, vicar 

Moreton — 

Michael Shirbrooke, Parson... 
Bolsover — • 

Roger Brooke, vicar 

South Normanton — 

James Stevenson, Parson 

AVhiitinglon — 

Robert Croft es, parson 



Dron field — 

Thomas Midleton, vicar .. 
Clowne — 

Richard Chapman, Parson 
Pleasley — 

John Silvester, Parson 

Blackwall— 

Elige Boote, vicar 

North wingtield — 

Charles Suddington 



his table 



a bachelor of a preacher by li : of|iiij//. jV. v^. in the 

artes , 1. archbp. of j kinges bookes. 

Cant : his grace, 

no degree no preacher ,,. 

no degree j 

no degree no preacher 

bachelor of artes A preacher by the 



vij/«. xiijj-. iiij(/. in 
the kinges bockes. 
xj/?. xs. in ye 
late 1. Bp. of Ely' kinges bookes. 



no degree .. 

no degree no preacher 

no degree 'no preacher 

no degree lOO preacher 



a Mr. of artes. 

a Mr. of artes. 
no degree .... 

no degree 

no degree .... 
B. of artes .... 



vj/?. yjs. viijV. in 
the kinges bookes. 
x/i. xs. in the 

kinges bookes 
v//. xixs. in the 

kinges bookes. 



a preacher by thei\'ij//. xs. in the 
L : Busliop ofl kinges bookes. 
Coven. & Lich. 



Tibshelfe — • 

Richard Parsons, vicar no degree 

Whitwell— 

Francis Milner, Parson 

Elmeton — 

Roger Rowley, vicar 

Ashover — 

Geoffrey Owtram, Parson 

Sutton cum Duckemanton — 

Ralphe Richardson, Parson.. 



no preacher 



viij//. xs. in ye 
kinges bookes. 



by my lo : of 
lincolne 



bachelor of artes'no preacher 'xx//. in ihe kinges 

j j bookes. 

no degree no preacher 



bachelor of artes no preacher 



v//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
xx]/i. in the kinges 

bookes. 



lyo 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Barlboroiigli — 

James Stevenson, Parson . 
Scarcliffe — 

Henry Smith, vicar 

Pinckstone — 

Robert Bamford, Parson . 



Eyam — 

John Haywood, Parson 



Halt Hucknall— 

Henry Smith 

Shirland — 

Laurence Brodbene, Parson. 



Alfreton — 

Nicholas Sutton, vicar 

Barley chap — 

Robt. Hinchclif, curate ... 
Yolgrave — 

Hugh Manne, Vicar 

Winster. 
Elton. 
Darleigs — 

Bryan Exton 

Wiilm. Bagshaw, Rectores 
Glossop — 

George Yeavely, vicar 

Mellor cap — 

Rol)ert Hide, curate 

Hey field- 
Walter Normanton, curate 
Hathersuch — 

Edmund Harrup, vicar . . . 
Middleton— 

John Silvester, curate 

Edinsover — 

Raphe More, curate 

Heath . . .— 

John Sayvvood, vicar 



Castleton — 

Thomas Furnace, vicar 
Bonteshull — 

Willm Burkley, Parson 

Matlocke — 
John Searston, Parson 



Mr. of artes 
Mr. of artes 

Mr. of artes 

Mr. of artes 
Mr. of artes 



no degree . 
no degree . 
no degree , . 



donative. 



a preacher by the 
Lord Bushop of 
Coven. & Lich 



a preacher by thexiij/z. in the kinges 
Lord archbushop bookes. 
of Cant : his 
grace 



a preacher by ye 
Lo : archbushop 
of Yorke . . 



|no preacher 



vij/z. xs. in ye 
kinges bookes. 



vij//. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 
' preacher vj7/. xiijs. stipend. 



'no preacher .ix//. vs. \<L oh. in 

tiie kinges bookes. 



no degree . . 

no degree no preacher 

no degree . . , 

no degree . . 

no degree . . . 

degree no preacher 

Mr. of artes ... a preacher by ye 
L. archbushop 
of Canterbury . 



no degree 
no degree 



no preacher .' , 
no preacher . . 



Mr. ofartes. ... a preacher by the 
I Lo : archbushop 
j of Yorke hi 
Grace 



vij//. xviij^. ix(/. 
v//. v]s. xd. 



vijV/. stipend. 

iiij//. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 



vj//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
x//. xvijj-. \]d. in 
the kinges bookes. 

xj//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



171 



Ashborne — 

Thomas Pecocke, vicar 



Maplinton^ 
Hognaston — 
Bradborn — 

Henry Buxton, vicar . . 
Brasington — 

Edwarde AVeste 

Tissington — 
Parwich — 

Thomas Harvey, curate 



Ballidon — 

Edward Waste 

Allow — 

Peter Parker, curate .... 
Carsington — 

John Billindge, Parson . . 
Wirksworth — 

Michael Harison, vicar . . 
Kirke ireton — 
Bcntley— 

Wm. Grififyn 

Bradeley — 

James Lightwood, Parson 
Norbury — 

Richard Browne Parson . 



Snelston — 

Peter Elwes, curate . ., 
Edlaston — 

Hughe Wardle, curate 
Thorpe — ■ 
Osmaston pr Brailsford — 

Nicholas Rowes 

St. Chades in Salop — 

Thomas Price, curate . . 



St. Julians in Salop — - 

Thomas Jarvace, curate . 
St. Crosse in Salop — • 

Edmund Bennet, vicar . 
St. Alkmundes in Salop — 

Humfrey Leech, vicar . 
Broughton — 

Thomas Newnes, curate 
Sejnton — 

Willm Morrice, Parson . 
Wellington — 

John Jorden, vicar 

W roberdyne — 

Thomas Ashe, Vicar . . . 
Frodeslcy — 

Lodovicus Taylor, rector . 



bach : of art 



no degree 
no degree 



no degree . . 



no degree 

no degree .... 
Dr. of Divinity. 



preacher by my v//. vs. 
lo : of Cov. & 
Lich 



Mr. ofartes. 
no degree . . 
Mr. ofartes. 



no degree 



no preacher 
no preacher 

no preacher 



no preacher 
no preacher 



no preacher 



no degree 



a preacher by the 
Lo : Bushop of 
Cov. & Lich 



no preacher 



bachelor of arts 

no degree 

nir. ofartes. 
no degree 



a preacher by the 
Lo : Bushop of 
Cov. & Lich. 

no preacher . . , 



no preacher .... 
no preacher .... 



mr. of art Ino 

no degree 'no preacher 

no degree ' 



viij//. in thekinges 

bookt s. 
viij//. 



vj//. stipend, 
vi/z. stipend. 



stipend. 

v/i. in the kiuges 
bookes. 



vj//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
xiiij//. in thekinges 

bookes. 



iiij/?. stipend. 



iiij/z. xs. stipend. 

viij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



v/i. in the kinges 
bookes. 



vij//. viijj-. iji/. in 
the k. bookes. 



172 ELIZ 

Rodington — 

Tliomas Howell, Rector 

Elismere — • 

Humfrey Kinaston, vicar . . , . 
Cockshut chap. — 

John Parker, reader. 
Didlestnne — 

Thomas Edwards, curate . . . . 
Welch Hampton — 

John Powell, curate 

Penley — 

John ap Thomas, reader. 
Leebotwood — 

Willm Peyne, curate. 
Nestrange — 

Thomas Heeling, vicar 

Cundover — 

Thomas Fletcher, vicar 

Wroxeter — 

Ranulphus Sharp, vicar 

Great Arcall — 

George Wood, vicar 

Witliington — 

Edward Scofield, curate 

Leighton — 

Richard Wolly, vicar 

Eyt'in Constantyne — 

Willm Rogers, curate 

Cunde — 

Radulphus Shawe, Rector . . 

Cressage — ■ 

Edward Lodge, curate. 
Kenley — 

Willm. Chalner, curate 

Stepulton — 

Rolandus Hnrris, Parson 

Hordley — 

Hughe Roberts, Parson . . . . 

Pichford — 

Roger Tidder, Parson 

Berington — 

Miciiael Mass}, Parson 

Great Upton — 

Edmund Scofield 



ABETHAN CLERGV LIST. 



no degree . . 
mr. of artes . 

mr. of artes 
no degree . . 

mr. of artes. 
no degree . . 
no degree . . 

mr. of artes. 



a bachelor ^ of 
aites .. 



no preacher 
no preacher 

no preacher 
no preacher. 



no preacher. 

a preacher by the 
Lord bushop of 
Coven & lich 

a preacher by ye 
Lord Bushop of 
Coven & lich 

a preacher ut supra 



mr. of artes. 
no degree . . 
no degree . . 



no degree 

bachelor of arte; 



bachelor of artes 



bachelor of artes 



vj//. v]s. viijrt'. in the 
kinges bookes. 

xvij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher by ye 
Lord Bushop of 
Coven & lich . 



no. 

no preacher 



a preacher by the 
Lord Bushop of 
Coven & Lich 



a preacher by the 
Lord Bp. of C. 
& lich .... 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Cov. cS: lich. 



xj//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



xvjV?. vj.r. v\\)if. in 
thekingesbonkes. 

ix/i. stipend. 



vj//. xij.f. in the 

kings bookes. 
viij//. 



vj//. vs. viij</. in 
the k : bookes. 

iiij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



x//. vijj-. in ye 
kinges bookes. 



ix//. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



173 



Monford — 

Henrie Cunde, vicar .. .. 
Baschurch — 

Peter Sanckie, vicar .... 
Petton— 

Edward Rawlinson, parson 
Loppingdon — 

Richard Howes, vicar 

Midle— 

Raphe Kinastone, paison . . 



Preston goballs — 

Willm Tecke, curate . . . 
Grinshill — 

Thomas Pea, Curate . . . 
Acton Bromall — 

John Mallard, Parson, . . 
Acton Pigott — 

vacat. 
Smethcote — 

John Shelvocke, Parson. 



Harley — 

Thomas Bent, Parson . 

Attingham — 

Robert Fareley, vicar 
Rinton — 

Thomas Davies, vicar. 



Fitz— 

Gedion Hanco.x, parson 



Ightfield— 

Georg Hadnall, parson . . 
Felton — 

Thomas Sandfield, pardon 



Whitchurch — 

James Brooke, parson . . . . 
Tilstocke — 
Moreton Corbet & Frodisley 

Lodwicke Taylor, Parson. 



Hodnet— 

Willm Daykin, Parson 
Moreton .Sea — 

Willm Cadman 

Staunton — 

Willm Gibbons, vicar 



no degree ... 
a mr. of artes 
no degiee . . . 
no degree . . . 
mr. of artes. . 



no degree . . 
no degree . . 
no degree . . 



no degree 

no degree 

no degree 
no degree 

no degree 

no degree 
no degree 



mr. of artes . 
no degree . . 

no degree . . 
no degree . . 
no degree . . 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Co. & Lich 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher by Doc 
tor Clarke & 
Doctor Aubery, 
sede vacante 

a p : lie. by Lo : 
B. of C. & L. 

no preacher . . . 

a preacher in his 
ounecureby the 
L : Bushop of 
Coven & lich . 



a preacher in his 
cwn cure ut supra 

no preacher 

a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Co. & lich. 



a preacher ut supra 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Coven & lich 



no preacher 
no preacher . . 
no preacher . , 



iiij/?'. in ye kinges 

bookes. 
x//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
iij//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
vj//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
.xij z. in the kinges 

bookes. 



viij//. stipend. 

iiij//. stipend. 

vj//. XJ-. in the 
kinges bookes. 



iiij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



xjii.vjs. vujd. in the 
kinges bookes. 

vh'. xi.xj. in the 
kinges bookes. 



\li. \i}s. 



vij//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
xix//. in the kinges 

bookes. 



v/i. vjs. iiijV. in the 
kinges bookes. 



xxvj/i. txs. in the 

kinges bookes. 
vij//. 

v/i. xs. xd. in the 
kinges bookes. 



174 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Lon£;nor — 

Willm Penne, curate. 
Shawbury — 

John iJicker, vicar 

Eiton upon Wildmore — 

John Maning, Parson. 
Preston upon Wildmore — 

Roger Bradeley, Parson . . . . 
Wemme — 

Peter Sanckie, Parson 

Leelirockhuriit — 

Humfrey Stanworth, curate. 
Litle Nesse — 

Thomas Gittens, curate. 
Litle Biiildvvas^ 
Uffington — 
Paynton — 
Batlefield — 

Willm Tecke, curate 

Wicksall chapell — 
Clife chapell — 

Thomas Ncwans, curate . . . . 
Niiport — 

Richard Felton, curate . . . . 



Kemherlon — 

John Corbett, Parson . . . , 
Kinassey — 

Robert Watson, Parson . . . 
Stoke-super-Terne — 

Rowland Clay, Parson 
Edgmond — 

John Bagshaw, Parson. 
Tibberton chap. — 

Richard Fryer, curate 

Aston chap — 
Bolas— 

Roger Benbowe, Parson . . 
Longford — 

John Hawkins, Parson . . , 
Albrighton — 

Richard Barnes, vicar 

Norton-in- Hales — 

Alan Downes, Parson 

Donyngton — 

John Chapman, Parson . . . 



Chetwyn — 

Roger Harpur, Parson 
Stirchley — 

Robert Bell, Parson . , 
Aderley — 

John Farre, Parson . . . , 



no degree 



no degree ... 
a mr. of artes 
no decree . . . , 



no degree 

no degree 
no detrree 



no degree . . 
no degree . . 
a bachelor of art 

no degree . . 

no degree . . 
no degree . . , 
no degree . . . 
no degree . . , 
no decree . . . 



no degree 
no degree 
no degree 



no preacher 

no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



no preacher 



no preacher 



a preacher by the 
Lo. Busliop of 
Cov & Lich 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



no preacher 

no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 

no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



vij/?'. xvijj-. ob in 
the kings bookes 



n]/i. in the kings 

bookes. 
xx/i. in the kings 

bookes. 
stipendarie. 



lis. stipend. 

v//. stipend. 
x/t. stipend. 



v/z. in the kinges 

bookes. 
j//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
\x/i. in the kinges 

bookes. 



iiij//. stipend. 



vij/z. in the kinges 

bookes. 
\]ii. in the kinges 

bookes. 
v/z. xs. in the 

kinges bookes. 

'i. in the kinges 

b ookes. 
xiij//. vjj-. viij(/. 

in the kinges 

bookes. 
xi//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
vj7/. in the kinges 

bookes. 
xj/i. vs. in the 

kinges bookes. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



175 



Sliufnall— 

Abdias Birche, vicar 



Upton parva — 

Roger Lowe, Parson . . . 
Hinstock — 

George Reignald, Parson 
Arcall parva — 

Thomas Browne, curate . 
Lilshull— 

Thorns Millington, vicar , 



Stockton — 

Willm Rogerson, Parson 



Rington — 

Robtus Pedmore, Rector 
Dawley — 

Francis Rogers, curate . . 
Sutton Maddocke — 

Georg Barnes, vicar . . . . 
Boninghall — 

John Chapman, curate . . 



Drayton-in-hales — 
Roger Daker, vicar. 



Tong— 

George IMeason, curate . . . 
Hadnal cap de Midle — 

Thorns Whitcombe, curate 
St. Michaels in Coventry — 

Willm Hinton, vicar 



St. Trinities in Coventry — 
Richard Eyton, vicar . . . 

Stiviehall — 

— Atkinson, curate. 
Stoke— 

Julian Winspur, curate . 
Wiken Sowe — 

Willm Fare, curate 

Shilton — 

Richard Johnson, curate. 
Anstie — 

Anthony Petifcr. 
E.xall— 

Robert Bristow, cuiate . 
Binley — 

Henry Pakeman, curate . 



mr. of artes 



no degree . . . 

o degree . . . 

no degree . . . 

a mr. of artes 



a bachelor 
divinity . . 

no di gree . . 
no degree . . 
no degree . . 



a preacher by the 
Lord Arch 
Bushop of Can 
terbury 



no preacher . . . 
no preacher . . . 
no preacher . . 



a preacher by the 
Lord Bushop of 
Co. & lich. . . 



a preacher by the 
university of 
Cambridge .. 



bachelor of 
artes . ... 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



xv//. 



iijVz'. xvij.r. in ye 

kinges bookes. 
vli. in the kinges 

bookes. 
iiij//. xiijj-. iiijrt'. 

stipend. 
vj,y. \]s. y'liyl. in 

the kings bookes. 



xiij//. xjj-. in the 
kinges bookes. 



Mr. of artes 

no degree . . 
no degree . . , 



Doctor of Di 
vinitie. 



Bachelor in Di 
vinitie 



no degree 
no degree 
no degree 

no degree 



a preacher by the 
Lord Bushop of 
Coven & Lich. 



no preacher 
no preacher 



no preacher 
no pi'eacher 
no preacher 

no preacher 



vli. in the kinges 

bookes. 
Stipend vij//. 

v//. in the kinges 

bookes. 
viij/z'. 



xij//. xj. in the 
kinges bookes. 



no degree ho preacher 



viij//. stipend, 
iij//. stipond. 



x//. in the Kinges 
Bookes. 



vli. in small tythes. 
\li. in tithes, 
v//. 



vli. a donative. 
\\]li. stipend. 



176 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Churchover — 

Roger Vicars, Parson ..... 
Bulkinton — 

Henry bradshaw, vicar , . . 
Bedworth — 

Valentyne Overton, parson 



Wolvey — 

John Wilcockson, vicar 
Munl<s Kirby — 

Kiclius Stapleton, vicar . 
Brincklow — 

John Bolton, Parson . . . 
Alesley — 

Samuel Sanders, Parson . 
Newbold — 

Roger Barker, Vicar . . . 



Harborow — 

Daniel Naylor, Parson 

Willey— 

James Povie, Parson 

Withibrooke — 

James Terry, vicar 

Astley — 

Lawrence Cartwright, curate. 
Stretton upon Statham — 

Wiilm Robinson, Parson . . . 
Burton Hastings — 

Edmund Bagshaw, curate . . 
Foleshill — 

Robert Bristow, curate 

Coleshill — 

Raphe Foxe, vicar 



Over Whitacre 

Richard Hill, curate no degree 

Nether Whitncre — 

Thomas Jenkins, cur no degree 

Lemarson — 

Rich : Wolly, curate no degree 

Curd worth — 

Edmund Lingard, vicar no degree 

Aston juxta Birmin>;ham — 

Henry Williams, vicar |a bachelor of 

lawe 
Casllebromwicli — 
Sutton Coldtield — 

Rog. Ellyot, Parson Mr. of artes 

Birmingham — 

Luke Smith, Parson Mr. of artes 



no degree 



Mr. of aites 



no degree 



no degree . . 
no degree . . 
Mr. of artes 



a bachelor of 
Divinity. 

a Mr. of artes. 



a preacher by the 
L. Arch Bp. of 
Cant, his Grace- 
Parker .... 



no degree 



no degree 
no degree 



no preacher 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Coven. & Lich. 

no preacher 



no preacher 
no preacher 



no preacher 
no preacher 

no preacher 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Co. & Lich . . . 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



xv//. in the kings 
bookes. 



x//. iijj". iujd. ob. in 
the kinn-s bookes. 



y'jii. vjs. in the 
kings bookes. 



xvj//. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 



xiiij//. xs. iu the 
kinges bookes. 



xiiij/?. xvjj'. in the 
kinges bookes. 

vij//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



ixli. stipend. 



a donative v/?. 

x//. in the kinges 
bookes. 



vij/;'. in tithes, 
viij//. in tithes. 

farmer of the 

rectorie. 
v//. in the kinges 

bookes. 



no preacher .... xxxiij//. in the 

kinges bookes. 
a jsreacher by ye xx//. in ye kinges 

L : Bushop of bookes. 

Coven. & Lich.' 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



,177 



Kinsbury — 
John Foxe, vicar 



Solihull— 

Luke Smith, Parson Mr. of aites 

Elmedon — 

Harker Symonds, Parson 
Sheldon — 

Willm Blackmore, Parson 
Shusiocke — 

Richard Warde 

Bicknoll— 

Robert Osburiie, vicar no degree 



Maxstocke — 

Thomas Milles, curate 
Newton — 

John Harwell, Parson . . 
Hampton in Arden — 

Simon Graver, vicar . . 
Merryden — 

Thomas Kotton 

Noneaton — 

Willm Curry, vicar 
Little Packinton — 

John White, Parson . . 
Great Packinton — 

Willm . . . vicar . 
Poleswoilh — 

Richard . . . vicar . 
Corley — 

Robt Woodcocke, vicar 
Fillingsley — 

Thomas Gilbert, vicar . 
Arely — 

Raphe Sherard, Parson . 
Baxterley — 

John Foxe, Pai son 



Ansley — 

James Bush, Parson . . . 
Gryndon — 

Thomas Walker, Parson . 
Aldustry — 

Roger Movvld, vicar . . . 
Weddington — 

James Crumford, Parson. 
Badesley Clynton — 

Thomas Miles, curate 
Wishawe — 

John Weston, Parson 

Mauncetter — 

Robt Cropwell, curate . 

14 



no degree 



no degree 
no degree 



no degree . . 
Mr. of art . . 
Mr. of artes 
no degree . . 



no degree 



Mr. of artes 



Mr. of artes 

no degree . . 

a bachelor of 
artes 



a preacher by ye 
L : Bushop of 
Co. & Ligh 



a preacher ut supra 



a preacher in his 
own Cure, noe 
license 



no preacher 
by my Lord 

no preacher 

no preacher 
no preacher 



viij/z. 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Co. & Lich 



no preacher 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



xxiiij/i. in the 
kinges bookes. 



vij/z. \s. in ye 
'anges bookes. 



vij//. stipend. 



v/t. in the kings 
bookes. 



iij//. in the kings 

bookes 
vij/j. xj-. }'](/. ob. in 
the kings bookes. 



vli. in the kinges 
bookes. 



vli. in the kinges 
bookes. 



viij/z. in ye kinges 

bookes. 
a stipend. 

v/i. in the kinges 
bookes. 



178 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Barkswell — 

Richard Fynnies, Parson . . . 
Seckinton — 

John Barwell, Parson 

Shottiiigton — 

Michael Buxton, curate 

Chilvers Colon — 

Richard Taylor, vicar 



Calcote — 

Willinm Rowley, Parson. . . 
Dunchuich — 

Sampson Haslehurst, vicar 
Rookeby * — 

Edward Bolton, Parson . . . 
Wolston — 

Hugh Clarke, vicar 



Stretton upon Dunsmore — 
Thomas Hodgkinson, curate 

Church Lawford — 

William Wright, Parson 

Clifton upon Dunsmore — 
Mathew King, vicar 



Brovi'nsover — 
Hill Moreton — 

Thomas Hodgkinson, vicar . 



Willoughby — 

Robt Wilton, vicar. 



Wolfamcote — 

Thomas Fawcet, vicar 

Grandborow — 

Thomas Davies, vicar. 



Wapenbury — 

Ralph Wilding, curate 
Stockton — 

Thomas Crooke, Parson. 
Merton — 

Richard Scale, vicar . . . 



Long Itcliington — 
John Turner, vicar . 



a Mr. of artes. 



a Mr. of artes . 



no degree . . 
Mr. of artes 



10 preacher 



a preacher by ye 
Lo : Bushop of 
Co : &lich 



a Mr. of artes . 



Bachelor ofartes 



a bachelor of 
artes 



a bachelor of 
artes ...... 



a bachelor of 
artes 



no degree . . 



a bachelor of 
artes 



no preacher .... 

a preacher by the 
Lord Archbushop 
of Can: this Grace 



a preacher by ye 
university of 
Cambridge . 



xiiij//. in the kings 
bdokes. 



vij//. in ye kinges 
bookes. 



xviij/z. in the 

kinj;s bookes. 
xv/2'. xs. in yg 
;ings bookes. 



a preacher by the 
Lord Archbp of 
Cant: his Gr 



a preacher by the 
Lo : Bushop of 
Co : & Lich 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher by the 
L : Bushop of 
Co : & lich 



v]/i. xs. in the 
kings bookes. 



xvli. xs. in the 
kinges bookes. 



xiij//. vjs. payd in 
money certaine. 



v/?'. in the kinges 
bookes. 

viij/i. in money. 



Old name for Rugby. 



KLIZABETHAN" CLERGY LIST. 



179 



Lemington Hastinges — 
Mathew Holand, vicar 



Franckton — 

John Smith, Parson 

Burton upon Dunsmore — 

William Gilbert, Parson . . 
Burdingbury — 

Cutberd Terry, Parson 
Southam — 

John Oxenbridge, Parson. 



Lodbrooke — 

Roger Inckford, parson . 
Bilton— 

Edmund Enos, Parson 
Napton — 

Juhn Turner, vicar 

Honingham — 

Richard Wilding, curate 
Radborne — 

Griffith Lloid, Parson . . 
Kenelworth — 

Willm Wilbie. curate . . 
Radford Semeby — 

Richard Gardner, vicar 
Bathinton — 

James Gibson, Parson 
Lemington Priurs — 

Henry Clarke, vicar . . . 
Lillington — 

Thomas Maye, vicar . . . 
Ashooe — 

Martyn Delvyn, Rector . 



Stonely — 

Henry Bellynghani, vicar 



Leek \Yootton — 

Humfry Wilding, vicar , 
Milverton — 

Raphe Parwich, curate . 
Colebington — 

Richard Morral, vicar . 
Wormleighton — 

Georgius Hall, vicar 
Feny Compton — 

Tho: Nicholson, parson 
Radvvay — 

Richard Hill, vicar... . 



Whitnash — 

Raph Beate, Parson 



Mr. of artes 



no degree 



no degree . . . . 
a Mr. of artes 



Dr. of Divinity 
Mr. of artes 



no degree 



o degree . . 
no degree . . 
no degree . . 
Mr. of artes 



a bachelor of 
artes 



no degree 

no degree 
no degree 

no degree 

no degree 



a preacher by thejxx//. in the kings 
L. Archbp of 
Cant : his G 



no preacher 



no parson 



a preacher by the 
Lord Bushop 
Jewell & of Co: 
ix. lich 



no preacher 



no preacher 



no preacher 
no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher in hi: 
cure 



no preacher 
no preacher 



no preacher 
no preacher 



a preacher by the 
L. Bushop of 
Co : & lich 

no preacher 



bookes. 

v//. xijj. in the 
kinges bookes. 



vij/Z.Xj'.in ye kinges 

bookes. 
xxiij/?. in the 

kinges bookes. 



xvj//. in ye kings 
bookes. 



iiij//. xvjc oh. in 
the kinL;s bookes. 



viij//. in ye kinges 

bookes. 
vj//. xs. in the 

kinges bookes. 
v/t. xiijj. iiiji/. in 
the kinges bookes. 
xviij//. vjs. in the 

kinges bookes. 

vj//. in the kinges 
bookes. 

y/i. ijd. ob. in ye 
kings bookes. 



vj//.vjj-.viij(/. in the 
kinges bookes. 

vj/Z.xiijj-.iija'. in the 
kinges bookes. 



,7/. xj-.in the kinges 
bookes. 



v//. in the kings 
bo.ikes. 



ELIZABETHAN CLERGY LIST. 



Warminton — 

Anthony Petifer, Parson 
Ratby— 

Thomas Orton, vicar . . . 
Ofchurch — 

Nicholas More, vicar . . . 
Great Dasset — 

Richard Poole, vicar . . . 
Haiburbury — 

John Overton, vicar . . . 



Bobenhull— 

Thomas Banckes, curate. 
Ruyton — 

Willm Talbot, curate . . . 



Thomas Gorton, vicar 
Farneborow — 

Thomas Davies, vicar 



no degree 



no decree 



a bachelor of 
artes 



Litle Dasset — 

John James, parson 

Shotesweil — 1 

Willm Keeling, vicar no degree 

Chesterton — 

John Lea, curate 

Hardwicke Priors — 

Leonard Harison, vicar . . 
Nether Shuck bo row — 

John Blakemore, curate.. 
Marson Priors — 

Leonard Harison, curate . . 
Shuckborow Superior — 

Willm Field, curate .... 



a preacher in his 
cure by the L : 
Bp of Coven & 
lich 



no preacher 



vli. in the kinges 
bookes. 



no preacher 



no preacher 



\\li. xiij.r. iiij(/. in 

tithes. 
v//. in ye kinges 

bookes. 



v//.xiij.f.iiijV. in the 
kinges bookes. 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



A. 

Abney, William, 83 
Adderley, Mrs. Anne, 

of Chesterfield, 7 
Addison's Roger de 
• Covet ley, 17 
Addy, S. O., M.A., 11, 

49 

^Ifleda, mother of St. 

Wystan, 76 
Alcocke, Richard, 161 
Aldrich, Henry, Rector, 

2 
Alexander, Ralfe, 5 
Alfred, King, 121 
Alice, son of, 10 
Allen, Anne, 6 
Allen family, 2 
Allen, Richard, 166 
Allen, William, 164 
Allibone's Dictionary of 

Authors, 15 
Allsoppe family, 2 
Allsoppe, Ffraiicis and 

Catharine, 4 
Allyn, Edward, of Tyds- 

well, CO. Derb., Pedi- 
gree of, 23-25 
Alsop, Francis, 162 
Alsop, Robert and Anne, 

of ye Dale, co. Derb., 

24 
Andrew, Rev. S., Vicar 

of Tideswell, 152 
Antiquaries, Society of, 

97 
Applehie, Grace and 

Chris. Goodenough, 5 



Arnfeild, Ottiwell, 9 
Arthur, King, 108 
Ashborne, John and 

Dorothy, of Romley, 5 
Ashljourne, John, 6 
Ashby, William, 168 
Ashe, Thomas, 171 
Asking, Thomas, 165 
Ashley, John, 84 
Ashton, Robert, 164 
Asshley, John, 83 
Aston, John, 165 
Aston, Katharin and 

John, 4 
Aston, Robert, 162 
Atkinson, — , 175 
Atkinson, Frederic, M. A., 

Tiin. Coll., Catnb., 3 
Audley, Henry, 85 
Ausley, Jno., of Ausley, 

24 
Autotype Co., The, 37 



B. 

Baall, Godfrey and Rich- 
ard, 9 
Babinglon, Bruce, 165 
Backe, Mr. William, of 

Stanton, 7 
Backes, i 
Baddeley, 115 
Baddesley, John, 6 
Badily, Richard, 163 
Badyley, James, 3 
Bagtiall, Thomas, 86 
Bagshaw, William, 5 
Bagshaw, Mary, of Ches- 
terfield, 8 



Bagshaw, Mr. Benjamin, 

II 
Bagshaw, John, Esq., 

24 
Bagshaw, William, 1 70 
Bagshaw, John, 1 74 
Bagshaw, Edmund, 176 
Bngshawe, Mr. Benjamin, 

of Sheffield, 74 
BaiHe, John, 167 
Bail)', James, 162 
Bakcwell, Robert, 86 
Balguy, Charles, M.D., 

11-30 
Balguy, Tiioma?, II 
Balguy, John, 11. 
Bali^uy, Nicholas, of 

Magdelen College, Ox- 
ford, 1 1 
Balguy, Henry and Eliza- 
beth, of Derwent Hall, 

12 
Balguy, Henry, of Alfre- 

ton, 12, 26 
Balguy, John, Esq., of 

Waltham House, 

Chelmsford, 12 
Balguy, Anne Dorothy, 

Mary, Catherine, and 

Elizabeth, 12 
Balguy, Phil'ppa and 

Henry, of Hope Hall, 

17 

Balguy, Frances, 17, 30 

Balguy, John, of Shef- 
field, 17 

Balguy, Pedigree of, from 
the' College of Arms, 
22, 23 

Balguy, of Hagg, 23, 24 



382 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Balguv,Thomas, of Aston, 
Pedigree of, 22, 23, 26 

Balguy, Thomas, of 
Ashton in ye Peak, 24 

Balguy, Mr. Henry, 26 

Balguy, John, of London, 

27 
Balguy, Thomas, Mary, 

and Children, 30 
Balguys, The, II, 12, 30, 

143 
Balguy's, Charles, mother, 

16 
Ball, Roger, 10 
Ballidon, Cicilie, 5 
Ballidon, Agnes and 

Elizabeth, 8 
Bamford, Robert, 167, 

170 
Banches, Thomas, 180 
Bancroft, Robert, 167 
Bancroft, Wm., 167 
Banne, Roger, 164 
Barber, Edward, of Row- 
ley, Pedigree of, 23-25 
Barker, of Albrighlee, I 
Barker family, 2 
Barker, Thomas, 5 
Barker, Peter and Sara, 

of Derby, 7 
Barker, Roger, 176 
Barley, Thos., of Barley, 

24 
Barnes, Wm., Pedigree 

of, I 
Barnes, Philippe, of 

Brightowne, lo 
Barnes, Thomas, 162 
Barnes, Richard, 174 
Barnes, George, 175 
Barwell, John, 177-8 
Barford, Thos., Esq., 24 
Barford, or Beresford, 26 
Bassano, I 
Basset, Sir John, of 

Bletsworth, 24 
Bateman, Francis, of 

Yolgreave, 8 
Bateman, Mr. Thomas, 

of Lomberdale House, 

99, loi, 104, 105 
Bateman, Mr. William, 

104, 105 
Bauncetoun, Thomas, 85 
Baynbrygge, Robert, 86 
Beardsley, Elizabeth, 6 
Beate, Raph, 179 
Bedford, Mr. Edward, 5 



Beeleigh, Oltewell and 

Carre, 4 
Beely, Ottiwell, 6 
Bell, Robert, 174 
Bellyngham, Henry, 179 
Bemrose, London and 

Derby, 75 
Benbow, Richard, 6 
Benbow, Roger, 174 
Bendbow, Richard, of 

Hackney-lane, 9 
Benite, Mary of Darley, 

7 
Bennet, Jana, 6 
Bennit, Edward, 167 
Bennit, William, 168 
Bennit, Edmund, 173 
Bent, Thomas, 173 
Benth.im, Bishop of 

Lichfield, 160 
Benthani, Thomas, 162 
Bentincks, 34 
Bentley, John, of Hun- 
grey Bentley, 24 
Berdmore, John, 162 
Beresford, John, 6 
Beresfords, I 
Berisford, Bryant, 6 
Berisford, Mr. John, 7 
Berisford, Thomas, of 

Alstonfield, 8 
Bertall,Wensley and Mar- 
gery, of Wensley, 5 
Bertall, Mary, 7 
Bigsby's History of Rep- 
ton, 75 
Billindge, John, 171 
Birch, John, 1 68 
Birch, Nathaniel, 168 
Birche, Abdias, 175 
Birdman, Petrus, 162 
Birds, The, I 
Bird, Mr. and Mrs., of 

Stanton Hall, 7 
Bishop of Peterborough, 

29 
Blackburn, George, 166 
Blackmore, William, 177 
Blackwell, Thomas, 

Esq., 24 
Blakemor, John, iSo 
Blandee, Thomas, 165 
Blomfield, i\Ir., 96 
Blundevile, Thomas, 24 
Boccaccio's Novels, 16, 

18, 25 
Bolles, Mr., 85 
Bolton, Richard, 162 



Bolton, John, 176 
Bolton, Edward, 178 
Bond, William, 166 
Boole, Elige, 169 
Boothiiie, Judith, 6 
Boothb)', Sir William 

and Francis, 5 
Boothby, Sir William 

and Annie, 9 
Bott, Anthony, 78 
SowiLston Rye', 78 
Bowker, Mr. 1 homas, 

20, 28 
Bowyer, John, 6 
Bou)-ston, Henry, 78 
Boxley, Lawrence, 161 
Bradeley, Roger, 174 
Bradlie, Bennet, 5 
Bradshaw, Henry, 176 
Bradshawe, Thomas, 85 
Bradshaw's House. 126, 

127 
Brad well Family, 2 
Bradwell, John, 162 
Brailsford, .Sir John ami 

Anne, 24 
Brainston, Thomas, 83 
Brinsley, Thomas, Esq., 

24 
Bristow, Robert, 175, 176 
Bristowe, Richard, 166 
Britland Family, 2 
Britons, The, 108 
Brudbene, Laurence, 170 
Brooke, Roger, i6g 
P>rooke, James, 173 
Plough, Hugh, 8 
Bruce, 102 
Browne, John, 8j, 86 
Browne, Richard, 171 
Browne, Thomas, 175 
Broxholme, Charles, 2, 9 
Bryant, Quotation from, 

130, 131 
Brych, Thomas, S3 
Bullock family, 2 
Bullock, Richard, 162 
Bullock, — , Esq., I 
Burgesse, Richard and 

Isaac, 4 
Burgh, Henry, 6 
Burkley, William, 170 
Burrow, Rev. M., M.A., 

■ 13 

Burton, 16 

Burton, William and Ed- 
ward, 20 
Bush, James, 177 



I 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Butler, Mr. Joseph, of 

Sheafield, 7 
Butterton, Robert, 163 
Buxton, George, 6 
Buxton, Agnts, 8 
Buxton, William and 

Damorish, 9 
Buxton, Henry, 171 
Buxton, Michael, 178 
Buxtonne, Jhonne, of 

Brassongtonne, 6 



C. 



Cadnian, William, 173 

Cajsar, 106 

Calke, Canons of, 77 

Canimell, Mr. Charles, 13 

Canterbuiy, Archbishop, 
159, 161, 163, 166, 167, 
168, 169, 170, 175, 176, 
178, 179 

Cautrel, John, School- 
master at Dark}-, 3 

Capper, Phill., of Wan- 
stead, in Essex, 27 

Capron, Christopher, 163 

Carleil, William, 8 

Carlton, Hamlet, 161 

Cartwrighl, George, of 
Stancliffe, 4 

Cartwright, Lawrence, 
176 

Catharaine, Ould, 9 

Caunt, 102 

Cavendish, Sir Charles, 

Cavendish, Sir William, 

34 
Cavendishes, The, 34 
Cavendyshe,Wyllmus, 78 
Chadderton, j\Irs. Fran- 
ces, of Doncaster, 10 
Chadwicke, James and 

John, of Todhole, 4 
Chalner, Willm., 172 
Champney, Hemor, 6 
Chantrey, 152 
Chapman, John, 174, 175 
Chapman, Richard, 169 
Chaucer, Imitation from, 
, 41. 42, 46 
Chaucer, Tales of, 18 
Chaworth, John, Esq., 24 
Chaworth, Mr. Henrie, 5 
Cheethome, Widdow, 9 



Chester, Matilda, Coun- 

te.ss of, 77 
Chetham, James, i 
Chestei field, Karl of, I 
Clarke, Cornelius, I 
Clarke, Henry, 179 
Clarke, Hugh, 178 
Clarke, Rauffe, 85 
Clay family, 2 
Clay, Rowland, 174 
Clayton, Edmund, 165 
Clayton, Thomas, 165 
Clerk, Fran. Morice, 27 
Gierke, Robert, 83 
Cleroke, Sr. RauB'e, 83 
Clopton, Sir Hugh, I 
CloW'CS, Richard, 167 
Cokden, Henry, 78 
Condell, Mr., 112 
Constable, Robert, of 
Northcliffe, co. York, 7 
Coke, Thomas and Eliza- 
beth, of Melbourne, 16 
Coke, Sir Edward, of 

IvOngford, I 
Collomliell, Mr. George, 5 
Collombell, Roger and 

Rosemand, 4 
Collomble, Mrs. Ffrancis, 

6 
Collumbell, Mrs. Doro- 

thie, 5 
Collumbell, Mrs. Rosa- 
mond, 5 
Collumbell, Francis, 3 
Collumbell, son of Mr. 
Francis Grantham, of 
Darley-hall, 4 
Collumbell, son of Mr. 
Francis Grantham, of 
Hackney Lane, 9 
Columbell, George, 6 
Columbell, Mr. Godfrey, 

10 
Columbell, Mrs. Wal- 
burge, of Stancliffe, 9 
Columbell, Peter and 

Roger, 2 
Columbell, Roger and 

Mr. John, 4 
Columbells, The, I 
Cooke, Richard, 161 
Cooper, Sarah, Grave- 
stone of, 128 
Corbet, Henry and Anne, 
of Harowden, North- 
ants, 4 
Corbett, John, 174 



Cordall, Thomas, 85 
Coson, Elize, 168 
Cottingham, Rev. H., 

Vicar of Hathersage, 

138 
Cotton, Christopher, 6 
Coventry, Lord Bishop 

of, 161, 180 
Cox, Rev. J. C, 116,157 
Cox's Churches of Derby- 
shire, 15, 75, 77 
Coxe, John, 163 
Cowap, Thomas, 163 
Cowley, Giles, 6 
Cresset, Arthur, 164 
Cricheley, Hughe, 165 
Cripps, Mr., 32 
Croftes, Margaret, 85 
Croftes, Robert, 169 
Crooke, Thomas, 178 
Cromwell, Thomas Lord, 

78 
Cropwell, Robert, 177 
Croston, On foot through 

the Peak, 144 
Cruniford, James, 177 
Cuble)', Mr. G. A., of 

Sheffield, 49 
Cuckney, Thomas de, 33 
Cunde, Henrie, 173 
Cunningham, a curate at 

Eyam, 127 
Cunnington, Mr., 102 
Curate of Marebrooke 

Chapel, 160 
Curate of Wingerwoi th, 

160 
Currer, Edward, 78 
Curiy, William, 177 



Daker, Roger, 175 
Dale, Robert, of Flagge, 

74 
Damperd, John, 86 
Danre in the Shower of 

Gold, 12 
Danes, The, 76 
Darby's, Gravestones of, 

122 
Darleys, The, I 
Darwin, Erasmus, M.D., 

13 

Davie, Robert, 168 



i84 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Davies, Thomas, 173, 

178, iSo 
Dawe, Robert, Parson of 

Darley, 2, 4 
Dawe, Elizabeth, 4 
Dawes, ffraiicis, 6 
Day, William, 78 
Daykin, Willm., 173 
Dean, Ashby, 20 
Debanke, John, 86 
Delvyn, Martyn, 179 
Denmaii, Lord, 114 
Dennett, Edward, 169 
Derbyshire family, 2 
Dethick, Thomas, Esq., 

of Newhall, in Stapen- 

hill. Pedigree of, I 
Dethicke, William, 165 
Dicker, John, 174 
Digby, Evcrard, 164 
Dinis, John, 167 
Diuma, 1st Bishop of the 

Mercians, 76 
Dixon, Robert, 166 
Dodsley, R., 16 
Downe, Alan, 174 
Dracot, Gilbert, 167 
Draper, Margaret, of 

Sullam, Berks., 5 
Druids, The, 106, 107, 

135 

Duboiley, Nicholas, 168 
Duni, Robert, of Toad- 
hole, 9 
Diirdant, Walter de. 
Bishop of Coventry, 
77 

E. 

Edmundson, Mr. B., 

tutor, 14 
Edward I., 77, 91 
Edward III., 34 
Edward the Confessor,76 
Edward VI., 31, 159 
Edwards, John, Rector of 

Darley, 2 
Edwards, the reigns of, 

90 
Edwards, Thomas, 172 
Elde, Robtus, 161 
Elizabeth, Queen, 22, 

157, 15S 
Ellis, W., 47 
EUyot, Rog., 176 
Elwes, Peter, 171 
Ely, Bishop of, 34, 159 



English bowmen, 106 

Enos, Edmund, 179 

Evans, Robert and Jane, 
4 

Evans, Robert and Joan. 
8 

Evans, Robert, Parson of 
North Medietie of Dar- 
ley, 2, 9 

F'velyn, 35, 47 

Eyre, Anthony and Mar- 
garet, of Hampton and 
Grove, co. Notts., 16 

Eyre, George, 139, 167 

Eyre, Georgius, 22 

Eyre, Miss, 141 

Eyre, Thomas, Esq., of 
Newbold, nr. Chester- 
field, 12 

Eyre, Thos. and Eliza- 
beth, of Newbold, CO. 
Derb., 25 

Eyre, of Padley, Pedigree 
of, 22 

Eyre, .Sir Arthur, 133 

Eyre, Robert, and his 
wife, effigies of, 139, 
141 

Eyre, Robert, 142 

Eyres, Tlie, of Newbold, 
CO. Derb., 16^ 

Exeter, William, Earl 
of, II 

Eynysworth, Robert, 83 

Eyton, Ralphe, 163 

Eyton, Richard, 175 



Falkner, John, 163 
Fallows, Wm., of Al- 

derley, 8 
Faux, Robert, 163 
Fare, Wm., 175 
Fareiey, Robert, 173 
Fame worth, Ellis, 13 
Farre, John, 174 
Fawcet, Thomas, 178 
Felton, Richard, 174 
Ferguson, Mr. James, 

loi, 103, 107, 108 
Feme, Henry, of Snitter- 

ton, I 
Femes, The, i, 2 
ffinnies, Edward, 7 
ffolmbige - bache, Mr. 

ffrancis, 7 
ffoole, Cicile, 6 



fifox, Mrs. Brighet, of 

Youlgrave, 7 
ffranklin, William, 7 
iifullwood, ffrances, 6 
Field, William, 180 
Fielding, 17 
Finan, Bishop of Lindis- 

farne, 76 
Fitzherbert, Jno. and 
Rosaline, of Norbury, 

24 
Fitzherbert, .Sir Thomas, 

133 
Flemang, or Flemyng, 

Joceus de, 33 
Flemangs, The, 33 
Fletcher, Thomas, 172 
Flint family, 2 
Foljambe, Jno., 24 
Foljambe, Sir Godfrey, 

monuments to, 155 
Foljamlies, The, i 
Folly, William, 165 
Ford, John, of Leeke, 7 
Forman, Christopher, 166 
Fowell, Ricliard, 162 
Fowler, William, 167 
Fox, Mrs., of Eyam, 

117, 119 
Foxe, Raphe, 176 
Foxe, John, 177 
Freeholders and Vills of 

Derbyshire, 49-74 
Freeman, Robert, 162 
Fretchville, Pet., of 

Stayl, 24 
Froggatt, Thos., Mary, 

and Edward, 127 
Fryer, Richard, 174 
Fuller, 86, 87 
Furnace, Thomas, 170 
Furness, Mr. Peter, of 

Eyam, 115, 127 
Fynnies, Richard, 178 



Gamble, Marie, 6 
Gardner, Richard, 179 
Garmston, John, AI.A. 

Rector of Darley, 2 
Gars, Jno., 25 
Gay, 16 

Gawdon, Robert, 166 
Gell, Ralph, of Carsing- 

ton, 8 
George 1st, 16 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



185 



Gibbons, Willni., 173 
Gibson, Dorothie, 6 
Gibson, James, 179 
Gilbert, Thomas, 177 
Gilbert, William, 179 
Giles, Samuel, 10 
Gill, Christopher, 165 
Gittens, Thomas, 174 
Gladwin, Anne, 6 
Gloucester, Bishop of, 

160-166 
* Goodenough, Christo- 
pher, 7 
Goodfellow, Robin, 153 
Goodwin, Humfrey, 161 
Goodwyn, Edward, 167 
Goodwyn, Jones, 164 
Goose family, 2 
Goose, Mary, 8 
Gorton, Thomas, 180 
Goss, Mr., 101 
Granger, George, 162 
Grantham, Wm., of 

Darby, 7 
Graver, Simon, 177 
Graves, Wm., I 
Greaves, Charles, of 

Rowlee, 12 
Greaves, G., 58 
Greaves, Joseph, of 

Moscar House, 12 
Greaves, Mr. John, of 
' ye Woodhouse, 7 
Greaves, The, 7 
Green, Mr., Solicitor, 

St. Ives, 19 
Greensmiths, The, I 
Greenwood, John, 163 
Gregory family, 2 
Gregory, Robert, of 

ffroggatt, 9 
Grenoway, John, of 

Tilass, Berks, 8 
Greysone, Mr. George, 6 
Grififyn, Wm., 171 
Grimms, S. H., 47 
Gysborne, Thomas, 83 
Guysborne, Thomas, 86 

H. 

Hadfield, Sarah, 7 
Hadnall, Oeorge, 173 
Hake, Sarah, 15, 19, 28 
Hake, Eleanor, 15, 19, 

20, 28 
Halifax, Bishop of Glou- 
cester, 13 

15 



Hall, Thomas, 8 

Hall, Joseph, of Bam- 

ford. 17 
Hall, Dr. S. T., Loiter- 

ings near Longshaw, 

133 
Hall, Dr., Caelswark and 

Hugaer, 135-137 
Hall, Georgius, 179 
Hancock, John, and 

Children's Graves, 122, 

123 
Hancox, Gedion, 173 
Hanley, Hugh, 165 
Hardwick, Elizabeth, 34 
Harison, Leonard, 180 
Hanson, Michael, 171 
Harley, Edward, 34 
Harley, Lady Alargaret 

Cavendish, 34 
Harleys, The, 34 
Harper, Katherine, 10 
Harpur, Mrs. Mary, 10 
Harpur, Mrs. Catherine, 

of Bridge-town, 10 
Harpur, Roger, 174 
Harrington, Francis and 

Alice, 27 
Harris, Rolandus, 172 
Harrup, Edmund, 170 
Harvey, Thomas, 171 
Haslehurst, Sampson, 1 78 
HassaU, Johannes, 164 
Hastings, Sir Francis, of 

Cadbury, l' 
Hawkes, Richard, 164 
Hawkins. John, 174 
Hay, Richard, 78, 82 
Haye, Richard, 85, 86 
Haywood, John, 170 
Heathcoate, Marie, 5 
Heathcote, Benjamin, of 

Chesterfield, 7 
Heaton,Mr., of Sheffield, 

17 

Heaton, Thomas, of 
Sheffield, 17 

Heatons, The, of Shef- 
field, 17 

Heeling, Thomas, 172 

Henry VH., 32 

Henry VHL, 78, 79, 85, 

159 
Herod, 167 
Heron, Samuel, 161 
Hide, Robert, 170 
Hides, Mrs. Elizabeth, 

of Cowley, 7 



Higdon, John, 169 
Higenl)otham, Hugo, 161 
Higges, George, 165 
Hill, John, Ib4-l66 
Hill, Richard, 163, 176, 

179 
Hinchclif, Isobert, 170 
Hinton, Willm., 175 
Hirst, W., Ill, 1 13 
Hobgoblin, 153 
Hocknell, John, 44 
Hodgkinson, Thomas, 17S 
Holand, Matl'ew, 179 
Holbein's Dance of 

Death, 151 
Holland, James, 2-9 
Holland, "Mr., 8 
Holies, 34 
Holies, Lady Henrietta, 

34, 37, 43 
Holldie,John and Arthur, 

4 
Holme, Susanna, 6 
Holme, Henry, 168 
Holytoke, Rafife, 78 
Hood, Thomas, 148 
Hope, \V. H. St. John, 

31, 75 
Horobine, John, 165 
Howell, Thomas, 172 
Howes, Richard, 173 
Hudson, Robert, 83-85 
Hudson, Johannes, 55 
Hudson, Thomfe, de 

Sicke House, 55 
Humbleton, James, 161 
Hunt, Christopher, 165 
Hunter, A., M.D., 47 
Hunter, Dr., " Sylva," 

35 
Huntbury, John, 162 
Hursthouse, Roger, 4 
Hutchinson, William, 168 
Hutchinson, Cutbeard, 

168 
Hutton, Dr., i66 
Hyde, John, of Potlakc, 

86 



L 



Inckford, Roger, 179 
Ingulf, 76 
Irennius, 108 
Ironfeild, Thomas, 9 
Irvine, Mr., 76 



i86 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Jackson, Geoffrey, 1 68 
Jackson, Mr. Kains, I02 
Jaggard's Folio, 1625, 16 
James I. , 157 
James, John, 180 
Jarvace, Thomas, 171 
J ebb. Dr. John, 13 
Jefferys, Geo., 20 
Jennens, ]Mr. Humfrye, 

of Brimingham, 7 
Jenkins, Thomas, 176 
Jewell, 'bishop of Sarum, 

160, "179 
Jewitt, L., F.S.A., 33, 

155 
Jewitt's Stately"'. Homes 

of England, 33 
Johnson, Richard, 175 
Jordan, John, 171 
Juvenal's Fourth Satire, 



K. 

Kay, Edward, 169 
Keeling, William, iSo 
Keene, Mr., Derby, 32 
Keene, Richard, 109, 1 1 1 
Kelsall, William, 163 
Kent, William, 165 
Key, Thomas, 161 
Kiddinger, Thomas, 162 
Kinaston, Humfrey, 172 
Kinastone, Raphe, 173 
Kinersley, Walter, 165 
King, Mathew, 178 
Kitcliing, George, 28 
Kitton, Thomas, 177 
Knight, James, 164 
Knivelons, The, i 
Knivetoii, William, 3 
Knowles family, 2 
Knyfton, Jno., of Brad- 
ley, Kt., 24 
Kyngchesse, John, S3 
Kynton, 83 
Kynton, hugh, 83 
Kynton, John, 86 
Kynton, William, 83-S6 



Langford, Mrs. Mary, 

from Leek, 10 
Lago, Robert, vycar of 

Wyllyngton, 85 



Langford, Jno. and Amy, 
of Langford, co. Derb., 
24 
Langley, Jno. and Ursula, 

CO. Derb., 24 
Lathbury, RaufFe, 83 
Lay ton. Dr., 78, 96 
Lawrence, Benjamin, 

M.A., 2 
Lawrenson, John, 86 
Lea, John, iSo 
Lea, Tlionias, 162 
Leason, Thomas, parson 

of Castell .4shby, 86 
Lee, Francis, 164 
Lee, Richard, M.A., 

rector, 3 
Leech, Humfrey, 171 
Leech, Sir Wm., 24 
Leirke, John, Esq., 24 
Leicester, Edmund and 

John, 5 
Leigh, Dr., 78, 96 
Leigh, Sir Thomas and 

Ann, 24 
Leighe, als Lee, 161 
Leycester, Sir Peter, 26 
Lichfield, Canons and 

Chancellor, i 
Lichfield Clergy, 160 
Lichfield, Dean and 

Chapter of, 160 
Licl) field. Lord Bishop 

of, 161, 180 
Liglitfoot, Thomas, 163 
Li^jhtwood, Jame<i, 171 
Lincoln, Bishop of, 159 
Lingard, Edmund, 176 
Lingard, Godfrey and 

Dorothy, 4 
Little John's grave, 139 
Litilewood, Chas., 29 
Littlewood, George, 29 
Littlewood, John and 

Elizabeth, of Bamford, 

12, 20, 28, 29 
Lloid, Griffith, 179 
Lndge, Edward, 172 
Lomax, Elias, 169 
Longfellow, 149 
Longford, Sir Ralph, 

Pedigree of, i 
Longley, Ellis and 

Hellen, 4 
Longley, George and 

Joseph, 5 
Lowe, Joane, 5 



Lowe, Ralfe, of Denby, 

25 
Lowe, Roger, 175 
Lowe, Thomas, 168 
Lubbock, Sir John, loi, 

102, 103, 105, ij6 
Lucy, Rev. W., D.D., 

rector of Hampton 

Lucy, 17 
Lucas, John and Joane, 

27 
Luther, Robert, 162 
Lytster, Rychard, 78 
Lytton family, 152 

M. 

Malderon, John, vel. 

Maleram, 3 
Mallard, John, 173 
Maning, John, 174 
ALanne, Hugh, 170 
Manners family, Monu- 
ments to, 155 
Manyrye, Hugh, 78 
Marbury, Mrs. Elizabeth, 

7 
Marburys, The, i 
Marshall, Adam and 

Margery, of Rowsley 

Hall, 9 
Marson, Thomas, Esq., 

24 
Mary, Queen, 87 
Mason, Robert, 167 
Ma'^sy, Thomas and 

Dorothy, of Wickles- 

wick, 23-25 
Massy, Michael, 172 
ISLiye, Thomas, 179 
JNlayor, Professor, of 

Cambridge, 19 
McConnell, Mr., 153 
Meare, Hugo, 162 
Meason, George, 175 
Mellor, Henricus, 166 
Mellor, George, 168 
Mellor, Mr., St. Ives, 19 
Mercians, Kingdom of 

the, 76 
Mercians, King of the, 76 
Merril's, Humphrey, 

tomb, 117, 126 
Meverell, Sampson, 

Altar tomb of, 152 
Michell, Richard, 164 
Midleton Thomas, 169 
Miles, Thomas, 177 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



187 



Miller, Eli, 20 
Milles, Thomas, 177 
Millington, Thomas, 175 
Milner, Francis, 169 
Millies, Robert, 5 
Milnes, Mrs. Alice, 6 
Milnes, Mrs. Margaret, 6 
Milhvard, Robert, of 

Snitterton, I, 2 
MiUward, John, of Snit- 
terton, 6, 7, 9 
Milhvard, Mary, 7 
Millward, Elizabeth, 7 
Milhvard, Thomas, of 
Stanton Wood, Pedi- 
gree of, I 
Miilwards, The, I 
Milhvarde, John and 

Frances, 4 
Milnes, William, of 

Hope, 8 
Milward, John and 

Heniy, 4 
Milward, Mrs. Mary, 6 
Milward, Mr. John, 9 
Mitchell, Thomas, 83-86 
Mompesson's, Catherine, 
tomb, 118, 122, 124, 
128, 129, 130 
Mompesson, 122, 124, 

126 
Monger, John and Eliza- 
beth, of Kent, 27 
Montague, IJuke of, 15 
More, Ralphe, 169, 170 
More, Nicholas, 180 
Morewood, John, of 

Oakes, 23 
Morewood, Andrew, of 

Hallow, 25 
Morland, 141 
Morley, Thomas, 86 
IMorral, Richard, 179 
Morrice, Robert, 262 
Morrice, William, 171 
Monten's House, 136 
Mortimer, Earl of, 34 
Mortimer, Countess of, 

37, 43. 44 
Moseley, Thomas, 2, 3 
Mosse, Roger, 161 
Mosselie, Anne, 5 
Mower, Arthur, of Ches- 
terfield, 49 
Mowld, Roger, 177 
Murray, John, 10 
Mutthill, Joseph and 
John, 5 



N. 

Naylor, Daniel, 176 
Neale, Thomas, 164 
Nedham Family, 2 
Needham, Richard, 8 
Neve, Dr. Timothy, 15 
Newam, Edward, 167 
Newans, Thomas, 174 
Newbould, George, 55 
Newcastle, Duke of, 34 
Newdigate, George, Esq., 

Residence of, 143 
Newnes, Thomas, 171 
Newton, Joane, 5 
Newton, Mary, 6 
Newton, Robert, of Nor- 
ton, CO. Derb., 12 
Newton, Sir Isaac, 16 
Nichol's Literary Anec- 
dotes, 15, 16 
Nichol's History of the 

Spalding Society, 16 
Nicholson, Thomas, 179 
Nightingale, Heniy, of 

Morton, 7 
Norfolk, Duke of. Shoot- 
ing-box of the, 143 
Norfolk, His Grace the 

Duke of, 12, 13 
Norman, William, 9 
Normanton, Walter, 170 
Normanshaw, Richard, 98 
Norwich, Bishop of, 159, 

166 
Nutton, Richard, 166 



O. 

Okeden, Edmundus, i6i 
Okeover, Ralph, of Oke- 

over, I 
Okeover, Richard, 24 
Oldall or Odell, John, of 

Cold Aston, 12 
Oldfield, Katharine, 6 
Orburne, Robert, 177 
Ortbn, Thomas. 180 
Oswig, King of Northum- 

bria, 76 
Overton, John, 180 
Overton, Prior, 96 
Overton, V'alentyne, 176 
Ovid, Quotation from, 

39. 40, 46 
Qwtram, Geoffrey, 169 
Oxenbridge, John, 179 



Oxford, Countess of, 37, 

43. 44 
Oxford, Earl of, 34 



P. 

Padd, Francis, 161 
Paine, Mr. Edward, 9 
Pakeman, Henry, 175 
Palmer, John, 161, 163 
Parke, Thomas, 5 
Parker, Archbishop of 

Cant., 160, 176 
Parker, John, 172 
Parker, Mr., 4 
Parker, Peter, 171 
Parsons, Richard, 169 
Paston, George, 164 
Parwich, Raphe, 179 
Paston, John, of Pas' on, 

I 
Paxton, Sir Joseph, 112 
Payne, Edward, minister 

of South Medietie of 

Darley, 2 
Payne, Mr. Edward and 

John, 4 
Painter, William, 16 
Pea, Thomas, 173 
Pecocke, Thomas, 171 
Pedigree from the Col- 
lege of Arms, of Bal- 

gay, 22, 23 
Pedmore, Robtus, 175 
Pe^ge, Dr. Samuel, the 

antiquary, 13, 15, 97, 

98, 108 
Pegge's Collections, 24, 

26 
Pendleton, Elizabeth, 8 
Pendleton, Richard, 5 
Penne, Willm., 174 
Penda, a Pagan, 76 
Penifather, William, 164 
Percival & Son, solicitors, 

of Peterboro', 19 
Perks, Richard, of Hath- 

ersage, 138 
Petifor, Anthony, 1 75- 1 So 
Peyne, Willm., 172 
Philipps, Sir Erasmus, I 
Pidcocke Family, 2 
Pigott, Robt., Esq., 20 
Pilkington, ISIr., 99 
Plato, James, 8 
Pole, Jno., of Radburne, 
24 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



Pope, 1 6 

Poole, Richard, l8o 

Port, Sir John, of Et- 

wall, I 
Portar, Robert, 167 
Portland, William, 2nd 

Duke of, 34, 43 
Pott, John and Wal- 

burge, 4 
Pott, Mrs.Wallbiydge, 5 
Potte, ffrances, 5 
Potte, John, 3, 9 
Potte, Mrs. Mary, 7 
Potte, Walburge, 9 
Potts, John, rector of 
North Medietie of Bar- 
ley, 2 
Povie, James, 176 
Powell, John, 172 
Powtrell, Jno., Esq., 24 
Pratt, Thomas, 83-85 
Premonstratensians, The, 

in England, 33, 34 
Prest, Christopher, 166 
Prest, Symon. 166 
Price, Thomas, 1 71 
Profit, George and Eliza- 
beth, 4 
Proudlove, Agnes, 5 
Puck, 153 
Puckeney, Jane, 29 
Pursglove, Bishop, 1 51 
Pusy, Rychard, 86 

Q- 

Quaritch, Mr., 18 
Quarneby, Humfrey, 85 



Rabould, John, 164 
Ragge family, 2 
Ratcliffe, Lure, 5 
Rawlin, Thomas, 161 
Rawlinson, Edward, 173 
Raynes, Katherin, of 

Wendsley, 6 
Rectors of Darley, 2, 3 
Redishe, Alexander, of 
' Redishe, Pedigree of, I 
Reginald, George, 175 
Renshaw, Anthony and 

Anne, 4 
Revell, John, of Morton, 

8 
Keynes, Mrs. Catherine, 

7 



Rhodes, Mr., 115 
Rhodes' Peak Scenery, 

134, 152, 155 
Richards, Joan, 6 
Richardson's Pamela, 17 
Richardson, John, 83 
Richardson, Ralphe, 169 
Ridge, John, 168 
Riley Graves, 119, 122, 

123 

Riley Farm-House, 123 
Rimington, Isabel, 7 
Robert at Oven, S3 
Roberts, Hughe, 172 
Robinson, Francis, 168 
Robinson, William, 176 
Rogers, William, 172 
Rogers, Francis, 175 
Rogerson, William, 175 
Rokesby, Sir William, i 
Roliston, Edward, 165 
RoUeston, Thomas, I 
Romans, The, 105, 114, 

153 

Rooke, Hayma:n, 35, 47, 

104 
Rooke, A., 47 
Rome, Isabel, 86 
Rome, Nicholas, 171 
Rowland, Thomas, Alice, 

and Abell, 129 
Rowley, Rogers, 169 
Rowley, William, 178 
Rowsley, John, 8 
Ruston, Thomas, 5 
Rutland, Jo.,Earle of, 10 
Rutland, Duke of, 132, 

134 
Rutter, Robert, S3 
Ryley, Mary, of Pentrich, 



Sachev'ell, Robert, 85 
Sacheverell, John, 166 
Sacheverell, John, Esq., 

25 . . , 

Sacheverell, Richard, 165 
S. Anthony, Temptation 

of, no 
S. Augustine, Order of, 

at Calke, 77 
S. Chad, Consecration 

of, 76 
S. Giles, 77 
S. Guthlac's Shrine, 96 
S. James, 33 



S. Mary, 77 

S.John the Baptist, 84 

S. Wystan, a Mercian 

Prince, 76 
Sale, Richard, 167 
Sale, Thomas, 169 
Salisbury, Richard, 165 
Sanckie, Peter, 173, 174 
.Sandfield, Thomas, 173 
Sandys, Archbishop of 

York, 160 
Sandys, Samuel, 176 
Snppox, William, 5 
Savage, Thos. Cheyney, 

10 
Savage, Thos., M.A., 
Rector of Darleigh, 2 
Saxons, The, loS 
Say wood, John, 170 
Scofield, Edmund, 172 
Scofield, Edward, 172 
Scale, Richard, 17S 
Searston, John, 170 
Seeker, Archbishop of 

Canterbury, 13 
Seebohm's, Mr., English 
Village Community, 50 
Sellars, Isnac and Anne, 

Tomb of, 127 
Sellars, John, 6 
Senior, Biidget, 6 
Senior, Mrs. ffraincis, 7 
Senior, Mrs. Anne, of 

Cowley, 7 
Senior, John, 5 
Senior, Tabitha, 5 
Seniors, The, i 
Seward, .Miss, Lines on 

Eyam, 154, 155 
Sliackerlie, Anne and 

Edward, 5 
Shackerlie, Edward, 9 
Shackerley, Anne, 7 
Shakespeare, 16, 48 
Shakespeare's death, 2 
Sharp, Ranulphus, 172 
Shawe, Radulphus, 172 
Sheard's, Jenny, Cottage, 

139 

.Sheldon, John and Abra- 
ham, 4 
Shelcocke, John, 173 
Sherard, Raphe, 177 
Sherborrie, William and 

Richard, 3 
Shirbrooke, Michael, 169 
.Shoare, Mr. and John, 4 
Shore family, 2 



INDEX OF NAMES OK PERSONS. 



Shrewsbury, Countess of, 

34 

Shrewsbury, Earl of, 134 
Sidwell, Robert & Tohn, 

5 

Silkeston, Henrie, 6 
Silkstone family, 2 
Silkstoiie, Henry and 

William, 4 
Silvester, John, 169, 170 
Simpson, Richard, 133 
Siresby family, 2 
Sleeman, Mr. & Robert, 

4 
Sleigh, John, J. P., I 
Sleigh, Sir Samuel, M.P., 

Pedigree i<f, I 
Smalwooil, William, 164 
Smith, A. Pioctor, 20 
Smith, Henry, 161, 170 
Smith, John, 179 
Smith, Luke, 158, 176, 

177 
Smith, Ralphe, 163 
Smith, Robert, 161 
Smith, Willmus., 166 
Smollett, 17 
Smollett's Lancelot 

Greaves, 12 
Smyth, George, 78 
Smyth, John, 82. 85, 86 
Sneyde, Mrs. Ffrances, 

6 
Sneyde, Raphe, Esq., of 

Woodstanton,co. Staff, 

6 
Somersrel, John, 6 
Sorsbie, Edward and 

Elizabeth, 4 
.Soft Sammy, 146 
Spaniard, A, i, 2 
Spendlove, George and 

Mary, 4 
Stacey, William, 28 
Stafford, Alice, 8 
Stafford, Henrie, 5 
Stafford, Laurentii and 

Emma, of Botham, 

Pedigree of, 22 
Stamforde, May, 5 
Stanworth, Humfrey, 174 
Stapleton, Richus., 176 
.Statham, Hellen and 

Thos., of Stancliffe 
Staveley, Jno. and Alice, 

of INlorley, 24 
Steares, The, I 
Steedman, Nicholas, 161 



Steele, Humfrey, 162 
Steere, Mr. John, of 

Stancliffe, 7 
Stelys, Sir John, 85 
Stephyn, Robert, 86 
Stephenson family, 2 
Stephenson, Francis and 
Gertrude, of Unston, 
near Dronfield, 13 
Stephenson, Robert, 83 
Sterndale family, 2 
Stevenson, Dorothy, 6 
Stevenson, Henry, 163 
Stevenson, James, 169, 

I70 

Stevenson, Mr. John and 

Anne, of Rowsley, 5 
Stokes, William 165,166 
Stone, George, 164 
Stone, John, 166 
Storer, Arthur, 163 
Strabolgie, 26 
String, Thomas, 8^ 
Stringer, John, 29 
Stringer, Thomas, 85 
Strype, Annals of Re- 
formation, 158 
Stuart, James, the Pre- 
tender, 17 
Stubbing, Thomas, 165 
Stubbs, Mr. Josiah, of 

Bloare, 7 
Stukely, Dr., 15 
Stukeleys, Dr., 106 
Suddington, Charles, 169 
Supper, Dorothie, 6 
Supper, John, 9 
Sutton, Nicholas, 170 
Sweeting, Rev. W. W., 
Vicar of Mexley, 19, 30 
.Sweetnam, Thomas, 167 
Sweyn, the Saxon, 33 
Swindel, Francis, 7 
Symond, Harker, 177 



Talbot, Willm., 180 
Talbots, The House of, 

123 
Tacitus, 106 
Tanner's, Notitia Monas- 

tica, 76 
Tatersall, Edmund and 

James, 9 
Taylor family, 2 
Taylor, Dorothy, 7 



Taylor, Jno., 24, 26 
Taylor, Henrie, 169 
Taylor, Lodovicus, 171 
Taylor, Lodwicke, 173 
Taylor, Richard, 178 
Tecke, William, 173, 174 
Terry, Cuthbert, 160,179 
Terry, James, 176 
Tetlow, Richard, 161 
Tetlow, Johes, 161 
Thacker, Gilbert, of 

Etvvall, 7, 86 
Thacker, Thomas, of 

Heage, 78, 79, 84-86 
Thornhill, Backe, Esq., 

of Stanton, 16 
Thorpe, Mr. Seth, 133 
Throsby's Thoroton, 35 
Tibshelfe, 169 
Tidder, Rnger, 172 
Tiddington, Thomas, 5 
Tillett.lll, 117, 130, 133, 

134, 138, 140, 142, 143 
Tipping, Jane, of Darley, 

8 
Tissington family, 2 
Tissington, Anthonie and 

ffrancea, 4 
Tissington, Anthonie, 6 
Trickett, Henry, 166 
Trowell, Willm., 16S 
Turner, Ralph, 161 
Turner, Radus, 164 
Turner, John, 178, 179 
Tye, Jane, of Retford, 

23, 25 
Tymme, Robert, 168 
Typpinge, Hector, 4 



V 

Vavesour, Mr., 8 

Vawdrey, Daniel, M.A., 
Rector, 3 

Vernon, Sir George, of 
Haddon, I 

Vernon Family Monu- 
ments, 155 

Vertue, George, 36, 37, 

45-47 
Vicars, Rogr-r, 176 
Vickers family, 2 
Vills and P^reeholders of 

Derbyshire, 49-74 
Vincent's Derby, 22, 26 
Vygors family, 2 



190 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PERSONS. 



\v 

Wakelyn, Rychard, 86 
Walderome, Mr. John, 5 
Walker, Thomas, of 

Burton, 86 
Walker, John, 164, 169 
Walker, Tliomas, 177 
Walklate, Edward and 

John, 5 
Wall family, 2 
Walters, Waterhouse vel 

family, 2 
Ward, George, 165 
Ward, Richard, 168 
Warde, John and Son, 8 
Warde, Robert, 83, 85 
Warde, Richard, 177 
Wardle, Robert, i6i 
Wardle, Hugh, 171 
Wardlow, Robert, 168 
Warwick, J. A., ill, 

112, 136 
Waterhough, John, 164 
Waterhouse, John, 166 
Watson, Bershebn, 6 
Watson, Robert, 174 
Wayte, John, 163 
Wearwall, Robert, 165 
Webster, Thomas, 83, 85 
Webster, John, 83 
Weldon, H., Esq., 

Windsor Herald, 19, 

23, 27 
Wesleys, The Two, 16 
West, Mrs. Hake, 28 
West, Edward, 171 
Westfield, Thos., Lord 

Bishop of Bristol, 30 
Weston, John, 177 
Westwood, Henarie and 

John, 3 



Whalley, Richard, 43 
Whewhall, Ellice and 

Ellyce, 4 
White, Thomas, 167 
White, John, 177 
Whitcombe, Thomas, 175 
Whitehalgh, James, of 

Whitelialyh, 9 
Whitmore,Humfries, 162 
Whittington, Luke, 6 
"Whittrance, 168 
Widnell, Mr., 27 
Wigyley, Mr. Henery and 

Millisent, 7 
W'illie, Willm., 179 
Wilcockson, John, 176 
Wilde, Anne, 6 
Wilde, William, 168 
Wildgoose (Goose) 

family, 2 
Wildgoose, Richard, 5, 6 
Wilding, Ralph, 178 
Wilding, Richard, 179 
Wilding, Humfrey, 179 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, 

100, 137 
Willet, Barnabas, 162 
Williamot, Richard and 

Luce, 3 
Williamot, Ottewell and 

Elizabeth, 3. 8 
Williams, Henry, 176 
Williamson, Henry and 

Henslow - Fotheiley- 

Fortunatus, 5 
Willimot, George and 

Silence, 5 
Willimot, George and 

Isabel, 7 
Wilmot family, 2 
Wilson, Robert, 164 
Wilston, John, 165 



Wilton, Robert, 178 
Winfield, Luxa, 5 
Winspur, Julian, 175 
Winstanley, I 
Wolley, John, of Mat- 
lock, 6 
Wolly, Richard, 172, 

176 
Wood, John, 83, 85 
Wood, Wm., The His- 
torian of Eyam, 115, 
116, 117, 118, 120, 
121, 122, 124, 134 
Wood, Ralphe, 163 
Wood, Geoige, 172 
Woodcocke, Robert, 177 
Woodiwisse family, 2 
Woodiwisse, Abraham 

and William, 5 
Woolley, Adam, of Allen- 
hill, 7 
Worrell, Anthony and 

Anne, 29 
Worthy, Elizth., 8 
Wray, Sir William Ulli- 

thorne, 2 
Wright, William, 178 
Wright, Thomas, M.A., 

iS 
Wrighte, Thomas, 168 
Wryght, John, 78 



Yardley, John, 162 
Yeavely, George, 170 
Yong, Jamis, 83, 85 
York, Archbishop of, 1 59, 

166, 168, 170 
Yuse, Richard, 83 



191 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



A. 

Abbey, Old, at Wel- 
beck, 33 

Abbey, Westminster, 44 

Abney, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Abury, Temple of, 100 

Abury, Stone rows of, 
102 

Acton Bromall, 173 

Acton Pigott, 173 

Aderley, 174 

Afferton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 52 

Agecroft, i 

Agincourt, Battle of, 139 

Albrighlee, I 

Albrighton, 174 

Alderwaslee, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Aldustry, 177 

Alesley, 176 

Alfreton, 170 

All Saints', Derby, 167 

Allestree, Vills and Free- 
holders ot, 65 

Allestree, 16S 

Allferton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 52 

Alsopp, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Alstonfield, 161 

Alvaston, 167 

Alveiton, i6i 

Ambergate, no, ill 

Ansley, 177 

Anstie, 175 

Appleby, 64 



Arbelow, British i\Ionu- 
ment, 97 

Arbelow, 107 

Arber Low, Some notes 
on, 97-ioS 

Arbor Low, Circle, Des- 
cription of, 99, 100 

Arbor Low, Etymology 
of, 108 

Arboretum, Deiby, 124 

Arcall parva, 175 

Archery, 106 

Arely, 177 

Ashburne, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 57 

Ashborne, 171 

Ashe, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 

Ashford Moor, 105 

Ashford-in-the-Water, 

154 

Ashlehey, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Ashley, 162 

Ashooe, 177 

Ashopp, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Asho|)ton, 140, 143 

Ashopton Inn, 142, 143 

Ashover, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 52 

Ashton-Aston, 26 

Astley, 176 

Astoii Hall, 12 

Aston-super-Trent, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 67 

Aston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Aston, 174, 175 



Atlow, 171 
Attingham, 173 
Avebury, 106 
Awdley, 163 

B. 

Badesley Clynton, 177 

Baguley, co. Cestr., 24 

BaUewell, 23, 77, 155 

Bake well Church j 155 

liakewell, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 

Ballidon, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Ballidon, 171 

Bamford Edge, 142, 144 

Barbrook Hall, 112 

Barkswell, 178 

Barlbrough, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 53 

Barl borough, 170 

Barlastone, 162 

Barley, 170 

Barley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 50 

Barnwell, Cambs., 78 

Barowe, 168 

Barrow, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 68 

Barton-under-Needwood, 

Barton Blount, 166 
Baschurch, 173 
Basloe, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 
Bas'ow, 112, 114 
Bathinton, 179 
Batlefield, 174 



192 



INDliX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



Baxterley, 177 

Bed worth, 176 

Bedulton, 164 

Beeley, 112 

Beely, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 

Beighton, 169 

Beighton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 52 

Beighton feilde, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 53 

Belpar, 168 

Belper, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 60 

Bel voir, 134 

Bentley, 171 

Berington, 172 

Berley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 53 

Betley, 163 

Bicknoll, 177 

Biddulfe, 163 

Biginge, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Biginge Grange, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Bilton, 179 

Biidey, 175 

Bircheover, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 68 

Birchenlee, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 71 

Birmingham, 15S, 176 

Blackbrooke, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Blackshawe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Black wall, 169 

Blackwall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Blackwell, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 53 

Blackwell Tor, 125 

Blithefield, 163 

Bloxwich, 164 

Bloare, 161 

Blue John Mine, Castle- 
ton, 146 

Bobenhull, 180 

Bolas, 174 

Bolsover, 169 

Bonmghall, 175 

Bonsall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 58 

Bonteshull, 170 

Boulton, 167 

Bournaston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 61 



Bowdon, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Bowdon Head, 72 

Boylston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 61 

Boylestone, 166 

Bradborn, 171 

Bradeley, 171 

Brad wall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Bradburne, 57 

Bradley Chapel, 161 

Bramley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 54 

Brampton, 169 

Brampton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Brailsford, 166, 171 

Bramshall, 161 

Brassington, 171 

Brassington, Vills and 
Freeholders of. 57 

Breadsall, 168 

Breason, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 66 

Bredsall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 60 

Bretby, 166 

Brewood, 78 

Bridgetowne, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Brimington, 169 

Brimin^ton, Vills and 
Freeholders of> 56 

Brincklow, 176 

Britain, 108 

British Wall at Caels- 
wark, 134 

Brittany, 103 

Bromley Abbots, 164 

Brook Bottom, 150 

Brownsover, 178 

Brugh, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Bubnell, 114 

Bucknall, 163 

Bu;^s worth, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Bulkinton, 176 

Bull's Head, The, Edge 
stone Edge, 153 

Bull's Head, The, Eyam, 
130 

Burliage Brook, 134-136 

Burdingbury, Warwick- 
shire, 160, 179 

Burslem, 163 

Burton Hastings, 176 



Burton - upon - Dunmore, 

179 
Burton-upon-Trent, 164 
Butterton, 161 
Buxton, I 

C. 

Cadbury, I 

'Caelswark, British Wall 

at, 34 
Caelswark, 135, 136 
Calcote, 1 78 
Calderwell, Vills aud 

Freeholders of, 54 
Caldon, 161 
Caldwall, 165 
Calke Priory, 77 
Calke, 95, 166 
Calton, 161 
Calver, 114 
Cambridge, 12, 13, 19, 

Cambridge, Univeisity of, 
159, 175, 178 

Camp Green, 139 

Canterbury, 18, 159 

Carrhead, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Car Head, 140 

Carlisle, Diocese of, 31 

Carls'-work, 116 

Carnac in Brittany, 102, 
103, 107, io8 

Carnethv\aite, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 51 

Carsington, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 56 

Carsington, 171 

Castell Ashby, 86 

Castle Rock, The, 115 

Castle, The, Castleton, 

144, 145 
Castle, Peveril, 144, 145 
Castle Church, neere 

Stafford, 163 
Castle Bylham, 27 
Castlebromwich, 176 
Castleton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 74 
Castleton, 1 16, 43, 44, 

46, 70 
Catton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 
Cauldwall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 63, 64 
Cave Dale, Castleton, 
144, 145 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



193 



Cavern, The Great Peak, 
Castleton, 144-148 

Chaddesden, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 60 

Chaddesden, 168 

Chapel-en-le-Frith, 149 

Chatsworth, 112 

Chats worth Park, 1 13 

Chealeston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 63 

Chelsay, 162 

Checkley, 164 

Chedull, 161 

Clielastone, 167 

Chelleston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 64 

Chelmerton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 70 

Chesterfield Grammar 
School, 13 

Chesterfield, 13, 25, 49, 
168 

Chesterfield, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Chesterton, 180 

Cheswardine, 162 

Chetvvyn, 174 

Chichester, 32 

Chilcote, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 

Chilcote, 164 

Chilvers Coton, 178 

Church Broughton, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 61 

Church of St. Wystnn, 77 

Church, Parish, at Rep- 
ton, 87 

Church ]3roughion, 166 

Church Lawford, 178 

Churchover, 176 

Ciceley Tor, 133 

Clife, 174 

Clifton - upon- Dunmore, 
178 

Clowne, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 56 

Clowne, 169 

Cockshut, 172 

Codnor, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 66 

Cold Harbour, 108 

Colebington, 179 

Coleshill, 176 . 

C( due, near St. Ives, 19, 
20 

Colton, 165 

Conygree, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 55 



Corley, 177 

Coton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 64 

Couldaston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 50 

Courses, Vdls and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Coventry, 175 

Cowdale, ViUs and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Cowley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Cowlowe, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 74 

Cressage, 172 

Cressbrook, 153 

Creswell, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 54 

Creswell, 161 

Crichley, 168 

Cromford, ill 

Cross Flats, 105 

Crowdicote, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 58 

Crowlane, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 51 

Croxall, 165 

Croxden, 164 

Crumforde, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Cubley, 166 

Cuckney, Manor of, 33, 

.14 

Cucklett, Dell or Delf, 
118, 126 

Cucklett Church, 118, 
126 

Culiand, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Cunde, 172 

Cuudover, 172 

Curbar Edges, 114 

Curd worth, 176 

Cussy Dale, 130 

Cutthorpe,Vdls and Free- 
holders of, 55 



Dalberie, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 60 

Dalberie Lees, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 61 

Palbury, 166 

Dale, 78 

Dale, Stoney Middleton, 
114, 115 

Darleigs, 170 



Darley, 2, 3, 78 

Darley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 68 

Darley Church, 2 

Darley Dale, i 

Darley Dale Church, ill 

Dartford, I 

Dawley, 175 

Delf, Delve, or Cussy 
Dell, 116 

Denby, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 66 

Denmark, 105 

Derby, I, 22, 49, iio, 
124, 133, 167 

Derbyshire, I, II, 14, 
16-18, 50, loi, 158 

Derbyshire Barrows, 105 

Derbyshire, Moors of, 14 

Derbyshire, North, I 

Derwent, The, 3, 13, 
III, 112, 114, 130, 
132, 140, 142 

Derwent Ch'^pel, 140- 142 

Derwent Dale, old hall 
in, 12 

Derwent Edge, 142 

Derwent Hall, 12, 13, 
142 

Didlestone, 172 

Dieulacres, Staffs., 78 

Dilhorne, 161 

Dingebanke, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 71 

Donisbthorpe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 64 

Donyngton, 174 

Dore, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 54 

Dovebridge, Vil's and 
Freeholders of, 63 

Doveridge, 166 

Dranfield, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 53 

Draycott, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 66 

Drayton Bassett, 164 

Drayton-in-Ha!es, 175 

Dronfield, 12, 169 

Druidical Circles, 99 

Druidical Temples, 106 

Duckmanton, 169 

Duckmanton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 50 

Duffield, 168 

Duffeild, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 60 

Dunchurch, 178 



194 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



Dunston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 51 
Durham, 88 



Ebbing and Flowing 
Well, 148 

Ebor, I 

Eccles, I 

Eckington, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Eckinton, 169 

Edall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Edgestone Head, 153 

Edgmond, 1 74 

Edingale, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 65 

Edinsover, 170 

Edlaston, 171 

Ednaston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 62 

Eginton, 166 

Eiion-upon-Wildmore, 

174 

Elden Hole, 148 

Elemdon, 177 

Elesmere, 172 

Elford, 164 

Elkeston, 162 

Elmeton, 169 

Elton, 170 

Elvaslon, 167 

Ely, Isle of, 15 

Elynhall, 162 

England, North of, 13 

England, 75, 108, 158 

English Town, The Old, 
76 

Etwall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 61 

Etwall, I, 166 

Exali, 175 

Eyam, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Eyam, 115, 117, 122, 
124, 127, 154, 155, 170 

Eyam Dale, 116, 117, 

125 
Eyam Chuich, 116, 121, 

125 
Eyton Conslaiityne, 172 



F. 

Fairdale, 98 



Fairfield, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Farneborow, 180 

Fearnelee, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 71 

Felton, 173 

Fenny Bcntley, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 57 

Feny Compton, 179 

Fillingsley, 177 

Fin Cop, Monsal Dale, 

.'53 

Finderne, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 67 

Fitz, 173 

Flagge, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 70 

Foleshill, 176 

Forde, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 54 72 

Formarke, 165 

Fox House Inn, 134, 135, 
141 

France, South of, 103 

Francklon, 179 

Frichley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 68 

Frodesley, 1 71 

Frodisley, 173 

Froggatt Edge, 130 

Fulton, 162 

P'ynderne, 167 



G. 

Gaiton, 162 
Gatley Lowe, 105 
(jib Hill, 100, lor, 104 
George Inn, Hathersage, 

138 

Glapwell, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Glossop, 170 

Golden Ball, The, 116, 
117, 125 

Gorstilowe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Grandborow, 178 

Gratvvich, 162 

Gray's Inn, 27 

Gracedieu, Leicester- 
shire, 78, 83 

Great Arcall, 172 

Great Dasset, 180 

Great Houghton, I 

Great Packinton, 177 

Great Upton, 172 



Greene, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Greenehill, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 55 

Greenwich, 12 

Greisley, 165 

Grindleford Bridge, 130 

Grindon, 161, 177 

Grinshill, 173 

H. 

Ilackenthorpe, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 53 
Haddon, 155, 156 
Haddon Hall, 155, 156 
Hadnal cap de Midle, 

Hage, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 55 

Hagg, The, 12 

Hali,The,Stoney Middle- 
ton, 114 

Hall, The, Eyam, 118 

Hall, The, Repton, 94, 
96 

Hallcliffe House, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 54 

Halt Hucknall, 170 

Hampstall Ridware, 164 

Hampton-in-Arden, 177 

Hamsterley, Durham, 32 

Hanbury, 163 

Hanley, Vills and Free- 
hoUlers of, 56 

Harborow, 176 

Harburbury, iSo 

Hardwick Wall, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 72 

Hardwick Priors, 180 

Harley, 173 

Harteshorne, 165 

Harteshorne, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 65 

Hartington, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 58 

Haslande, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 53 

Haslewood, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 60 

Hassop, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 

Hathersedge, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 71 

Hathersage, 12, 134, 137, 
138, 140, 145 

Hathersage Church, 139, 
141. 155 



J 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



195 



Hathersuch, 170 
Hatton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 61 
Haughton, 163 
Haunted House, The, 

125 

Hay Milne, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Headge, 168 

Headless Cross, The, 124 

Heath, 170 

Heathcott, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59, 63 

Heights of Sir William, 
142 

Hemstock, 175 

Hemsworth, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 56 

Herdinges, Vills and 
Freehoklers of, 50 

Hereford, 32 

Heyfeild, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Heyfield, 170 

Heynor, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 66 

Heynor, 168 

Higgar Tor, 129, 137 

Higgar, Rocks of, 134, 
136 

Higgar, 137, 142 

High Peak Tavern, 149 

High Field, Monsal 
Dale, 153 

Highgate, Vills and 
Freehoklers of, 73 

Highlow, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Hill Houses, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 51 

Hill Moreton, 178 

Hilton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 61 

Hob's House, Monsal 
Dale, 153 

Hodnet, 173 

Hognaston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 57 

Hognaston, 171 

Hollande, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Hollies, The, Duffield 
Road, 48 

Hollin's House, 126 

Hollington, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 62 

Holme, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 



Holywell, 27 

Hope, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Hope Hall, 12 

Hope, 14, 143, 145-147 

Hope Church, 14 

Hopton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 56 

Honingham, 179 

Hordley, 172 

Ilorsley, 168 

Horteshoi ne, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 63 

Horton, 164 

Hurdlowe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 58 

Hurt's Arms Hotel, 
Ambergate, no 



Ightfield, 173 
Ham, 161 
Ham Church, 155 
Ilkeston, 168 
Ingestrey, 163 
Ingleby, 165 
Italy, 18 

K. 

Kedlastone, 167 

Keele, 163 

Kemberton, 174 

Kenley, 172 

Kenel worth, 179 

Kilburne, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 65 

Killamarsh, 169 

Killomeishe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 55 

Kinsbury, 177 

Kinassey, 174 

Kinj^es Newton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 64 

Kingsley, 161 

Kirk Hallam, 168 

Kirk Langley, 167 

Kirke Ireton, 171 

Kirke Ireton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 58 

Kirke Langley, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 66 

Kit's Coty House, near 
Maidstone, 102 

Kniveton, 167 

Kniveton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 57 



Ladehole, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Lancashire, 158 

Lane Side, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 72 

Langford, 166 

Langleye Heanor, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 66 

Langwith, 169 

Lea Hurst, in 

Leebotwood, 172 

Leebrockhurst, 174 

Leeke, 164 

Leek Wootton, 179 

Lees, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 

Leighton, 172 

Lemarson, 176 

Lemington Hastinges, 
179 

Lemington Priors, 179 

Lepping Stones, Mon- 
sall Dale, 153 

Lichfield, 12, 76, 157, 
160 

Lidiate, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Lilleshull, Salop, 78, 

Lilshull, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 175 

Lillington, 179 

Lincoln, 32 

Lincolnshire, II 

Linton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 64 

Litleover, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 65 

Litle Buildwas, 174 

Little Chester, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 66 

Little Dasset, 1 80 

Little Eaton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 67 

Little Ness, 174 

Littleover, 167 

Little Packinton, 177 

Litton, 153 

Litton Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Lockmariaker, 103 

Lockoe, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 60, 66 

Lodbrooke, 179 

Lomberdale House, 104 

London, 19, 47 

Lone Hill, 144 



196 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



Long Eaton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 67 

Longford, 174 

Long Itchington, 178 

Longnor, 161, 174 

Longson Parva, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 72 

Longshaw, 134 

Longshaw Shooting Box, 
132 

Longston Magna, Vills 
and Freeholdeis of, 69 

Loppington, 173 

Loscoe, Vills and Free- 
holders Ofy 66 

Lover's Leap Inn, 1 1 5 

Lover's Leap, The, 115 

LuUington, 165 

Lute, The, in Fleet 
Street, 24 



M. 



Mackworth, 167 

Mackworth, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 66 

Madley, 162 

Maidstone, 102 

Mam Tor, 144 

Maplinton, 171 

Marchinton, 163 

Marebrooke Chapel, 160 

Marketon, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 65 

Matlock, 170 

Matlocke, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 58 

Marson Chapell, 163 

Marson Mountgomerye, 
Vills and Freeholders 
of, 63 

Marson Piiors, I So 

Marston Montgomerj', 
166 

Marston, near Tutbury, 
166 

Mirsh", Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Martinside, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 72 

Masson, 122 

Matherfield, l6l 

Matlock Bath, ill 

Maulte, 86 

Mauncetter, 177 

Maxstocke, 177 



Meadowe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 72 

Melborne, 165 

Melburne, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 63 

Mellor, 170 

Mellor, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Merebrooke Chapel, 164 

Merivale, Warwickshire, 
78 

Merryden, 177 

Merton, 178 

Meyre, 162 

Mickleover, 167 

Mickleover, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 67 

Middleton, 99, 119, 170 

Middleton Dale, 1 15, 
118 

Middleton Pastures, 125 

Middleton-juxta-Workes- 
worth, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 58 

Middleton - juxta - Yol - 
grave, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 59 

Midle, 173 

Midleton, 164 

Milhousdale, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 72- 

Milne Hay, Vilis and 
Freeholders of, 66 

Milnethorpe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Mil tonne, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 64 

Milverton, 179 

Misliani, 165 

Milvvich, 162 

Mompesson's Well, 124 

Monford, 173 

Monsal Dale, 152, 153 

Monyashe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 69 

Moon Inn, The, Stoney 
Middleton, 114 

Moreion, Corbet, 173 

Moreton, 169 

Moreton Lea, 173 

Moiley, 168 

Mount Pleasant, 14S 

Muckeston, 162 

Mugginton, 167 

Muginton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 60 

Munks Kirby, 176 

Mytham Bridge, 140 



N. 

Nag's Head, Castleton, 

144 
Napton, 179 
Need ham Grange, Vills 

and Freeholders of, 58 
Nestran^e, 172 
Nether Shatton, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 72 
Nether Cliffe, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 74 
Nether Whitacre, 176 
Nether Shuckboro.v, 180 
Newbold, 176 
Newcastle, 163 
Newton Soony, 165 
Newton, 177 
Norbury, 171 
Normanton, 168 
Normanton, South, Vills 

and Freeholders of, 5 : 
Normanton, South, 169 
North Lees, 140 
North Lees, Elizabethan 

House of, 140 
North Lees, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 71 
North Lees, Old Hall 

of, 140, 142 
Northamptonshire, 11,17 
Northvvingfeild, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 55 
North wingfield, 169 
Norton House, Derby- 
shire, 13 
Norton, Vills and Free- 

iiolders of, 55 
Norton Parva, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 55 
Norton Lees, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 55 
Norton, 163, 169 
Norton-in-Hales, 174 
Nuneaton, 177 
Nuns Green, 124 
Nuport, 174 
Nutonn, 82 

O. 

Ockbrook, 167 

Odin Mine, The, 146 

Ofclmrcli, iSo 

Ogston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 51 

Okebrouke, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 66 



INDEX OF NAMES OK PLACES. 



197 



Okeover, I 

Oker Hill, iii 

Okethorpe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 64 

Ollerensliawt', Vdls and 
Freeholders of, 72 

Ollersette, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Oncote, 164 

Ordnance Arms, Hather- 
sage, 138 

Osleston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Osmaston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 65 

Osmaston - juxta - Ash- 
borne, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Osmastone-juxta-Derby, 
167 

Osniastone-pr-Brailsford, 
171 

Over-Haddoii, Vills and 
F'reeholdeis of, 68 

Over Shatton, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 71 

Over Whitacre, 176 

Overton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Owler Tor, 133, 134, 
142 

Owler Rocks, 134 

Oxford University, 159, 
166 



Padley Feildes, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 65 

Padley, 130, 133, 134 

Padley Chapel, 130 

Padley Wood, 132 

Padley Hall, 133 

"Palace of the Peak,'" 
The, 112 

Parish Church at Rep- 
ton, 76 

Parke Hall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Parwich, 171 

Parton, i 

Paynton, 174 

Peacock, The, Rowsley, 
III, 112 

Peak, The, 11, 12, 16, 
27, 106, no, 119, 148, 
149 

Peak Forest, 148 



Penley, 172 

Pentrich, 168 

Perwich, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 56 

Perryfoot, 48 

Peteiborough, 14, 15, 19, 
20, 52, 82 

Peterborougli Grammar 
School, 19 

Peterborough, Manor of, 
28 

Petton, 173 

Pichford, 172 

Pictou Castle, I 

Pigtor, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Pilsley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 

Pinckstone, 167, 170 

Pingston, Vills and Free- 
holilers of, 51 

Pipewell, Northants., 78 

Pleasley, 169 

Polesworth, 177 

Potlocke, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 65 

Pouey, Vills and Free- 
holders of. 54 

Prat Hall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 56 

Prestcliffe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 70 

Preston Goballs, 173 

Preston-upon-Wildmoor, 
J 74 

Priestgate Lane, Peter 
borough, 28 

Priory, Rochester 
Cathedral, 88 



R. 

Radbome, 168, 179 

Radburne, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 60 

Radford Sehieby, 179 

Radway, 179 

Rainton, :62 

Ratby, 180 

Ravenstone, 165 

Redishe, I 

Redseats, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Reindeer, The, 150 

Renishawe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 54 

Repindon, 165 



Repton, Vills and Fiee- 
holders of, 63, 64 

Repton, Priory of, 75 

Repton, 75-78, 83, 87, 
89, 96 

Rick low Da'.e, 98 

Riddings, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 52 

Ridge, Vills and Free- 
hoUleis of, 72 

Ridgway, Vills and Free- 
holders of. 54 

Rington, 175 

Rinton, 173 

Ripley, Vills and Free- 
holders, 65 

Roaster, 161 

Rochester Cathedral 
Priory, 88 

Rock Gardens, 125 

Rodesley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Rodington, 172 

Rolestone, 165 

Rolley Lowe, 105 

Rookeby, 178 

Roslastone chap., 165 

Rowlee, 12 

Rowsley, 110-112, 156 

Rugby (Rookeby), 1 58, 
178 

Rushall, 164 

Rushton chapell, 164 

Ruyton, 180 



S. Alkmunde's, in 

Derby, 167 
S. Alkmunde's, in 

Salop, 171 
S. Chade's, in Salop, 

171 
S. Crosse, in Salop, 171 
S. George's, Stamford, 

27 
S. Helen's Church, 

Darley Dale, i 
S. John Baptist's 

Church, Peterboro', 21 
.S. John's Chapell, 79 
S. John's College, 

Cambridge, 13, 14, 25 
S. Julian, in Salop, 171 
S. Marie's, in Stafford, 

163 
S. Martin's, Stamford, 

27 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



S. Michael's, in Derby, 
167 

S. jNIichael's, in Coven- 
try, 175 

S. Nicholas, Chapel of, 
79 

S. Paul's, 32 

S. Peter's, in Derby, 
167 

S. Thomas' Chapell, 79 

S. Thomas, near Staf- 
ford, 78 

S. Triniiie's, in Coven- 
try, 175 

Salop, 171 

Salt chap., 163 

Salt-pan, The, 126 

Sandiacre, 168 

Sarum, 160 

Scarcliff, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 50 

Scarcliffe, 170 

Scarsdale, 50 

Scrop'.on, 165 

Scroptnn, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 61 

Seckinton, 17S 

Seighford, 162 

Senor, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 55 

Seynton, 17 1 

Shalcross, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Shardlowe, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 67 

Shawbury, 174 

Sheene, 161 

Sheffield, 134 

Sheffield Grammar 
School, II 

Sheffield Road, 119, 122, 
130 

Sheldon, 177 

Sheldon, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 69 

Shenston, 164 

Sherbrooke, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 56 

Sherland, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 62 

Shilton, 17s 

Shirland, 170 

Shirley, 31, 166 

Shirley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Shotesweil, 180 

Shottington, 178 

Shropshire, 158 



Shuckborow, Superior, 
180 

Shufnall, 175 

Slackhall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 72 

Slifter Tor, The, 136 

Sraalley, 168 

Smethcote, 173 

Smitherby, 166 

Snelsoii, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Snelston, 171 

Sniterton Hall, 10 

Snitterton, I 

Solihull, 158, 177 

Somerley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 51 

Someisall, 166 

Somersall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 62 

Southam, 179 

South Wingtield, 169 

Spain, I 

Sparrowpit, 148 

Speedwell Mine, Castle- 
ton, 146 

Speedwell Cavern,Castle- 
ton, 146 

Spinkhill, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 56 

Spittlefield, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 56 

Spoondon, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 60 

Spoondon, 168 

Stadon, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 70 

Staffordshire, 158 

Staffordshire, D:;anery of 
Lapley and Tresuli, 

157 

Stamford, II, 27 

Standon, 162 

Standall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Stanley, 16S 

Stanton, in, 165, 168 

Stanion, Vills and Free- 
ho ders of, 68 

Stapenhall, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 65 

Stapenhill, 165 

Staping hill, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 63 

Staunton, 173 

Staveley, Vills and Free- 
h )lders of, 50 

Stavy, 169 



Stenson, Vills and Free 

holders of, 61 
Stepulton, 172 
Stirchley, 174 
Stiviehall, 175 
Stockton, 175, 178 
Stoke, 175 
Stoke Hall, 130 
Sti'ke Doyle, Chancel of, 

29, 30 

Stoke Doyle, co. North- 
ants., 27 

Stoke-super-Terne, 174 

Stoke-upon-Trent, 163 

Stone, 162 

Stonehenge, 102, 106, 107 

Stonely, 179 

Stonnis, in 

Stoney Middleton, 74, 
113, 114, 122, 130 

Stowe, 162 

Strines, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 73 

Stretton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 

Strelton-in-le-Field, 166 

Stretton-upon-Dunmore, 
178 

Stretton-upon-.Statham, 
176 

S'.ubley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 53 

Sturson, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Sudbury, 166 

Sutton, 159, 165, 169 

Sutton Coldfield, 176 

Sutton Maddocke, 175 

Sutton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 52 

Swalow Houses, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 73 

Sw.nnvvicke, Vdls and 
Fieeliolders of, 52 

Swarkestone, 167 

Swarson, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 65 

Swathwicke, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 51 

Swinnerlon, 162 



T. 



Taddington, Vills and 

Freeholders of, 73 
Talke, 162 



INDEX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



199 



Tansley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 58 

Tatenhill, 65 

Tliatched House Tavern, 
Aiiibergate, no 

Tliornhill,Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Thoipe, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 56 

Thorpe, 164, 17 1 

Thurvaston, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Tibberton chap., 174 

Tdjshelfe, Vill nd Free- 
holders of, 51 

Tickenhall, 165 

Ticknall, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 65 

Tidesw all, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Tideswell, 133, 149-153 

Tideswell Church, 151, 
152 

Tideswell Free Grammar 
School, 151 

Tideswell Hospital, 151 

Tilstocke, 173 

Tissinglon, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 57 

Tissington, 171 

Tixall, 163 

Toad's Mouth, The, 135 

Tong, 175 

Totley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 55 

Totley, 55 

Totley Hall, 55 

Trent, 77, 87 

Trent, The Old, 87 

'J'rtntham, 162 

Troway, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 56 

Tiusley, 159, 165 

Tudbury, 164 

TuUy's Head in Pall 
Mall, 16 

Tunstidd, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Turnt-dich, 168 

Turton, I 

Tutbury, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 

Tutluiry, 166 

Twichell, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 70 

Twiford chapell, 168 



U. 

Uffington, 174 

Underecles, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Unston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 51 

Upper Cupola, 1 17 

Upper Padley, 133 

Upton, 175 

Uttoxeter, 162 



W. 



Wadelye, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 

Wadshelf, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 55 

Walsall, 164 

Walton-upon-Trent, 165, 
167 

Walton, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63, 64 

Wapenbury, 178 

Wardluw Mires, Gibbet 
on, 120 

Wardlow, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 71 

Warinebrooke, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Warminster, 180 

Warslowe, 1 61 

Waterfall, 161 

Watergroove Mine, 116 

Warwickshire, 158, 160 

Weddington, 177 

Welbeck Park, 46 

Welbeck, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 33, 37, 43 

Welch Hampton, 172 

Wellington, 171 

Wemnie, 174 

West Hallam, 168 

Weston Underwood, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 615 

Wet-Within's Druidical 
Circle, 127 

Wetton, 161 

Whatstandwell, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 68 

Wheston, 152 

Wheston, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 92 

Whildon Trees, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 58 



Whilhough, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 73 

Whitchnor chapell, 165 

Whitchurch, 173 

Whittington, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 51 

Whittington, 169 

Whitmore, 163 

Whitnash, 179 

Whitwell, 169 

Whitwell, Vills and Free- 
hoUlers of, 52 

Wicksall chapell, 174 

Wigley, Vills and P'ree- 
holders of, 55 

Wigwall Grange, Vills 
and Freeholders ,of, 
56 

Wiken Sowe, 175 

Willington, 166 

Wildersley, 165 

Willersley Castle, III 

Willey, 176 

Willington, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 67 

Willoughby, 178 

Wilsley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 63 

Wiltshire, 102 

Win Hill, 142, 145 

Windley, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 60 

Windley Hill, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 59 

Winyfeild, South, Vills 
and PVeeholders of, 56 

Wingerworth, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 51 

Wingerworth, 160, 169 

Winnat or Windgates, 
146, 148 

Wins'er, 170 

Winster, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 68 

Winshill, Vills and Free- 
liolders of, 65 

Wirks worth, 171 

Wi.-hawe, 177 

Witliibrooke, 176 

Withington, 172 

Wolfamcote, 178 

Wolston, 178 

Wolvey, 176 

Woodhouse, Vills and 
Freeholders of, 53 

Woodland, 14 

Woodlowe, 74 



INDKX OF NAMES OF PLACES. 



Woolstaiiton, 163 

Woolwich, 12 

Woodcote Grange, Vills 
and Freeholders of, 59 

Workesworth, Vills and 
Freeholdeis of, 56 

Wormhill, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 72 

Wormleighton, 179 

Wroberdyne, 171 



Wroxeter, 172 
Wyaston, Vilts and Free- 
holders of, 62 
Wye, The, ill, 153, 156 



Yarncliffe, 132 



Yarncliffe Wood, 135 

Veavelie, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 62 

Yolgrave, 170 

Yolgrave, Vills and Free- 
holders of, 68 

York, 32, 160, 165 

Youlgreave, I 

YoxLill, 164 




i^7MAY1935 



BEMROSE AND SONS, PRINTERS, DERBY ; AND 23, OLD BAILEY, LONDON. 



e7MAY1935 



VOL. VII. 



■■^ 




1885. 



OURNAL 



OF THE 



JlRCHJEOLOGICflL 

AND 

Natural History 
OCIfiTY. 




LONDON : 

•BBMROSB & SONS, 23, OLD BAILEY 

AND DERBY. 



I 




y//,./ri///i (>////■,' iir, . V///.V//VV, /rV/;,-; 



JOURNAL 



DERBYSHIRE ARCHiiOLOGICAL 



NATURAL HISTORY SOCIETY. 

EDITED BY J. CHARLES COX. 



VOL. VII. 



JANUARY, 1885 



XonJ)on : 

BEMROSE & SONS, 23, OLD BAILEY; 
AND DERBY. 



Ill 
CONTENTS. 



List of Officers v 

Rules vii 

List of Members x 

Secretary's Report xix 

Balance Sheet xxxiii 



A Statutory List of the Inhabitants of Melbourne, Derby- 
shire, IN 169S ; PRINTED from THE ORIGINAL MS. ASSESSMENT, 

WITH A Commentary and Explanatory Notes. 

By R. E. Chester Waters, B.A. i 

A Religious Census of Derbyshire, 1676 

By Rev. J. Charles Cox 31 

On a Sepulchral Slab discovered at Kedleston Church. 

By Rev. J. Charles Cox - - 37 

Parish Records of Hartshorne, Derbyshire. 

By the late Thomas North, F.S.A. - - - - 40 

On the Early History of Wirksworth and its Lead Mininc. 

By William Webb, M.D. 63 

The Roman Stations of Derbyshire. 

Bv W. Thompson Watkin 70 

On the Mammoth at Creswell. 

By a. T. Metcalfe, F.G.S. 92 

The Burton Chartulary. 

By General the Hon. George Wrottesley - - - 97 
On the Augustinian Priory of the Holy Trinity, at Repion, 
Derbyshire. 

By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A., F.S.A. - - - - 154 

Records of the Borough of Chesterfield 162 

Reminiscences of Old Allestree. 

By George Bailey --..-... 168 
On a Supposed Inscription upon the Font at Wilne. 

By Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D. 185 

A Calendar of the Fines for the County of Derby from their 
Commencement in the Reign of Richard I. 

By W. H. Hart, F.S.A. 195 

On an Ancient Gold Ring, found at Normanton-by-Derbv. 

By Arthur Cox, M.A. 21S 

Norbury Manor House and the Troubles of the Fitzherberts. 

By Rev. J. Charles Cox 221 



LIST OF PLATES. 



PAGE 

I. Allestree, Doorway Frontispiece 

II. Sepulchral Slab, Discovered at Kedlestox Church, 

October, 1864 37 

III. Antiquities Found in Making via Gellia, 1791-2 - - 66 

IV. Iron Spear Hi:ads found do. do. do. - - 67 

V. The Miners' Dish, Moot-Hall, Wirksworth - - - 68 

VI. Under and Side Views of a Portion of the Upper Jaw 
OF a Young Mammoth, from the " Pin Hole Cave," 
Creswell. (Natural Size.) 96 

VII. Ground Plan of Repton Priory 154 

VIII. Sections of Base Mouldings 155 

IX. Base of Pillar 157 

X. Base, Capital, and Section of Pillar from Chapter- 

House 161 

XI. Plans OF Bases 156 

XII. Incised Slab of Edward Dutton 160 

XIII. Font at Wilne ; Pillar at Masham ; and Pillar at 

Wolverhampton 185 

XIV. Ring Found at Normanton-by-Derby .... 21S 
XV. Ground Plan of Norbury Manor House - - - - 223 

XVI. Old Building, Norbury Manor 224 

XVII. Entrances to Great Hall and State Rooms, Norbury - 224 
XVIII. Oak Parlour and " Sir Anthony's Study," Norbury - 242 

XIX. Pedigrees of Fitzherbert 252 



LIST OF OFFICERS. 



pvtsiircnt . 



THE DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE, K.G 



1Ftcc=^rc5(trcnts 



Duke ok Norfolk, E.M. 

Duke of Portland. 

Lord Vernon. 

Lord Scarsdale. 

Lord Belper. 

Lord Waterpark. 

Right Rev. Lord Bishop ok 

Lichkield. 
Hon. E. K. W. Coke. 
Hon. W. M. Jervis. 
Hon. Frederick Strutt. 
Right Rev. Bishop Abraham. 
Right Rev. Bishop Staley. 



Sir Francis Burdett, Bart. 
Sir T- G. N. Alleyne, Bart. 
Sir H. S. Wilmot, Bart., V.C, 

C.B., M.r. 
Sir M. a. Bass, Bart, M.P. 
Very Rev. Dean ok Lichfield. 
Ven. Archdeacon Balston. 
T. \V. Evans, Esq., M.P. 
Llewei.lynn Jewitt, Esq., F.S.A. 
J. G. Crompton, Esq. 
N. C. CuRZON, Esq. 
G. F. Meynell, Esq. 
H. H. Bemrose, Esq. 



Council 



John Bailey. 

George Bailey. 

William Bemrose. 

John Borough. 

Rev. J. Charles Cox. 

Thomas Evans, F.G.S. 

C. G. Savile Foljambe, M.P. 

F.S.A. 
Rev. M. K. S. Frith. 
William Jolley. 
Rev. F. Jourdain. 
Richard Keene. 
F. J. Robinson. 

i^ott Srtasutcv ; 



C. E. Newton. 



W. H. St. John Hope, F.S.A. 

F. Campion. 

C. James Cade. 

E. Cooling. 

J. Gallop. 

T. W. Charlton. 

E. Greenhough. 

Sir James Allport. 

W. H. Hodges. 

A. H. Dolman. 

W. Mallalieu. 

Henry Allpass, F.R.S.L. 

I^on. Sccrctari) : 

Arthur Cox. 



ilutritors : 



Tames Lungakd. 



Major Fountain. 



RULES. 



I. — Name. 
The Society shall be called the " Derbyshire Arch.eologic.-\l 
AND Natural History Society." 

II. — Object. 
The Society is instituted to examine, preserve, and illustrate 
the Archaeology and Natural History of the County of Derby. 
III. — -Operation. 
The means which the Society shall employ for effecting its 
objects are : — 

I. — Meetings for the purpose of Reading Papers, the 

Exhibition of Antiquities, etc., and the discussion of 

subjects connected therewith. 
2. — General Meetings each year at given places rendered 

Interesting by their Antiquities, or by their Natural 

development. 

3. — The publication of original papers and ancient 
documents, etc. 

IV. — Officers. 

The Officers of the Society shall consist of a President and Vice- 
Presidents, whose election shall be for life ; and an Honorary 
Treasurer and Honorary Secretary, who shall be elected annually. 

V. — Council. 

The general management of the affairs and property of the 
Society shall be vested in a Council, consisting of the President, 



Vice-Presidents, Honorary Treasurer, Honorary Secretary, and 
twenty-four Members, elected from the general body of the 
subscribers ; eight of such twenty-four Members to retire annually 
in rotation, but to be eligible for re election. All vacancies 
occurring during the year to be provisionally filled up by the 
Council. 

VI. — Admission of Members. 

The election of Members, who must be proposed and seconded 
in writing by two Members of the Society, shall take place at any 
meeting of the Council, or at any General Meetings of the Society 
VH. — Subscription. 

Each Member on election after March 31st, 1878, shall pay an 
Entrance Fee of Five Shillings, and an Annual Subscription of 
Ten Shillings and Sixpence. All Subscriptions to become due, in 
advance, on the ist of January each year, and to be paid to 
the Treasurer. A composition of Five Guineas to constitute Life 
Membership. The composition of Life Members and the 
Admission Fee of Ordinary Members to be funded, and the 
interest arising from them to be applied to the general objects of 
the Society. Ladies to be eligible as Members on the same 
terms. No one shall be entitled to his privileges as a Member of 
the Society whose subscription is six months in arrear. 
VHL — Honorary Members. 

The Council shall have the power of electing distinguished 
Antiquaries as Honorary Members. Honorary Members shall 
not be resident in the County, and shall not exceed twelve in 
number. Their privileges shall be the same as those of Ordinary 
Members. 

IX. — Meetings of Council. 
The Council shall meet not less than six times in each year, 
at such place or places as may be determined upon. Special 
meetings may also be held at the re(iuest of the President, or five 
Members of the Society. Five Members of Council to form a 
quorum. 



X. — Sub-Committees. 
The Council shall have the power of appointing from time to 
time such sectional or Sub-Committees as may seem desirable for 
the carrying out of special objects. Such sectional or Sub- 
Committees to report their proceedings to the Council for 
confirmation. 

XI. — General Meetings. 

The Annual Meeting of the Society shall be held in January 
each year, when the Accounts, properly audited, and a Report 
shall be presented, the Ofificers elected, and vacancies in the 
Council filled for the ensuing year. The Council may at any 
time call a General Meeting, specifying the object for which that 
Meeting is to be held. A clear seven days' notice of all General 
Meetings to be sent to each Member. 

XII. — Alteration of Rules. 

No alteration in the Rules of the Society shall be made except 
by a majority of two-thirds of the Members present at an Annual 
or other General Meeting of the Society. Full notice of any 
intended alteration to be sent to each Member at least seven 
days before the date of such Meeting. 



I 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



The Members whose names are preceded by an asterisk (*) are Life Members. 

Bloxham, M. H., F.S.A., Rugby. > 

Hart, \V. H., F.S.A., Public Record Office, Fetter 

Lane, London. j- Honorary Members. 

Fitch, R., F.S.A. , Norwich. 
Greenwell, The Rev. Canon, F.S.A., Durham. 

Abbott, S., Lincohi. 

Abney, Captain W. de W., F.R.S., Willesley House, Wetherby Road, South 

Kensington, London. 
*Abraham, the Right Rev. Bishop, Lichfield. 
Addy, S. O., George Street, Sheffield. 
Alexander, Rev. C. L., Stanton-by-Bridge, Derby. 
AUeyne, Sir John G. N., Bart., Chevin House, Belper. 
Allpass, Hy., F.R.S.L., Free Library, Derby. 
AUport, Sir James, Littleover, Derby. 
Alsop, Anthony, Wirksworth. 
AUsopp, A. Percy, Trent Valley House, Lichfield. 
Andrews, William, Literary Club, 13, Hopwood Street, Hull. 
Arkwright, Rev. W. Harry, Rowsley Vicarage, Bakewell. 
Avkwright, James C, Cromford. 
* Arkwright, F. C, Willersley Castle, Cromford. 
Armstrong, Rev. E. P., S. Michael's Vicarage, Derby. 

Bagshawe, F. Westby, The Oaks, Sheffield. 

Bailey, John, The Temple, Derby. 

Bailey, J. Eglinton, F.S.A., Egerton Villa, Stratford, Manchester. 

Bailey, George, 32, Crompton Street, Derby. 

Baker, Hy. , 46, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Balguy, Major, Trowel's Lane, Derby. 

Balston, the Ven. Archdeacon, D.D., The Vicarage, Bakewell. 

Barber, J. T., Oakfield, Ashton-on-Clun, Salop. 

Barker, W. Ross, Lyndon House, Matlock Bath. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Barnes, Capt., Beaconsfield, Bucks. 

Bass, Sir M. A., Bart., M.P., Rangemore, Burton-on-Trent. 

Bate, James O., Gerard Street, Derby. 

Bateman, F. O. F., Breadsall Mount, Derby. 

Bateman, Thomas K., Alvaston, Derby. 

Beamish, Major, R.E., 20, S. Bernard's Crescent, Edinburgh. 

Beard, Neville, The Mount, Ashburne. 

Belper, The Right Honourable Lord, Kingston Hall. 

Bemrose, H. H., Utto.xeter New Road, Derby. 

Bemrose, William, Elmhurst, Lonsdale Hill, Derby. 

Bennett, George, Irongate, Derby. 

•Bickersteth, The Very Rev. E., D.D., The Deanery, Lichfield. 

Blackwall, J. B. E., Biggin, Wirksworth. 

Blandford, Rev. H. E., Ockbrook. 

Boden, Walter, Govver Street, Derby. 

Bogonschevsky, The Baron Nicholas Cassimir de, Pskov, Russia. 

Borough, John, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Bowring, Chas., Duffield Road, Derby. 

Bradbury, Edward, 16, Arboretum Street, Derby. 

Bradbury, Rev. T., S. Chad's, Derby. 

Bridgeman, O. Granville, Bilton Hall, Rugby. 

Brigden, Geo., Irongate, Derby. 

Brindley, Benjn., South Parade, Derby. 

Bromwich, Rev. C. T., S. Wei burgh's, Derby. 

Brushfield, T. N., M.D., The Cliff, Budleigh-.Salterton, Devon. 

Buchanan, Alexander, Wilson Street, Derby. 

Burdett, Sir F., Bart., Foremark, Derby. 

Busby, C. S. B., Duffield Road, Derby. 

Butler, W^., Smiths' Bank, Derby. 

Cade, Chas. James, Spondon. 

Cade, Francis J., Spondon. 

Caramel], G. H., Brookfield Manor, Hathersage. 

Campion, Frederick, Ockbrook, Derby. 

Campion, Frank, Duffield Road, Derby. 

Cantrill, W., Charnwood Street, Derby. 

Carter, F., Irongate, Derby. 

Chancellor, Rev. J., S. John's, Derby. 

Charlton, Thomas W., Chihvell Hall, Notts. 

Christian, Rev. F. W., The Vicarage, South Wingfield. 

Clark, G. D'Arcy, Highfield House, Derby. 

Clarke, C. H., International Colkge, Isleworth, .Aliddlesex. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 



Clayton, Mrs., Queen Street, Derby. 

Clay, T. Spender, Ford Manor, Lingfield, Surrey. 

Clulow, Edward, Junr., Victoria Street, Derby. 

Cokayne, Andreas E., Overdale Grange, Great Lever, BoItun-le-Moors 

♦Cokayne, G. E., F.S.A., College of Arms, London. 

*Coke, Colonel, Debdale Hall, Mansfield. 

Coke, The Hon. Edward Keppel Wentworth, Longford Hall. 

*Coke, Major Talbot, Hardwick House, Richmond f lill, Surrey. 

Cooling, Edwin, Junr., Lon Gate, Derby. 

Cooke, Charles, Spondon. 

Copestake, T. G., Kirk Langley. 

Cottingham, Rev. Henry, The Vicarage, Heath. 

Coulson, J. B., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Coulson, G. M., Friar Gate, Derby. 

Cox, Rev. J. Charles, Enville Rectory, Stourbridge. 

Cox, William, Brailsford. 

Cox, Arthur, Mill Hill, Derby. 

Cox, F. W., Priory Flatte, Breadsall, Derby. 

Cox, Miss, The Hall, Spondon. 

Crompton, J- G., The Lilies, Derby. 

Croston, James, F.S.A., Upton Hall, Prestbury, Cheshire. 

Curgenven, W. G., M.D., Friar Gate, Dcrl)y. 

Currey, B. S., Little Eaton Hill, Derby. 

Currey, Percy H., Little Eaton Hill, Derby. 

*Curzon, Nathaniel C, Lockington Hall, Derby. 

Davis, Hy., All Saints' Works, Derby. 

Davis, Frederick, Palace Chambers, S. Stephen's, Westuiinster. 

Deacon, Rev. J. C. H. 

Devonshire, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., Chalsworth. 

Disbrowe, Miss, Walton Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 

Dolman, A. H., Wardwick, Derby. 

Downing, Wm., Olton, Birmini^ham. 

Eckett, S. B., 20, Arboretum Street, Derby. 

Eddowes, C. K. \ 

Eddowes, Mrs. C. K. !■ St. Mai y's Gate, Derby. 

Eddowes, Miss ) 

Edmunds, Wilfred, "Derbyshire Times," Chesterfield. 

Egerton, Admiral the Hon. F., M.P., Devonshire House, London. 

*Evans, T. W., M.P., Allestree, Derby. 

Evans, Walter, Darley Abbey. 

* Evans, John, Higbfields, Derby. 



LIST OK ^fF.MHF.RS. 

Evans, Henry, West Bank, Derby. 

Evans, Thomas, F.G.S., Pen-y-Bryn, Derby. 

Evans, Robert, Elclon Chambers, Nottingham. 

*Eyre, Lewis, 78, Redclifife Gardens, Kensington, London. S.W. 

*Fane, William Dashwood, Melbourne Hall. 

Testing, Rev. G. A., Clifton, Ashburne. 

Fisher, Edwd., Abbotsbury, Newton Abbot, Devon. 

*FitzHerbert, J. K., Twynham, Bournemouth. 

*FitzHerbert, Rev. Regd. H. C, Somersal Herbert, Derby. 

*Foljambe, Cecil G. Savile, M.P., F.S.A., Cockglode, Ollerton, Newark. 

Forman, Rev. T. R., S. Thomas's, Derby. 

Forman, Hy., Chellaston, Derby. 

Fox, Rev. W., The Rectory, Stanton-by-Dale. 

•Freer, Rev. T. H., Sudbury, Derby. 

Frith, Rev. M. K. S., The Vicarage, Allestree. 

Furneaux, Rev. W. M., Repton Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 

Gallop, Joseph, Normanton Road, Derby. 

Garbutt, Horace, 31, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Gillett, F. C, Duffield Bank House, Derby. 

*Gisborne, Miss, Allestree Hall, Derby. 

Gisborne, T. M., Charnwood Street, Derby. 

Goldie, Rev. A. R., The Grange, Thulston, Derby. 

Goodall, Thos. Sorby, 5, S. Peter's Street, Derby. 

Goode, Mrs. 

Greaves, Fred. W., Mackworth, Derby. 

Greenhough, Edward, Parkfield, Willersley Road, Matlock. 

Greensmith, L. J. , Hazelwood Villa, Osmaston Road, Derby. 

Greenwcll, Geo. C, F.G.S., Elm Tree Lodge, Duffield. 

Gresley, Rev. L. S., Ashover. 

Groves, Rev. C. W., Grammar School, Risley. 

Hall, W. S., 39, Hartington Street, Derby. 
Hall, J. Payne, Uttoxeter. 
Hall, Rev. Tansley, Boyleston, Derby. 
Hamilton, Rev. C. J., The Vicarage, Doveridge. 
Harrison, Wm., M.D., Dean Hill House, Matlock. 
Harwood, James, Corn Market, Derby. 
Haslam, A. Scale, Duffield Road, Derby. 
Haslam, W. Coates, Ripley, Derby, 
lieftbrd, T. N., 46, Queen Street, Derby. 



XIV LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Herbert, Rev. George, Cowlam Rectory, Sledmeie. 

Hey, Rev. Canon, Vicarage, Belper. 

Hill, F. C, St. James's Chambers, Derby. 

Hillyard, Rev. E. A., Christ Church Vicarage, Belper. 

Hipkins, Rev. F. C, Priory, Repton. 

Hodges, W. H., Osmaston Road, Derby. 

Holland, W. R., Ashburne. 

Hollis, H. W., F.R.A.S., Butterley. 

Holly, Wm., Ockbrook. 

Holmes, Major, Makeney Lodge, Derby. 

Holmes, H. M., London Road, Derby. 

Holmes, H. M., Jun., London Road, Derby. 

Holmes, Miss E., London Road, Derby. 

Holoran, G. B., Osmaston Road, Derby. 

Hope, Rev. William, S. Peter's, Derby. 

Hope, W. H. St. John, F.S.A., The Vines, Rochester. 

Hope, Miss Rose E., 13, Ashburne Road, Derby. 

Horsley, Thomas, King's Newton. 

*Hovenden, R. Heathcote, Park Hill Road, Croydon. 

Howard, The Right Hon. Lord, of Glossop, Glossop Hall. 

Howard, W. F., Cavendish Street, Chesterfield. 

Howe. W. E., Fernie Bank, Matlock Bath. 

Huish, John, Smalley, Derby. 

Huish, Darwin, Wardwick, Derby. 

Hunt, J. A., The Poplars, Derby. 

Hunter, John, Jan., Field Head House, Belper. 

*Hurt, Albert F., Alder wasley, Derbyshire. 

Hurt, Miss, 46, Clifton Gardens, Maida Hill, London, VV. 

Jackson, John P., Stubbin Edge, Chesterfield. 

Jennings, L. F., Manor House, Kingston, Lewes. 

*Jervis, The Hon. W. M., Quarndon, Derby. 

Jervis, Hon. E. S. Parker, Aston Hall, Sutton Coldfiekl. 

Jessop, William, Butterley Hall. 

Jeudwine, W. W., Hasland, Chesterfield. 

Jewitt, Llewellynn, F.S.A., The Hollies, Duffield. 

Jobson, J., The Cottage, Spondon, Derby. 

Jobson, Godfrey, Derwent Foundry, Derby. 

Johnson, E. S., Cliarnwood House, Osmaston Road, Derby. 

Johnson, Rev. Wm., Repton. 

Johnston, Captain Duncan A., R.E., Ordnance Survey, Derby. 

Johnston, Andrew, Borrowash, Derby. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. X\ 

Jolley, William, Eldon Chambers, Nottingham. 

Jones, Joseph, Full Street, Derby. 

Jones, Rev. T. J., Tickenhall, Derby. 

Jones, T., Jun., 256, Glossop Road, Sheffield. 

Joseph, Ferguson, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Jourdain, Rev. Francis, The Vicarage, Ashburne. 

Keene, Richard, Iron Gate, Derby. 

Kingdon, Clement B., Ednaston Lodge. 

Kirkland, Capt. Walker, 3, West Terrace, Eastbourne. 

Knipe, W. Melville, Melbourne. 

Lamb, John, Corn Market, Derby. 

Langdon, W., 5, Grove Terrace, Derby. 

Leacroft, Rev. C. H., The Vicarage, Brackenfield, Alfreton. 

Leader, J. D., F.S.A., Sheffield. 

Leech, Mrs. Samuel, London Road, Derby. 

Lewis, Rev. Lewds, Ockbrook, Derby. 

Lichfield, The Dean and Chapter of — Chas. Gresley, The Close, Lichfield. 

Lichfield, The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of, The Palace, Lichfield. 

Lingard, J., Irongate, Derby. 

Lindsay, J. Murray, M.D., Mickleover, Derby. 

Lister, Charles, The Abbey, Darley Dale. 

Litherland, Hy., Ravenshoe, Burton Road, Derby. 

Livesay, Wm., M.D., Sudbury, Derby. 

Lomas, J., Marble Works, King Street, Derby. 

Longdon, Frederick, Osmaston Road, Derby. 

Lott, Edward, Corn Market, Derby. 

Lowe, Major A. E. Lawson, F.S.A., Shirenewton Hall, Chepstow. 

Lowe, William Drury, Locko Park, Derby. 

Lowe, George, M.D., Horninglow Street, Burton-on-Trenl. 

Lucas, Captain, Darley House, Derby. 

Mackie, John, ClifTe House, Crigglestone, near Wakefield, and Watford \illa, 

New Mills, Stockport. 
Madan, Rev. Nigel, West Hallam. 
Mallalieu, W., Swallows' Rest, Ockbrook. 
Massey, Rev. J. C, South Normanton, Alfreton. 
Mason, Rev. G. E., The Rectory, Whitwell. 
Mclnnes, E., 100, Osmaston Road, Derby. 
Meakin, E. J., Spondon, Derby. 

Mello, Rev. J. M., The Rectory, Brampton S. Thomas, Chesterfield. 
Mellor, Rev. T. Vernon, Idridgehay Vicarage, Derby. 



XVI LIST OF At EMBERS. 

Meynell, Godfrey F., Meynell Langley, Derby. 

Milligan, Colonel, Cauldwell Hall, Burton-on-Trent. 

Mills, Henry, Laurels, Etwall. 

Milnes, Rev. Herbert, The Vicarage, Winster. 

Molineux, Rev. C. H., S. James's Parsonage, Derby. 

Morley, Henry, London Road, Derby. 

♦Mundy, Meynell, 30, Green Park, Bath. 

Mundy, Edward Miller, Shipley Hall. 

Mundy, F. Noel, Markeaton Hall. 

Mundy, Rev. T. B., Wilne, Derby. 

Naylor, T. R., Leopold Street, Derby. 

Neal, Thos., Chestnut House, Highfield Road, Derby. 

Needham, E. M., The Cedars, Belper. 

Newdigate, Colonel F. W., West Hallam, Derby. 

Newmane, Madame Cavania, George Street, Derby. 

Newton, C. E., The Manor House, Mickleover. 

Norfolk, His Grace the Duke of, E. M., Arundel Castle. 

Oakes, T. H., Riddings House. 
Pakes, C. H., Holly Hurst, Riddings. 
Oakes, James, Holly Hurst, Riddings. 
Oldham, Rev. J., Clay Cross, Chesterfield. 
Oliver, John, Wardwick, Derby. 
Olivier, Rev. Alfred, Normanton, Derby. 

*Paget, Joseph, Stuffynwood, Mansfield. 
Parkinson, Rev. J. R. S., Shelbourne, Nova Scotia. 
Portland, His Grace the Duke of, Welbeck, Notts. 
Fountain, Major, Barrow-on-Trent. 
Prince, Paul, Madeley Street, Rose Hill, Derby. 

Ratcliffe, Robert, Newton Park, Burton-on-Trent. 

Redfern, James, Etwall. 

Rickard, John, Inglefield, Leiham Court Road, Streatham, S.W. 

Robinson, F. J., Friar Gate, Derby. 

*Rutland, His Grace the Duke of, K.G., Belvoir Castle. 

Sale, Richard, Barrow Hill, Derby. 

Sale, W. H., The Uplands, Burton Road, Derby. 

Sankay, W. H., Sandiacre, Derby. 

Sanson, James, 8, Peel Street, Nottingham. 

Scarsdale, The Right Hon. Lord, Kedleston. 

*Schwind, Charles, Broomfield, Derby. 



LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Seely, Charles, Junr., Sherwood Lodge, Nottingham. 

Shaw, Rev. G. A., S. Michael's, Derby. 

Shaw, John, Normanton House, Derby. 

Sheldon, T. G. Congleton, Cheshire. 

Shuttleworth, John Spencer Ashton, Hathersage Hall, Sheffield. 

Simpson, Mrs., Quarndon, Derby, 

Sitwell, Sir George, Bart., Renishaw, Chesterfield. 

Sleigh, John, Eversley, Matlock. 

Smith, F. N., The Outwoods, Duffield, Derby. 

Smith, Storer, Lea Hurst, Cromford. 

Sorby, Clement, Darley Dale. 

Sowter, Miss, Ash Cottage, Kedleston Road, Derby. 

Spilsbury, Rev. B. \V., Findern, Derby. 

Staley, the Right Rev. Bishop, Croxall Vicarage, Lichfield. 

Stapylton, Rev. M., The Rectory, Barlborough, Chesterfield. 

Statham, Geo. E., Matlock Bridge. 

Stewart, Rev. R., Knightsbridge, London. 

Stephenson, M., Molescroft Cottage, Beverley. 

Storer, Charles John, Market Place, Derby. 

Stowell, Rev. Hugh, Breadsall Rectory. 

Strick, Richard, Silverdale, Staffordshire. 

*Strutt, The Hon. Frederick, Milford House, Derby. 

Strutt, Herbert G., Makeney, Derby. 

Sutherland, George, Arboretum Square, Derby. 

Sutton, Edward, Shardlow Hall. 

Swann, Rev. Kirke, Forest Hill, Warsop. 

Swanwick, F., Whittington, Chesterfield. 

Taylor, H. Brooke, Bakewell. 

Taylor, Wm. Grimwood, 83, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Taylor, A. G., S. Mary's Gate, Derby. 

Taylor, Mrs. A. G., S. Mary's Gate, Derby. 

Tetley, Rev. W. H., Charnwood Street, Derby. 

Tinkler, S., Derwent Street, Derby. 

Thornewill, Robert, The Abbey, Burton-on-Trent. 

Towle, R. N., Borrowash, Derby. 

Tmbshaw, Chas., 3, Grove Terrace, Derby. 

Trueman, H., The Lea, Esher, Surrey. 

Turbutt, W. Gladwyn, Ogston Hall, Alfreton. 

Ussher, Rev. Richard, Grove House, Ventnor, L\V. 

•Vernon, Right Hon. The Lord, Sudbury. 



XVlll LIST OF MEMBERS. 

Wadham, Rev. J., Weston-on-Trent . 

Waite, R., Duffield, Derby. 

Walker, J., Old Uttoxeter Road, Derby. 

Walker, Benjamin, Spondon, Derby. 

Walker, Wm., Lowood, Cromford. 

*Walthall, H. W., Alton Manor, Wirksworth. 

Wardell, Stewart, Doe Hill House, Alfreton. 

Wass, E. M., Bath Hotel, Matlock. 

Waterpark, The Right Hon. Lord, Doveridge. 

Webb, Wm., M.D., Wirksworth. 

Whiston, W. Harvey, The Gardens, Osmaston Road, Derby. 

* Whitehead, S. Taylor, Burton Closes, Bakewell. 

Williams, J., Midland Railway, Derby. 

Wilmot, Miss, 28, Westbourne Place, Eaton Square, London. 

*Wilmot, Sir Henry, Bart., V.C, C,B., M.P., Chaddesden Hall. 

Wilmot, Rev. F. E. W., Chaddesden. 

Wilmot-Horton, Rev. Sir G., Bart., Catton Hall, Derby. 

Wilmot, Mrs. Edmund, Edge Hill, Derby. 

Wilmot, Mrs. Woollett, Friar Gate, Derby. 

Wilson, Arthur, Melbourne. 

Woodforde, W. B., 7, Arboretum Square, Derby. 

Woods, Sir Albert, Garter King-at-Arms, College of Arms, London. 

Worthington, W. H., Derwent Bank, Derby. 

Wright, F. Beresford, Wootton Court, Warwick. 

Wright, F. W., Full Street, Derby. 

Wright, Fitz-Herbert, The Hayes, Alfreton. 

Wright, Charles, Wirksworth. 



N.B. — Members are requested to notify any error or omission in the above 
list to the Hon. Sec. 



REPORT OF THE HON, SECRETARY, 
1884. 




HE Sixth Anniversary of this Society was held in the 
School of Art, kindly lent by the Committee for the 
occasion, on the 4th of February, 1884. Thomas 
William Evans, Esq., M.P., presided. The Report of the 
Society's proceedings for the past year, showing a satisfactory 
balance sheet, and an increase in the number of members, was 
read and adopted. 

The Officers for the year commencing were elected. Sir 
James Allport was elected to serve on the Council in the room 
of Mr. Beresford Wright, resigned. The following members of 
the Council retired under Rule V., viz. : — Messrs. Lawson- 
Lowe, Mello, Ussher, Robinson, Hope, Campion,^ Cade, and 
Cooling. In the place of Messrs. Lowe, Mello, and Ussher, 
were elected Messrs. A. H. Dolman, W. H. Hodges, and W. 
Mallalieu. The other retiring members were re-elected. The 
Hon. Secretary, the Hon. Secretary of Finance, the Hon. 
Treasurer, and the Auditors, were also re-elected. 

In the unavoidable absence of Mr. St. John Hope, a paper 
written by him, upon the "Augustinian Priory of the Holy 
Trinity, at Repton," was read by the Rev. W. M. Furneaux, 
Head-master of Repton School. Mr. Furneaux added to the 
paper comments of his own, bearing upon points which had 
come under his personal notice during the recent excavations at 
Repton. 



XX REPORT. 

During the past year there have been seven meetings of the 
Council, with a good average attendance of elected members. 

The first Expedition of the Society for the past year was held 
on Saturday, May 17th, to Southwell. 

The party left Derby at 10.30 a.m., travelling via Nottingham. 
On reaching Southwell, the members proceeded to the Vicar's 
Court, where they were received by the Rector of Southwell, 
the Rev. J. J. Trebeck. Luncheon was, by kind permission of 
the Bishop of Nottingham, taken in the restored banquet hall 
of the old palace. 

After luncheon, the party were conducted over the Minster 
by the Rev. Arthur Sutton, the Sub-Dean, who read the following 
instructive paper with regard to the architecture of the building : — 

" As the time at our disposal is rather limited, it will perhaps 
be best for me to confine myself to a description of the architec- 
ture, without entering into the history of the Collegiate Church 
of St. Mary of Southwell. The foundation of the church is 
usually assigned to Paulinus, about the year 630. This first 
church was probably, like the one founded by him at York nearly 
at the same time, a hastily-constructed building of wood, which 
in time gave place to a nobler structure of stone ; but of this 
church we seem to have hardly any remains left, unless the 
pavement, lately discovered in the south transept, may have 
belonged to that building, as the pieces of which it is composed 
seem almost too large, and the execution too coarse and rude, 
for a Roman building. Dickinson, in his history of Southwell, 
mentions the tympanum of a doorway which has been re-set 
over the door in the north transept, leading to the bell-chamber, 
as belonging to this period. But although there seems some 
reason to doubt this, we may safely say that it is older than any 
portion of the present building, that it is a good specimen of 
Saxon sculpture, and not later than the ninth century. A similar 
example exists at the neighbouring church of Hoveringham, and 
one at Hawksworth seems to belong to the same early date. 
Various explanations of this one have been given, but it seems 
not improbable that the figure on the left hand side (part of which 



REPORT. XXI 

is destroyed), represents David delivering a lamb from the mouth 
of a lion, and the centre figure, St. Michael, contending with the 
devil. We see, then, that this church, like every one of our 
English Cathedrals, was re-built during the Norman or subsequent 
periods, and hardly any vestige of their original superstructure 
remains. It would seem that the Saxon Cathedrals were only a 
little less rude than the parochial churches, of which we have 
many fragments. Their pillars were so heavy and clumsy, their 
windows so small and narrow, that they were in most instances 
removed to make way for the more convenient arrangements 
imported to England by Harold, who imitated the more gorgeous 
style of architecture, which he must have become acquainted 
with whilst he was an unwilling guest in Normandy. And to this 
Norman period belong the nave, with its aisles, porch, and 
western towers, the centre tower and transepts. Although opinions 
seem to differ as to the exact date of this part of the building, still, 
judging from the style of architecture, it would seem to be fixed 
by a letter from Thomas, second Archbishop of York (from 1109 
to 1 1 15), addressed to all his parishioners of Nottinghamshire, 
and praying them to assist, with their alms, in building the 
Church of St. Mary of " Suwell." The Norman choir originally 
terminated in a square end 59 feet in length externally, instead of 
an apse, as was the more usual ending for a Norman church. 
There were, as now, aisles on either side of this choir extending 
half its length, with apsidal termination (the foundations of which 
remain under the present floor nearly opposite the Chapter-house 
door), and apsidal chapels again opening into transepts. The 
foundation of that on the north side was found during the late 
restoration, and has been most fortunately marked in the new 
pavement, thereby preserving an interesting feature which would 
otherwise have been lost in future generations. The marks of 
the roofs of both these chapels are clearly seen on the outside. 
One peculiarity worth noticing in passing is, that this is the only 
church in this country with its three Norman towers remaining 
untouched. The centre tower of Durham having been rebuilt, 
and Gloucester having lost its three Norman towers about the 



same period. We have, therefore, to cross the channel before 
we can find a parallel case, although, even then they are by no 
means common ; St. George's, Bosherville, being, I am told, a 
case in point ; and Tournay Cathedral, although the towers are 
different in position, still they are similar in design, and are 
capped by short, square, lead spires, very like those which have 
been erected on the western towers here during the present 
restoration ; and should the great tower be taken in hand at some 
future date, which it is very much to be hoped it may, the centre 
spire at Tournay would be an admirable model to imitate. The 
principal features in the Norman architecture, which seem to 
demand our attention, are the pillars and arches of the nave. 
The cylindrical columns are remarkable for their massiveness, 
being five feet in diameter, and but nine feet in height. The 
bases, plain squares, have most of them been renewed, but they 
are supposed to be exact reproductions of the original ones. The 
capitals are very plain, the slight amount of decoration there is 
on each being different. The arches are semi-circular in form, 
and decorated on the hood moulding with the billet or some 
other ornament. On the second pillar, from the east of the south 
arcade, there are the remains of a painting of the Annunciation, 
probably the reredos to a side altar which stood there, the only 
remains of mural painting left in the church. The triforium, which 
in a measure reproduces the arches beneath, is remarkable from the 
great width of the openings, although they would seem to have been 
designed to be filled up with smaller arches, but never to have been 
completed. A similar triforium is shown in Mr. Ferguson's 
" History of Architecture," as existing at St. Magnus Cathedral, 
Kirkwall, but not filled up with the smaller arches, as these would 
appear to have intended to have been. At Romsey Abbey the 
arrangement is similar. The clerestory presents the unusual 
feature of plain circular windows. Both the doorways, as is usual 
in Norman buildings, are rich in ornamental detail ; the western 
door being ornamented with remarkably good ironwork. The 
north door is carved out of thick planks of oak. We must not 
fail to notice the north porch, with its elaborate doorway and 



REPORT. Xjjiii 

richly decorated arch, and the arcade of interlacing arches 
Above this IS a parvise, and one of the pinnacles forms the 
chimney to the fireplace-a very rare example of a Norman 
chimney. One of the original Norman windows remains at the 
north-west corner; the others are lifeless imitations of it and 
were mserted in the beginning of the present century in place of 
Perpendicular windows, which, although hardly in character with 
the Norman architecture, still marked an interesting period of 
architecture. The pavement should be noticed, for, although it 
has been relaid, it is exactly in the same form as it originally was, 
and all the old pieces, where possible, have been used up again 
The roofs of the nave and transept were destroyed in the fire of 
1711, and we have no means of judging what they were like • the 
present roofs are substantial and good, although opinions may 
differ as to the necessity of the beams, which certainly detract from 
the apparent height of the building, and cut the west window 
rather uncomfortably. We must not fail to notice the grand 
arches of the centre tower, the cable moulding being hardly 
surpassed anywhere. The transepts follow the line of the nave 
the windows and general ornamentation being similar There is 
perhaps one point which demands attention, and that is the 
detached pillar (position indicated) which supports the gallery 
connectmg the triforium on either side. These pillars and arches 
may have been built to give additional strength to the walls, which 
had to support the gables. From the nave we pass into the 
choir, which I think we may say is as good and perfect a specimen 
of Early Enghsh, as the nave is of Norman architecture The 
Norman choir, to which I have alluded before, was allowed to 
exist but 100 years, and was pulled down to make way for the 
present choir, which was built about the year 1230. The choir is 
eight bays in length, six opening by arches into the aisles, and two 
forming the sanctuary. The pillars and arches are exactly similar 
to those at Riveaulx Abbey, which is supposed to have been built 
by the same architect. There is a slight change in the base of the 
pillars towards the east, and the fourth arch on the south side is 
lower than the rest, and ornamented above with a boss, which 



XXIV REPORT. 

seems difficult to explain. The dogtooth ornamentation stops 
here on this side. Various reasons for this change have been 
suggested. Mr. Street, when he made a survey of the building, 
came to the conclusion that the high altar stood here, half way 
down the present choir, and that the four remaining bays formed 
the lady chapel, but against this it has been pointed out that the 
whole building being dedicated to the B.V.M., like Lincoln, there 
would be no need of a separate lady chapel, the reason, most 
likely, being, that the style of architecture changed as time went 
on, or that the moulding of the arch was prepared for, but never 
ornamented with the dog tooth. The combination of the 
triforium and clerestory presents an unusual and ingenious feature, 
giving thereby an appearance of greater height than would 
otherwise have been the case had the two been separate and 
divided by a string course, as is the case in the nave, where the 
arches are less lofty. The lancets, which compose the triforium 
and clerestory, are grouped in pairs, divided by the shafts, spring- 
ing from ornamental brackets — one ornamented with Henry III. 
and his Queen — which support the vaulting. The eastern end 
consists of two tiers of four lancets, the upper row being divided 
by a vaulting shaft. The dogtooth ornamentation liere is much 
richer, there being three rows of it round the heads of each of the 
windows. For an east end, the more usual arrangement is to 
have an uneven number of lancets, varying in height, and the 
only church which in any way conveys a similiar idea, to my 
mind, is St. Cross, near Winchester, where there are two Norman 
windows^ in each of the three tiers. The north and south aisles of 
the choir open into small transepts, similar in position to those at 
Lincoln. The high roofs have been destroyed at some time, and 
it is to be hoped that they may be restored at some future period, 
as they would add considerable dignity to the external appearance 
of the building. The high roof was destroyed at a subsequent 
period, the walls raised, the square headed windows on the 
eastern face inserted, and the whole covered with a flat roof. 
From the Early English, we pass on to the Decorated style of 
architecture, and we have a very perfect specimen of it in the 



chapter house, with unusually rich detail, and most minute 
carving. Date about 1293. The doorway from the north aisle, 
leading into it, first demands attention ; it is divided in the centre 
by a Purbeck marble shaft — the shaft and the capital being carved 
out of one piece of marble — and stone carving. The remaining 
portion of the main arch is filled in by a trefoil, in the lower 
portion of which there is a bracket for a figure which has, un- 
fortunately, been destroyed. We next pass on to the cloister 
leading to the Chapter House. This is perhaps one of the most 
remarkable features of the church, the double row of columns 
being very unusual in England. It seems as though it had 
been intended that the arches should be open, as the carving 
is continued through. The arches themselves are Early English 
in character, and by some have been thought to be of an earlier 
date than the Chapter House, but the reason for this, suggested 
by Mr. Petit, is that the architect's intention was to make the 
transition from the Early English to the Decorated as gradual as 
possible. The high roof was destroyed at a subsequent period, 
the wall raised, the square-headed windows on the eastern face 
inserted, and the whole covered with a flat roof. This brings us 
to the door of the Chapter House, one of the most beautiful 
specimens of Gothic architecture in England. It is divided by a 
slenderly moulded pillar, with a capital carved with delicate foliage, 
supporting two foliated arches, the remaining portion being filled 
with a circle containing a quatrefoil. The outer mouldings of the 
principal arch are filled with delicately-carved leaves, the under 
cutting being unusually deep, and in many parts the openings are 
so small that it would seem that the chisels could have only been 
worked underneath with great difficulty. In the jambs of the 
doorway are introduced Purbeck columns, four on either side, 
their capitals being carved with natural foliage. The Chapter 
House is octagonal and vaulted, like that at York, without any 
centre pillar. A stone seat runs all round, and above this is 
arcading, forming stalls, five in each bay. Each arch is surmounted 
by a crocketed canopy, the spandrils of each being filled in with 
leaves and flowers, the canopy terminating in a finial, which 



appears to pierce the string course. Above, again, in six of the 
bays, is a large, three lighted window, whilst one is occupied by 
the door, and the remaining one abutting against the circular stair- 
case is filled in with tracery, like the other windows, and delicate 
foliage. The groins of the vaulting are deeply moulded, and are 
ornamented with a carved boss at every intersection. It is a pity 
that the space between the ribs has been scraped, as from the 
roughness of the joints it was clearly intended to be plastered. 
The fragments of glass in the windows seem to have been gathered 
from different parts of the church. In the eastern window is one 
piece of Early English glass. The remaining pieces are of the 
Decorated period, and perhaps the crocketed canopies are in their 
original position, as they are very much like the stone canopies 
underneath. From this we pass on to the Later period of Deco- 
rated architecture, which is shown in the eastern aisle of the north 
transept. The chapel itself is, too, Early English, and the two 
unequal arches opening into it from the transept, inserted under 
the large Norman arch of the former chapel, belonging to this 
period. You will notice that the outer moulding of the pillar is 
carried up above the caps, and terminates in a bracket for an image. 
The windows, by which the chapel is lighted, are of a Late Deco- 
rated period, of three lights each, with reticulated tracery, thought 
by some to have taken the place of lancets which may have stood 
inside the present arches. This aisle would seem to have been 
divided in the centre by a screen, so as to form two separate 
chapels, each with its own altar. This portion of the building was 
formally used as the library, but has now been cleared out, the 
floor lowered, and restored in some measure to its former 
appearance. The room above this has been re-roofed in a very 
substantial manner, and the difficulty of obtaining light has been 
ingeniously overcome by inserting an oak dormer window in the 
roof, which is perhaps one of the most successful parts of the 
present restoration. Here, again, we have Decorated work appear- 
ing in the small three-light window. Another example of 
Decorated work was the three-light window which formerly filled 
the western end of the south aisle of the nave ; this was taken out 



some years since to make way for the present Norman window, 
but it has been preserved in Mrs. Tatham's garden, where I am 
sure any who wishes to see it will be allowed to do so. Two other 
examples of Decorated work are the organ screen and sedilia (date 
1352). This beautiful screen opens into the nave with three 
foliated arches standing on clustered columns. The roof of the 
outer portion is remarkable as being a vaulted ceiling, but having 
the ribs pierced with open work, instead of being filled up, as is 
usual. The vaulting of the choir of Orleans Cathedral is pierced 
in a somewhat similar manner. The side walls are decorated with 
canopied arches, but the eastern ones are plain, as there were most 
probably altars on both sides of the door entering to the choir. 
Between this wall and the backs of the stalls a staircase leads up 
on either side to the loft where once the rood stood, but 
where the organ is placed now. The original construction 
of the choir screen is perhaps one of the most puzzling 
things connected with the architecture of the church. Within 
the choir are stalls — three on either side; the back of the 
one nearest the door on the south side is covered with a rich and 
delicate diaper. This stall was used in later times by the Canon 
in Residence, or Vicar-General. Above the projecting canopies 
of the stalls are a series of blank windows, two being pierced to 
give light to the staircase behind ; the whole terminates in a rich 
moulding, ornamented with carved foliage and masks. The sedilia 
are probably a little later in date than the screen, but not much 
less beautiful in execution and detail. In most cases the sedilia 
consist of three seats for the priest, deacon, and subdeacon during 
the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. But here there are five 
seats, which is very unusual : the only other example I can 
call to mind is Furness Abbey. The present level of the 
sanctuary will shortly be extended westward, so that they will 
be able to be used. The canopies and ornamentations have 
been, like the screen, repaired in cement, but so cleverly done 
that* it is hardly possible to distinguish the old work from the 
new. What subjects the figures are intended to mean it is 
difiScult to say, except that one group seems to represent the 



XXVIH REPORT. 

flight into Egypt. The piscina has been, unfortunately, rather 
roughly repaired, and a basin provided without any drain. The 
two large candlesticks are remarkably good examples of late 
15th century brasswork, and I believe are the only old ones 
of the kind remaining in England. The eagle is said to have 
been found in cleaning one of the ponds at Newstead Abbey. 
It was sold to a dealer at Nottingham, and bought from him 
by Sir Richd. Kaye, one of the prebendaries, who presented it 
to the church in 1805. Inside the ball a parchment was found, 
which proved to be a general pardon forced upon the monks by 
Henry V. as a means of extracting money from them for the 
prosecution of his wars in France. To the Perpendicular period 
belong the three light windows in the nave, their date being 
about 1450. The Norman string course, both outside as well as 
in, has been cleverly dropped to allow for them. The great 
west window is of rather later date, 15th century, and is a very 
fine specimen of the kind, taking the place most likely of two 
rows of Norman windows. A similar change may be seen in the 
case of the west front of Lincoln Minster. Of Renaissance work, 
the only example in the church is the glass in the east windows — 
they were formerly in the Temple Church at Paris. Traces of the 
original round -headed windows, which they there filled, are clearly 
visible ; and indeed the tops and the lower parts of them are 
modern additions to make them fit in their present position. 
They were bought in 18 18 and presented to the church by 
Mr. Gaily Knight. In monuments the church is not very rich,- 
but of those v^hich do remain, the tomb of Archbishop Sandys 
deserves attention. It is now at the northern end of the north 
transept, but its proper place is on the north side of the 
sanctuary. It claims attention, not only because it is a good 
example of Renaissance work, but because the archbishop is 
represented in a vestment, although the date is 1588. The bells 
were all of them recast after the fire, by Ruddall, of Gloucester, 
in 1721. The organ has remains of the original work of Father 
Smith, the swell being added by Snetzler, in the last century. 
The plate belonging the church dates about 1625, but the stems 



REPORT. XXIX 

of the chalices are Gothic in form, and probably belong to older 
ones, the date apparently being about 1525. The fireiniyii 
seems to have destroyed everything in the way of choir fittings, 
carved work, pictures, or embroidery, which the church must 
formerly have been rich in, so that we can only guess at what its 
former splendour must have been." 

The party attended Evensong in the Minster at 3 p.m., and 
returned to Derby, travelling vitiL Nottingham as before. 

The next expedition of the Society was held on Saturday, the 
5th of July, to Hathersage. 

The members left Derby at 9.18 a.m. in special saloon carriages, 
attached to the train for Hassop. At Hassop Station breaks were 
in readiness, and the party drove to Hathersage, where luncheon 
was served at the George Hotel. After luncheon the church was 
visited, and its interesting series of monumental brasses inspected. 
The party then walked to the old Manor House of North Lees, 
where the owner, Mr. Cammell, pointed out and explained the 
various interesting details. After visiting the old Roman Catholic 
Chapel, adjacent to North Lees, the members returned to Brook- 
field, where tea was provided by the kind hospitality of Mr. and 
Mrs. Cammell. The breaks came from Hathersage and conveyed 
the party back from Bakewell Station in time for the 6.23 train 
for Derby. 

A third excursion was held on Saturday, September 20th, to 
Wirksworthj which started from Derby at 12.10 noon. Luncheon 
was taken at the Red Lion Hotel, after which the party proceeded 
to the Church, where they were received by the Vicar, the Rev. 
Tunstall Smith, who conducted them over the building, and 
pointed out the many features of interest An old carved oak 
chimney-piece at the Hope and Anchor Inn was inspected, and 
the party then visited the Moot Hall, and examined the " miners' 
dish," and other objects of interest. Dr. Webb gave an interesting 
account of the " History of Mining in Wirksworth." (See page 63 
of this volume.) He afterwards entertained the party at tea, at his 
own house, and then conducted them, via the Black Rocks, to 
Cromford Station, whence they returned to Derby. 



The All Saints' wooden effigy has now been erected in the 
north aisle of All Saints' Church, where it forms a striking and 
most valuable addition to the series of monuments, and should be 
visited by all who are interested in archaeology, and in the careful 
preservation in their proper place of important relics of the past. 

The result of the excavations at Repton, to which, it will be 
remembered our Society subscribed £,20, have been of a most 
interesting character. The plan of the old Priory Church can 
now be laid down with accuracy, and, though we must regret that 
any of the bases of the old piers should be hidden beneath the 
new building, it is most satisfactory to think that pier bases 
which really show what the architecture of the church was, are 
preserved and can always be seen. 

During the past year your Vigilance Comittee has been con- 
sulted on various occasions by those who have been interested in 
church restoration or alteration, and we may hope that good has 
been effected , but we would again impress upon each individual 
member of the Society the importance of constantly keeping a 
look out in their own neighbourhoods. 

A disused silver chalice and paten cover of Stuart date has, 
through the instrumentality of our Society, been carefully reno- 
vated, and has been restored, a perfect piece of plate, to the church 
to which it belonged. 

One of our members has presented to the Society an ancient 
Roman milestone, formerly standing in this county, but removed 
from its site. The milestone will be " lent " by our Society to the 
Derby Museum, so that it may be, in accordance with the condi- 
tion laid down by the donor, " open to public inspection under 
proper safeguards." 

It is expected that the Royal Archaeological Institute will, in 
accordance with our Society's invitation, commence its congress 
in Derby either the last Tuesday in July, or the first Tuesday in 
August next. The congress lasts eight days, and expeditions and 
meetings of exceptional interest will be arranged. Members, one 
and all, are asked to do their utmost to make the congress a 
success. Steps are already taken to form working committees, 



and further details will be announced as soon as possible. All 
offers of the loan of objects of interest for a temporary museum 
will be gratefully accepted. 

The Council felt justified, considering the satisfactory condition 
of the funds, in authorising a decided increase in the size of the 
annual volume. It is hoped that some increase on previous years 
may be permanent, though possibly not to the extent of the 
present one. The society may be congratulated on possessing 
Annual Transactions that do not seem to be equalled by any 
other county societies of a like subscription, whether the number 
and contents of the pages, the style and amount of the illustra- 
tions, or the severely local character of the articles are considered. 

A beginning has this year been made of publishing abstracts of 
some of the more interesting and original county records in that 
great national store house of history, the Public Record Office. 
The value of such absolutely authentic information to the future 
parochial or general historian of the county, and its general 
interest to all readers interested in the past life of Derbyshire, can- 
not be exaggerated. This year the early " Fines,'' or Final 
Agreements are- begun. Probably more space will be given in 
future numbers of the Transactions to this feature. 

For the past three years our journal has been edited by Mr. 
W. H. St. John Hope, F.S.A., and your Council wishes to take 
this opportunity of acknowledging the debt of gratitude which our 
society owes to Mr. St. John Hope for his carefully executed 
work. The work of editing requires the expenditure of much 
time and patience, as well as a thorough and complete knowledge 
of detail, and the society is most fortunate in having had the 
advantage of Mr. Hope's able help. 

This year the Rev. J. Charles Cox, at the request of the 
Council, has resumed the editorship of the journal. He wishes 
to express his regret at the omission or holding back of two or 
three articles and the curtailment of others, owing to exceptional 
pressure of material. 

It is the Editor's desire, with the concurrence of the Council, 
that the articles and illustrations should be as (i) original and as 



(a) local as possible. The society could not have afforded so 
large a number of illustrations had it not been that they shared 
the expense of the production of Plates VII. to XI. with the Royal 
Archaeological Institute ; of Plate VI. with the Geological Society ; 
and of Plate XIII. with the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 

We are glad not to have to record any gap this year in our list 
of vice-presidents. Among our ordinary members the balance of 
retired and new members is equal. The accompanying balance 
sheet will be found to be satisfactory, and the Council may con- 
gratulate members upon the result of the society's seventh year of 
proceedings. 

ARTHUR COX, 

Plon. Sec. 
Mill Hill, Derby, 

January 22, 1885. 



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'ERBYSHIRE tRCH^^OLOGICAL 



Natural History Society. 



^ Stattttorji 3list of ff^t Kni^aiJitants of Mth 
ijouvnt, ScilJgsl^irr, m 1695 5 prmtctr from 
tl^e ongtnal iitS. ^sscssmtnt, toitl^ a eom= 
mentari? autr CBjcplanatotg i^otes« 



By R. E. Chester Waters, B.A. 




ORD MACAULAY, in a well-knowii chapter* of his 
History of England, deplores the absence of materials 
from which the state of the population of England, at 
the close of the seventeenth century, can be determined with 
accuracy. Complaints of this kind are readily accepted by the 
general reader, who is flattered by the suggestion that he is more 
enlightened than his forefathers ; but the historian ought to have 
learned from the statute book that a thorough and complete 
enumeration of the inhabitants of every parish in England, with 
a full and precise statement of their several names, occupations, 
and quaUties, was made in 1695, under the provisions of that 
singular Taxation Act,f which imposed duties on births, marriages, 

* Chap. iii. t 6 and 7 William and Mary, c. 6. 

VOL. 7. 4 



2 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 

and burials, as well as on bachelors and widowers. A copy of the 
assessment was returned into the Exchequer, and this return 
must obviously contain the precise information which the historian 
required. Whether this important contribution to the history of 
the English people was " pulped " in a generation which did not 
recognise its value, or whether it is still lying unconsulted in the 
recesses of the Record Office, has still to be ascertained. But, 
however this may be, it is evident that full materials for a census 
of the population in the last decade of the seventeenth century 
were once in existence ; and if they are not now forthcoming, the 
fault lies not with our ancestors, but with those who have 
neglected to preserve or consult them. 

The Taxation Act, under which these lists were framed, was 
a novel experiment in legislation, which excited so much dis- 
content in every class in the community, that it ought not to be 
ignored (as it is) in Macaulay's history of the period. The 
King's ministers were pressed for ways and means in 1694, and, 
amongst other expedients for replenishing the exhausted exchequer, 
an Act was passed " as an additional supply for carrying on the 
war against France with vigour," which imposed, for a term of 
five years, from ist May, 1695, ^ graduated scale of duties upon 
marriages, births, and burials, and upon bachelors and widowers. 

No one was exempt from these duties, except persons in receipt 
of alms. The amount of the tax was 4s. for every burial, 2s. 
for every birth, and 2s. 6d. for every marriage; but, besides this, 
bachelors above twenty years of age, and widowers without chil- 
dren, paid IS. a year as long as they remained unmarried. These 
amounts were to be paid in every case ; but in every rank, except 
the lowest, there was a further tax, which varied with the rank of 
the parties. These additions were levied according to the follow- 
ing scale : — 

For burial For birth 
Rank and quality. and of eldest 

marriage. son. 

Duke p^5o ^50 o 

Marquis 40 25 o 

Earl 30 20 o 15 



For birth of 


Bachelors or 


younger child. 


widowers. 


£^S ° ° 


£12 10 ( 


20 


ID C 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 3 

For burial For birth 
Rank and quality. and of eldest For birth of Bachelors or 

marriage. son. younger child. widowers. 

Viscount £2<~, £1-] 10 £\^ 6 8 ;^6 13 4 

Baron 20 15 o 1200 500 

Baronet and Knight) 

°ric 150 100 3150 

of the Bath ) 3 3 

Sergeant-at-Law ... 15 3 ^5 ° 

Knight Bachelor ... 10 5° 100 2100 

Esquire 5 10 100 150 

Gentleman i 010 oroo 050 

Owners of £^0 p.a. 1 

real estate, orofl i 010 oroo 050 

;^6oo personalty I 

The Act was to be put in force by the Commissioners named in 
the Subsidy Act, passed in the same session. They were to meet 
in their respective counties on or before the 30th April, 1695, 
when they were to address precepts to two inhabitants of each 
parish, whom they considered fit persons to act as assessors, to 
appear before them within ten days. They were then to fix a day 
on which these assessors were to bring in certificates, in writing, 
of the names, surnaines, estates, degrees, titles, and qualifications 
of all persons dwelling within their respective parishes. The 
certificates to be divided in several columns, showing the qualities 
and names of all persons chargeable under the Act, and the suras 
they are liable to pay upon burials, births, and marriages, and for 
being unmarried. The assessors were also to return the names of 
two collectors, for whose honesty and ability the parishes employ- 
ing them were to be responsible. 

These certificates were to be returned to the Commissioners 
before 13th May, 1695, and a duplicate assessment was to 
be delivered to the Receiver-General of the Revenue. The 
collectors were, at the end of each year, to deliver a certified copy 
of the assessment to two local Justices of the Peace, who were, 
after due examination, to sign it as allowed, and to hand it to the 
persons whom they chose to appoint collectors for the ensuing 
year. These collectors were bound, under a penalty of £e^, to 



4 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 

deliver within six days a true copy to the parson of the parish, who 
was bound, under a Hke penalty, to read the same in church on 
the following Sunday, immediately after morning service. Appeals 
against the assessment had to be made within ten days after such 
reading in church. The parson was to keep a register in writing 
of all persons married, buried, christened, or born within his 
parish ; to which register the collectors were to have free access, at 
all reasonable times, without payment of any fee. The parson 
neglecting this duty made himself hable to a penalty of ^100. 
Parents were bound, under a penalty of ;^io, to give notice to 
the collectors within five days after the birth of a child. The out- 
going collectors were bound, under a penalty of ;^2o, to deliver 
to the Receiver-General a duplicate copy of the assessment, with 
the names of two collectors for the next year, and a schedule 
on parchment containing the names of defaulters. 

Considering that no less than ten copies of this assess- 
ment were made in every parish in England in the course of 
the five years during which this Act was in force, it might be 
expected that one or more of these statutory lists of inhabitants 
would be found in almost every parish chest. But the fact is that 
they are extremely rare, for the tax was so unpopular that the 
local authorities took pains to destroy the machinery for levying it. 
The parson is the natural guardian of parish records ; but the 
clergy, as a body, held this Act and its provisions in special abhor- 
rence, because it imposed on them the invidious duty of furnish- 
ing evidence against defaulting members of their flock. Moreover, 
they had always hitherto kept their registers in their own fashion, 
without fear of being called to account. But this statute em- 
powered the collectors to examine the parish register whenever 
they pleased, without payment of any fee ; whilst any defect in the 
register made the parson liable to enormous penalties, which left 
him at the mercy of every common informer. There were few 
registers, indeed, which could bear the test of official inspection ; 
and when Queen Anne's ministers were anxious to conciliate the 
clergy, it was found necessary to allay their apprehensions by a 
bill of indemnity, which was passed confessedly on the ground 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 5 

that many clergymen had exposed themselves and their families to 
ruin by not keeping their registers according to law.* It is, there- 
fore, not to be wondered at if these lists of inhabitants were 
generally destroyed as soon as the Taxation Act expired, and the 
few which have been preserved are commonly found in the hands 
of laymen. The list printed below was inherited by Viscount 
Hardinge, amongst his family papers. It bears the signature of 
his ancestor, Robert Hardinge, Esq., of King's Newton, one of 
the two Justices of the Peace for Derbyshire, who, in pursuance 
of the Act, signed and allowed the assessment for the parish 
of Melbourne in 1695. 

Melbourne is a parish in the southern division of Derbyshire, 
on the confines of Leicestershire, and is bounded on the north 
by the river Trent. It includes the hamlet of King's Newton, 
which stands on a gentle hill overlooking the Trent valley. The 
Cokes were, in 1695, the principal landowners in Melbourne ; but 
King's Newton had been for several generations the patrimony of 
the Hardinge family. Melbourne and King's Newton contained, 
in 1821, 3,123 inhabitants; but the whole number, in 1695, was 
660. The aggregate population of England and Wales in 1881, was 
found to be 26,122,000, and, if Melbourne can be taken as a fair 
example of the rate at which the population has increased since 
1695, England and Wales contained, in 1695, 5,526,000 inhabi- 
tants. It is remarkable how nearly this estimate agrees with that 
of Gregory King, who framed his calculations on an entirely 
different basis. According to his reckoning, which is quoted by 
Macaulay, the population, in 1696, was just under five and a 
half millions. The number of inhabitants in Melbourne at 
different periods is shown in the table below : — 

Number of Number of 

inhabitants. separate households. 

^695 660 190 

1734 1410 286 

1801 ... 1861 352 

1^51 2647 597 

1881 3123 692 

* 4, Queen Anne, c. 12. 



6 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695, 

The aspect of the parish of Melbourne has been changed 
beyond recognition since 1695 ; for'where there are now rich water 
meadows, fertilised by the Trent, there was then an undrained 
swamp, which produced nothing but gorse ; whilst a dreary waste 
of common, which was let for ;^io a year as a rabbit warren, 
extended over 2,500 acres. The common was not enclosed until 
1787. The roads were impassable for vehicles on wheels, and the 
corn was carried to market on pack horses. The whole number 
of sheep in the parish was under a thousand, but the price of 
stock was low in 1695 compared with wages ] for it appears, from 
an old account book at Melbourne Hall,'' that an ewe, with two 
lambs, fetched 8s., a barren ewe 6s., and a ram 8s. ; whilst a 
labourer's wages were is. a day. The average rate of wages at the 
present time may be taken at 15s. a week ; so that the Derbyshire 
labourer, judging from the price of mutton, was much better paid 
and better fed in 1695 than he is in our own days, with all our 
boasted progress. 

The original MS. of the Melbourne assessment consists of 14 
folio pages legibly written. It is divided, in pursuance of the Act, 
in six separate columns, showing the names and surnames of the 
inhabitants of Melbourne, and their occupations, and the amount 
of the duties for which they were respectively liable. It is signed 
at the end by two assessors, John Ragge and Samuel Symes, who 
both figure in the list as yeomen ; by two collectors, John 
[illegible] and Owen Maples, who are respectively described as 
(?) and flaxdresser ; and by two Justices of the Peace, 
Henry Heveningham and Robert Hardinge. Hardinge was lord 
of the manor of King's Newton, but Heveningham was not resi- 
dent in the parish. He was lieutenant of the band of gentlemen 
pensioners, and was the nephew of Sir William Heveningham, of 
Ketteringham, Norfolk, who was called " the regicide," from his 
having been one of the judges at the trial of Charles I. His 
nephew's connection with Derbyshire was through his marriage, 
for Henry married Frances, Countess Dowager of Beliamont, one 

* These particulars are gleaned chiefly from Briggs' "History of Melbourne." 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. ^ 

of the sisters and co-heirs of Charles, tenth Lord Willoughby, of 
Parham. 

"A Certificate or Assessment made in Pursuance of an Act of 
Parliam*. Intituled an Act for Granting to his Majesty certain 
Rates and Duties upon Marriages Births, and Burials and upon 
Batchelors and Widowers, for the term of five years, for the carrying 
on the War against France with Vigour. Of the Names, Sirnames, 
Degrees, Titles and Qualifications of all and every the persons 
dwelling or residing within the Parish of Melborn and Newton as 
they are in Quality and Qualification^ and the names of all other 
Persons chargeable by the said Act with the sums they are respec- 
tively to pay upon Marriages Births and Burials and for their 
being married according to the directions of the aforesaid Act. 

Titles and Batchelors and 

Names and Sirnames. Qualitications. Burials. Marriages. Births. Widowers. 

£ s. d. £'s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

John Troughton Vicar 040 020 

Joanna Troughton his wife o 4 o 

Mary Low his maiden o 4 o 

Tho. Coke Esq 54° 526 120 

Stephen Allen his servant Gent 040 026 020 

Henry Low his servant o 4 o o 2 o 

Joan Low his wife o 4 o .... 

Eliz. Low his daughter o 4 o ..... 

Eliz. Cantril his servant o 4 o 

Catharine Blaystock his servant o 4 o .... 

\Vm. Chawner his servant o 4 o 

Robt. Hardinge Esq 540 526 120 

Eliz. Harding his wife 5 4 ° 

John Harding his son o 4 o 

Mary Harding his daughter o 4 o 

Anne Harding his daughter o 4 o 

Jane Harding his daughter o 4 o ■ ••• 

Mabel Harding his daughter o 4 o 

Fra. Garton his servant 040 026 020 

Wm. Eliot his servant o 4 o 02 6 o 2 o 

George Holmes his servant o 4 o o 2 6 o 2 o 

Mary Cox his servant o 4 o 

Ed w. Bradshaw his servant o 4 o 

Mary Holmes his servant o 4 o 



8 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 

Titles and _ Batchelors and 

Names and Sirnames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriages. Births. Widowers. 

;^ s. d. £ s. d. ;^ s. d. £ s. d. 

Sarah Hudson his servant o 4 o 

Henry Cooper aged 25 Batchelor ... 040 026 020 010 

John Cooper aged 25 Batchelor ... 040 026 020 010 

Wm. Cooper aged 25 Batchelor ... 040 026 020 010 

Ralph Taylor his servant o 4 o o 2 6 o 2 o 

Mary Gad his servant o 4 o 

Mary Former his servant o 4 o 

John Ragge Yeoman 040 020 

Joyce Ragg his wife o 4 o 

John Ragg his son o 4 o 

Joseph Ragge his son 040 

Jane Ragg his daughter 040 .... 

Tho. Ward his servant 040 

Margaret Bakewell his servant o 4 o 

John Borrisford Junior Mercer 040 020 

Katharine Borrisford his wife o 4 o 

Wm. Boriisford his son 040 

Jane Borrisford his daughter 040 

Robt. Clark his servant 040 020 026 

Eliz. Doleman his servant 040 

Agnes Littill Widow 040 

Eliz. Littill her daughter 040 

Dorothy Littill her daughter 040 

Anne Tomlinson her servant o 4 o ..... .... 

Elizabeth Cantril Widow 040 

Joseph Cantril her son o 4 o 

John Cantril her son 040 

Sarah Bingley her maiden 040 

Thomas Muglestone Butcher 040 020 

Hannah Muglestone his wife 040 

Brian Muglestone his son 040 

Mary Muglestone his daughter 040 

Wm. Muglestone his son 040 

Sarah Mugleston his daughter o 4 o 

Eliz. Warren Widow 040 

Wm. Cartliedge Labourer 040 020 

Mary Cartliedge his wife O 4 o 

Joseph Cartliedge his son 040 

Thomas Swotman Gent 040 020 

Eliz. Swotman his wife o 4 o 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



Names and Sirnames. 

Joseph Swotmati his son 

Mary Swolman his daughter... 

Eliz. Swotman his daughter... 

Susannah Swotman his daugh- 
ter 

Tho. Biddle his servant 

Ruth Goodal his servant 

Rich Kniveton 

Grace Kniveton his wife 

Rich. Kniveton his son 

Manuel Kniveton his son 

Eliz. Kniveton his daughter... 

George Donnie his servant ... 

Joseph Gibson his servant ... 

Jane Broomhead his servant... 

Henry Bingly 

Wm. Kirkman 

John Kniveton 

Eliz. Kniveton his wife 

Mary Muglestone 

Joseph Muglestone her son ... 

Jane Muglestone her daughter 

Dorothy INIuglestone her 
daughter 

Isaac Bosworth 

Joan Bosworth 

John Bosworth his son 

Isaac Bosworth his son 

Mary Bosworth his daughter... 

Jane Bosworth his daughter ... 

Thomas Draper senior 

Mary Draper his wife 

Mary Draper his grandchild... 

Tho. Draper junior 

Robona Draper his wife 

John Draper his son 

Mary Draper his daughter ... 

Sarah Draper his daughter .. 

Anne Birch 

John Birch her son aged 25 ... 



Titles and 
Qualifications. 



Blacksmith 



Labourer. 
Widower. 
Butcher . 



Widow 



Plowright 



Labourer . 



Labourer. 



Widow 
Batchelor 



Burials. 

£ s. d. 
040 
040 
040 

040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
04a 
04c 
040 
040 
040 
04c 
04c 
04c 
04c 
04c 
04c 
04c 
04c 

04c 

o 4 c 

o 4 c 
04c 

o 4 c 

o 4 c 

o 4 c 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 

o 4 c 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 

o 4 ( 



Marriages. 

£ s. d. £ s. d, 



Batchelors and 
Births. Widowers. 



£ s. d. 



lO LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 

Titles and Batchelors and 

Names and Sirnames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriages. Births. Widowers. 

£ -s. d. ;^ s d. £ ■-,. d. £, s. d. 

Anne Birch her daughter o 4 o 

Wm. Addleton Labourer ... 040 020 026 .... 

Mary Addleton his daughter o 4 o 

Wm. Chiswil Blacksmith... 040 020 026 

Sarah Chiswil his daughter o 4 o 

Hannah Chiswil his daughter 040 .... 

Eliz. Chiswil his daughter o 4 o 

Catharine Scot Widow 040 

Grace Kinsoy Widow o 4 o 

John Radclift Yeoman o 4 o o 2 6 ..... 

Tho. Radcliff his son 040 

Anne Radclift" his daughter o 4 o .... 

Dorothy Greenwood Widow o 4 o 

John Bucknall Yeoman 040 020 026 

Katharine Rucknall his wife o 4 o .. .. 

Wm. Bucknall his son o 4 o 

Wm. Cartwr:ght senior Widower 040 020 026 

Wm. Cartwright junior Labourer 040 020 .... 

Mary Cartwright his wife o 4 o .... 

John Cartwright his son 040 

Theo. Cartwright his son o 4 o 

Francis Cartwright his son o 4 o 

Mary Cartwright his daughter o 4 o 

Robt. Dexter Farmer o 4 o o 2 o 

Mary Dexter his wife o 4 o 

Sarah Dexter his daughter o 4 o 

Anne Dexter his daughter o 4 o 

Rebecca Dexter his daughter o 4 o 

Eliz. Dexter his daiighier o 4 o .... 

Mary Dexter his daughter o 4 o 

Tho. Dunniclifif Labourer 040 020 

Anne Dunnicliff his wife o 4 o 

Thomas Dunnicliff his son o 4 o 

Wm. Dunnicliff his son o 4 o 

Mary Birch Widow o 4 o 

John Birch Weaver 040 020 .... 

Eliz. Birch his wife 040 , ... 

Anne Pickering receiving alms Widow o 4 o 

John Birch Pownder 040 020 

Sarah Birch his wife o 4 o 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



Names and Sirnames. 

Tho. Birch his son 

Josepli Birch his son 

Eliz. Birch his daughter 

Jane Birch his daughter 

John Goodal 

Anne his wife 

William Goodal his son 

John his son 

Mary Goodal his daughter ... 

Mary Lees 

Eliz. Grooves 

Fiancis Grooves her son aged 

25 

Jane Grooves her daughter ... 
Dorothy Grooves her daughter 
Wm. Liefchild her servant ... 

Joseph Riley 

Anne Riley his wife 

Robert Riley his son 

Francis Bull his apprentice ... 
John Kinsey his apprentice ... 
Joseph Archer his apprentice 

Tho. Scot 

Grace Scot his wife 

Tho. Scot his son 

Matt. Scot his son 

Joseph Scot his son 

John Cantrii 

Wm. Draper 

Mary Draper his W 

Mary Draper his daughter 

Wm. Smith 

Eliz. Smith his W 

Ferdinando Smith aged 25 ... 
Sarah Smithiers his servant ... 

John Orton 

Mary Orton his W 

Mary Orton hisD 

John Soar 

Anne Soar his wife 



Titles and 
Qualification: 



Cordwainer. 



Widow 
Widow 



Batchelor 



Taylor , 



Brewer.. 



Widower.. 
Labourer. 



Yeoman 



Batchelor. 



Labourer. 



Marriages. Births. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. 



Labourer 



Burials. 

£ s. d. 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o .... 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

040 ... 

o 4 o 

040 020 

040 020 
040 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o 

040 020 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

o 4 o 

040 020 

040 .... 



Batchelorsand 
Widowers. 



026 010 



6 O 



6 O 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



Names and Sirnames. 



Titles and 
Qualifications. 



Henry Soar his S 

Joshua Doleman Widower . . , 

Sam Syms Yeoman .... 

Mary Syms his W 

Sam Syms his S 

Mary Syms his D 

Wm. Birch his servant 

Rich. Tarbiit his servant 

Mary Chiswil his servant 

Anne Chambeilin ... Spinster .... 

Isabel Chamberlin Spinster . . . 

Tho. Lakin Tiler 

The. Lakin his son 

Joshua Lakin his son 

Mary Lakin his D 

Tho. Meer Weaver .... 

Eliz. Meer his W 

Francis Dexter Labourer.... 

Katharine his wife 

Robt. his son 

Francis his son 

John Martin Widower.... 

Anne Martin his daugliter 

Eliz. Martin his sister 

Wm. Crow his servant 

Eliz. Higgin Widow .... 

Eiiz. Higgin her daughter 

John Higgin her S 

Benjamin Higgin her S 

John Riley Widower.... 

Mary Riley his servant 

Joseph Sympson his servant 

James Collier Farmer .... 

Eliz. ColIierhisW 

Mary Collier his D 

John Borisford Labourer.... 

Mary Borisford his W 

Joseph Ball his grandchild 

Mary Barwell his servant 

Edu'. FoUuws Widower 



Burials. 

I s. d. 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 



Marriages. 

£ s. d. 



Catchelorsand 
Births. Widowers. 

£ s. d. 
026 



I s. d. 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, IO95. 



Names and Sirnames. 

Ed «'. Follows his son 

Sam Follows his S 

Jane Follows his D 

Eliz. Follows his D 

Mary Brown 

Thomas Cantril 

Margaret Osborn 

Tho. Francis her man 

Sarah Osborn her daughter 
Mary Osborn her daughter 

Seimour Doleman 

Anne Doleman his W 

Tho. Doleman his S 

Sarah Doleman his D 

Mary Newbald 

Joseph Goodal 

Sarah Goodal his W 

John Goodal his S 

Joseph Goodal his S 

Dorias Goodal his D 

John Hall 

Esther Hall his daughter . . . 

Thomas Dorey 

Eliz. Dorey his W 

Tho. Pearson 

Wm. Pearson his son 

Mary Pearson his daughter 

John Robins 

Margaret Robins his wife... 

Henry Robins 

Wm. Robins 

Tho. Robins 

Robt. Robins 

Benj. Robins 

Anne Robins his daughter ., 

John Litherland his servant . 

Tho. Dore 

Hannah Dore his wife 

Sam Dore his son 

Eliz. Dore his D 



- his sons -{ 



Titles and 
Qualifications. 



Widow .... 

Labourer 

Spinster ... 
Labourer.... 

Cordwainer. 

Labourer 

Widower ... 

Yeoman 

Thatcher 



Burials. Marriages. 

£ -s. d. £ s. d. 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 



Bachel. 
Births. Widow 



and 
ers. 

. d. 



14 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 

Tides and Batchelors and 

Names and Sirnames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriages. Births Widowers. 

£ s. d. £ s. d. ;^ s. d. £ s. d. 

Mary Dore bis daughter o 4 o 

Wm. Bramley Labourer 040 020 

Mary Bramley his W 040 

JohnHall Labourer 040 020 026 

Eliz. Hall his wife o 4 o .. .. 

Peter Mee Labourer 040 

Mary Mee his W 040 

Jane Mee his daughter o 4 o 

Mary Mee his D o 4 o 

Mary Mason rec. alms Widow 040 

Jonathan Mason Labourer 040 

Mary Mason his wife o 4 o 

Joseph Mason his son o 4 o .... 

Jonathan Mason his son o 4 o 

Samuel Mason Labourer 040 020 

Mary Mason his wife o 4 o 

Alice Parker Widow 040 

Katharine Parker her daugh- 
ter 040 

Mary Borrisford Widow 040 

Alice Reeve Widow 040 

John Reeve her son o 4 o o 2 o o 2 6 

Anne Reeve her daughter o 4 o 

Sarah Bosworlh Widow 040 .... 

Sarah Bosworth her daughter o 4 o 

Brian Knight Widower 040 020 026 

John Knight his son 040 020 026 

Mary Glover his housekeeper o 4 o 

Tho. Glover her son 040 ... . 

John Bramley Labourer 040 ... 

Eliz. Bramley his W o 4 o 

Dorothy Leay his daughter-in- 
law 040 

Thomas Borrisford Glover 040 020 

Deborah Borrisford his wife o 4 o 

Mary Borrisford his daughter o 4 o 

John Borrisford his son o 4 o .... 

Eliz. Borrisford his daughter o 4 o 

John Harrison Dish-turner.. 040 020 

Eliz. Harrison his wife o 4 o 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 



15 



Names and Sirnames. 

John Harrison his son 

Eliz. Harrison his daughter 

Henry Brooks aged 25 

Edw. Kidyear 

John Taylor 

Mary Taylor his wife 

Mary Taylor his daughter... 
Jane Sympson his servant... 

Anne Charnel 

Anne Charnel her daughter 
Eliz. Charnel her daughter 

John Charnel her son 

Joseph Lees aged 25 

Edw. Lees his brother 

Mary Knight his servant . . . . 

Samuel Lees 

Joseph Lees his son 

Eliz. Clifford 

George Campion 

Anne Campion his wife .... 
George Campion his son ..., 
Tho. Starkey his servant . . . 

Matthew Wiln 

Eliz. Wiln his wife 

John Wiln his son 

Eliz.' Tetly his maiden 

Francis Lambert 

Eliz. Lambert his W 

Anne Lambert his daughter 
Mary Lambert his daughter . 

Francis Rolstone 

Rosa Rolstone his wife 

Wm. Heap 

Mary Heap his wife 

Eliz. Heap his daughter ... 

Dorothy Heap his D 

John Heap his son 

Theo. Heap his son 

John Lees 

George Lees his son 



Titles and 

Qualifications. Burials. 

^ s. d. 

040 

040 

Batchelor 040 

Taylor o 4 o 

Mason o 4 o 

040 

040 

040 

Widow 040 

040 

040 

040 

Batchelor ... o 4 o 

040 

040 

Labourer 040 

040 

Widow 040 

Miller o 4 o 

040 

040 

040 

Warrener ... o 4 o 

040 

040 

040 

Forgeman ... o 4 o 

040 

040 

040 

Labourer 040 

040 

Labourer 040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

Flagdresser ... o 4 o 

040 



Marriages. 

£ s. d. 



Eatchelors and 
Births. Widowers. 

^ s. d. £ s. d. 



l6 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 

Titles and Batchelorsand 

Names and Sirnames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriages. Births. Widowers. 

£ s. d. ;^ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Edw. Harrison his apprentice o 4 o ..... 

Mary Lees his daughter o 4 o 

Edward Wiln Slater o 4 o o 2 o 

Margery Wiln his wife o 4 o .... 

IMary Woothward his maiden o 4 o ■ 

Margery Wiln his daughter o 4 o 

Robt. Wiln his son o 4 o 

Ellen Taylor Widow 040 

The. Taylor her son o 4 o .. .. 

Fra. Taylor her son o 4 o 

Ellen Taylor her daughter o 4 o 

Nicholas Choice Widower 040 020 026 

John Choice his son o 4 o . .. 

John Heap Labourer 040 020 

Eliz. Heap his wife o 4 o 

Mary Heap rec. alms o 4 o .... 

John Ault Whittawer ... 040 020 

Hannah Ault his W o 4 o 

Eliz. Ault his D 040 

Wm. Taylor Mason 040 020 

Hjinnah Taylor his W 040 

Hannah Taylor 'his daughter o 4 o .... 

John Taylor his son o 4 o 

Robt. Taylor his apprentice o 4 o ., 

Henry Cartwright Labourer 040 020 

Anne Cartwright his wife o 4 o 

Robt. Cartwright his son o 4 o 

Edward Hollingworth Butcher o 4 o .... 

Eliz. HoUingworth his wife 040 

Tho. Hollingworth his son o 4 o 

Mary his daughter o 4 o .... 

Elizabeth his daughter o 4 o .... 

Humphry Conoway Labourer 040 020 026 

Wm. Ball his nurse child o 4 o 

Anne Conoway his daughter 040 .... 

Thomas Conoway his son o 4 o o 2 o o 2 6 .... 

John Conoway Labourer 040 020 

Anne Conoway his W o 4 o 

Mary Mold his daughter-in- 
law o 4 o 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 1 7 

Titles and Batchelorsand 

Names and Simames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriages. Births. Widowers. 

£ s. (1. ;^ s. d. £ s. d. £ s. d. 

Sam Rolston Farmer 040 020 

Anne Rolston his W 040 

Wm. Rolston his son o 4 o 

John Rolston his S 040 

Anne Rolston his D o 4 o . ... 

Mary Rolston his D 040 

Wm. Cart Wright Pot carrier ... 040 O 2 O 

Mary his wife o 4 o 

John Draper Labourer 040 020 

Eliz. Draper his W. o 4 o 

Eliz. Hall rec. alms Widow o 4 o 

Thomas Hall her son o 4 o 

Edw. Hall her son 040 

Wm. Hall her son o 4 o ... 

Joseph Hall her son o 4 o 

John Hall her son o 4 o 

George Summerfield Farmer o 4 o o 2 o 

Dorcas his wife o 4 o 

John his son o 4 o 

Joseph his son 040 ..... 

Ellen his daughter 040 

Eliz. Collington his servant o 4 o 

Wm. Cook Yeoman 040 020 .... 

Luce Cook his wife o 4 o 

Dorothy Clark Widow 040 

Mary Chambers Spinster o 4 o 

James Trevit Labourer 040 020 

Mary Trevit his W o 4 o 

James Trevit his S 040 

Edw. Boden Baker 040 020 026 

Eliz. Boden Widow 040 

Anne Boden his D O 4 o .... 

Francis Kinsey Smith o 4 o o 2 o o 2 6 

Henry Smith his apprentice o 4 o 

Nathaniel Smedley Mercer 040 020 

Priscilla his W o 4 o 

Eliz. Rowley Widow 040 

Tho. Rowley her son 040 ..... 

Mary Rowley her D o 4 o . 

Thomas Heap Widower 040 020 026 010 

5 



l8 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 

Titles and 

Names and Sirnames. Qualifications. Ei 

£ 

Ellen Moor his housekeeper o 

Joseph Moor her son o 

Mary Hackwood Widow o 

Joseph Boden Saddler o 

Anne Boden his wife o 

Joan Boden his D o 

Dorothy Boden o 

Eliz. Turner Spinster o 

Thomas Pym Weaver o 

Eliz. Fisher Widow o 

Ellen Fisher her D o 

Eliz. Fisher her D o 

Kath. Fisher her D o 

Mary Fisher her D o 

Bridget Fisher her D o 

Jane Turner Spinster o 

Wm. Martin Shearman ... o 

Dorothy Martin his wife o 

Wm. Martin his son o 

Ellen Martin his daughter o 

Wm. Adcock Taylor o 

Wm. Adcock his son o 

Tho. Minion his apprentice o 

Anne Adcock his daughter o 

Margery Kinsey Widow o 

Ellen Martin Widow o 

Anne Martin her daughter o 

Eliz. Radcliff her servant o 

Joseph Smith Butcher o 

Hannah Smith his wife 

Joseph Smith his son 

Henry Smith his son ,^ 

Tho. Brumhead Gardiner . . ►.. 

Jane Brumhead his W - 

Mary Brumhead Widow 

Tho. Erp Senior Farmer 

Anne Erp his W 

Wm. Erp his son 

Eliz. Erp his daughter 

Edw. Sanders his servant 



rials. 


Marriages. 


Batchelors and 
Births. Widowers. 


,. d. 


I s. d. 


^ s. d. £ s. d. 


4 






4 






4 






4 


020 




4 






4 






4 






4 






4 


020 


2 6 


4 






4 






4 






4 







4 






4 






4 






4 






4 






4 






4 






4 


020 


2 6 


4 


2 


2 6 


4 






4 






4 






4 




...,. 


4 






4 






4 


020 





LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



19 



Names and Sirnames. 

Eliz. Cooper his servant . . , 

Wm. Paget 

Joan Paget his W 

Thomas Paget 

Mary Paget his wife 

Tho. Paget his son 

Wm. Paget his son 

John Rolston 

Eliz. Rolston his W 

Rich. Rolston his S 

Wm. Rolston his S 

Cornelius Borrisford 

Mary Borrisford his W 

John Borrisford his son . . . . 

Anne his daughter 

Cornelius his son 

Charles his son 

George Summerfield 

Mary his wife 

Joseph his son 

Anne his daughter 

Margaret Smithiers 

John Smithiers her son . . . . 
Samuel Smithiers her son. . . 

Walter Bagnal 

Margaret Bagnal his wife . . . . 

Walter Bagnal his son 

John Bagnal his S 

Mary Bagnal his D 

Jane Bagnal his D 

Joseph Cantril 

Jane Cantril his wife 

Samuel his son 

William his S 

John his S 

Elizabeth his daughter 

Sarah his D 

Mary Collington his servant. 

Eliz. Garland 

Mary Broomhead 



Titles and 
Qualifications. 



Cordwainer. 
Cordwainer. 

Chapman . 

Flagdresser . 



Burials. Marriages. 
;^ S. d. £ S. d. £ S. d. 



Batchelors and 
Births. Widowers. 



Butcher 



Widow 



Cordwainer. 
Flaxdresser. 



Farmer 



Widow 
Widow 



20 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 

Titles and Batchelors and 

Names and Sirnames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriage.s. Births. Widowers. 

;C s. d. I s. d. /■ s. d. £ s. d. 

Richard her son Blacksmith .. 040 026 

Rebecca her D 040 .... 

Nathaniel Hazard Cordwainer.. 040 020 

Rebecca Hazard his W o 4 o ...... 

John Hazard his son o 4 o ..... 

Charles Holders his journey- 
man Cordwainer. . 040 026 

John Turner his apprentice o 4 o 

Tho. Quinton his Prentice o 4 o 

Nathaniel Hazard his son o 4 o .... 

Mary Cartwright Widow 040 .... 

Wm. Cartwright her son aged 

25 Batchelor Butcher 040 020 026 010 

Margaret Cartwright her D o 4 o . ... 

Mary Morrice a nurse child . . rec. alms. ... 040 

Thomas Chad wick Wheel Maker 040 020 

Isabel Chadwick his W o 4 o 

Joseph his son o 4 o 

John his son o 4 o 

Anne his D o 4 o 

EUenor his D o 4 o 

John Turner junior Taylor 040 020 

Mary Turner his W o 4 o .... 

Rich. Bagnal Labourer. ... 040 020 

Anne Bagnal his wife o 4 o 

John Bagnal his S o 4 o 

George Bagnal his S o 4 o 

Mary Bagnal his D o 4 o 

John Smith Carpenter .. 040 020 026 

Mary Smith his D o 4 o 

Eliz. Smith his D o 4 o 

Joseph Peat Labourer. ... 040 020 

Sarah Peat his W o 4 o 

Eliz. Peat his D o 4 o 

Mary Peat his D 040 .... 

Paul Rolston Labourer .... 040 020 

Anne Rolston his W o 4 o 

Elizabeth his daughter o 4 o 

Mary his daughter o 4 o 

Ellen Toon Widow 040 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 2 1 

Titles and Batchelorsand 

Names and Simames. Qualifications. Burials. Marriages. Births. Widowers. 

;^ s. d. £ s. d. ;i^ s. d. £ s. d. 

Thomas Toon her son o 4 o o 4 o o 2 6 

Lydy Toon her D o 4 o .... 

Fra. Smith Labourer. ... 040 020 

Alice Smith his wife o 4 o ...... 

Robert his son o 4 o 

John Carter aged 25 Batchelor .. 040 020 026 010 

Rich. Sheepy Labourer .. 040 020 

Mary Sheepy his wife o 4 o 

Anne Sheepy his daughter o 4 o 

Kath. Sheepy his D o 4 o 

Ellen Sheepy his D o 4 o 

John Cartwright Pounder .... 040 020 

Sarah Cartwright his W o 4 o 

John his son o 4 o .... 

Tho. Sperry Labourer .. 040 020 

Mary Sperry his W o 4 o .... 

Tho. Sperry his son o 4 o 

Mary Sperry his D o 4 o 

John Ward Labourer .. 040 020 

Isabel Ward his wife o 4 o 

Francis Ward his son o 4 o .... 

John Parker Weaver 040 020 .... 

Sarah -Parker his W o 4 o 

Stephen Parker his son o 4 o 

John Parker his apprentice o 4 o 

Tho. Monk Widower .... 040 020 026 

Wm. Wiln Labourer. ... 040 020 

Mary Wiln his wife o 4 o 

Tho. Wiln his son o 4 o .... 

Matthew Wiln his son o 4 o .... 

Eliz. Wiln his daughter o 4 o .... 

Wm. Turner sen Taylor 040 

Anne Turner his W o 4 o 

Luce Turner his D o 4 o o 4 o 

Alice Peat Widow 040 

Henry Peat her son Weaver 040 020 026 

Eliz. Peat her niece o 4 o 

Wm. Cantril senior Weaver .... 040 020 

Sarah Cantril his W o 4 o 

John Cantril his son Labourer .... 040 020 026 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



Names and Sirnames. 

Wm. Cantril junior 

Anne Cantril his W 

Sarah Cantril his D 

Josiah Cantril 

Mary Cantril his W. 

Joseph Cantril his Son 

James Hargrave 

Dorothy Hargrave his W. . 

Mary his D 

Elizabeth his D 

Dorothy his D 

Henry Radford 

Christian his W 

Henry his son 

John his son 

Robt. Parker, his apprentice . . 

Mary Ward his servant 

Eliz. Tarbut 

Anne Tarbut her danghter . . 

Sarah her D 

Katherine Carter 

John Carter her son 

Anne Carter her D 

Kath. Carter her D 

Jonathan Wilkinson her ser- 
vant 

Fra. Ball her servant 

Sarah Radford her servant . . 

Anne Borrisford 

Mary Borrisford, rec. alms . . 

Rebecca her D 

Elizabeth her D 

John Elliot . . . 

Tho. Elliot 

Mary his wife 

Joseph his son . . . . 

Jane Gascoigne his servant . . 

Tho. Doxey 

Isabel his W 

Owen Maples 

Jane Maples his W 



Titles and 
Qualifications. 



Labourer. . . , 



Labourer. .. 



Miller. 



Carpenter 



Widow 



Widow 



Spinster . .. 



Widower. 
Farmer . . 



Labiurer . . . 
Fla.xdiesser. 



Burials. 

£ s. d. 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 

040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 
040 



Marriages. 

£ s. d. 



Batchelors and 
Births. Widowers. 



£ s- d. 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



23 



Names and Simames. 



Titles and 
Qualifications. 



£ s. d. 



Marriages. 

£ s. d. 



Batchelors and 
Births. Widowers. 

;^ s. d. £ s. d. 



Samuel his son o 4 

Sarah his D o 4 

Jane his D o 4 

Elizabeth his D o 4 

John Wilkinson his apprentice o 4 

Fra. Wallis his apprentice o 4 

Wm. Killock aged 25 Batchelor . . 04 

Mary Quinton Widow o 4 

Eliz. Quinton her daughter o 4 

John May Labourer. ... 04 

Mary May his W o 4 

Kath. May his D o 4 

Eliz. Cartwright Widow o 4 

Ellen Cartwright her D . . . o 4 

Kath. Jolley Widow o 4 

Thomas Erp Junior Farmer o 4 

Mary Erp his W o 4 

Thomas Erp his son o 4 

John Chambers his son o 4 

Kath. Chambers his Daughter O 4 

Humphry Killar his servant O 4 

Eliz. Hill his servant o 4 

Zech. Cherribough Yeoman .... o 4 

Eliz. Cherribough his W O 4 

John Roberts his son-in-law o 4 

Eliz. Roberts his Daughter-in- 
law o 4 

Edw. Hall Labourer. ... 04 

Mary Hall his wife o 4 

Wm. Hall his son o 4 

John Hall his son o 4 

Wm. Turner Labourer. ... 04 

Dorothy Turner his daughter o 4 

Anne Sheepy Widow o 4 

Eliz. Howel Spinster o 4 

John Ragge \ 

„ „ r Assessors, 

bam. bymes ) 

to- J I. \ I John (illegib/e) and] 
(Stgtudby) l' /> Collectors. 

Owen Maples ) 

H. Heveningham. 

Robt. Hardinge. 



24 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 



The total number of the inhabitants of Melbourne and King's 
Newton enumerated in the list is 660, and that the list is an ex- 
haustive one is proved by the fact that it includes five women 
receiving alms, notwithstanding that they were exempted from tlie 
tax by the terms of the Act. These 660 inhabitants formed, as 
nearly as lean reckon, 190 separate households ; but it is not 
easy in every case to decide whether the persons described as 
widows, widowers, and bachelors, were householders. For 
instance, I have little doubt that the three bachelors — Henry, 
John, and William Cooper — were three brothers living together, 
who kept a manservant and two maids. I have attempted to 
classify the several families according to their respective occupa- 
tions, and the result of my analysis of the list is that there were 
living in Melbourne and King's Newton in 1695 : — 



1 Vicar, 

2 Esquires, 

1 Gentleman, 
8 Yeomen, 

8 Farmers, 

7 Cordwainers, 

6 Butchers, 

6 Weavers, 

5 Tailors, 

4 Flaxdressers, 

3 Blacksmiths, 

2 Mercers, 
2 Millers, 
2 Masons, 

2 Carpenters, 

I Brewer, 

I Whitetawer, 

1 Glover, 
I Dishturner, 
I Shearman, 



I Potecarrier, 

I Baker, 

I Smith, 

I Chapman, 

I Saddler, 

I Forgeman, 

I Slater, 

I Wheelmaker, 

I Ploughwright, 

I Tiler, 

I Thatcher, 

I Gardener, 

I Poundkeeper, 

I Warrener, 
44 Labourers, 
42 Widows, 
13 Widowers, 
II Bachelors, 

6 Spinsters, 

5 Women receiving alms. 



Thirty- two of these families kept servants, and, excluding the 
two Squires, who kept 7 servants each (3 men and 4 maids,) 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 25 

there were 30 families of lower degree, who kept 44 servants 
between them (17 men and 27 maids.) There were also 9 trades- 
men, who had apprentices ; and it is significant that none of those 
who kept apprentices kept a servant. 

It will be interesting to see how these servants were distributed. 

The Vicar kept i maid. 



The Gentleman 


)) 


I 


maid 


and 


I 


man. 


3 Yeomen 


)) 


2 


maids 


)> 


4 


men, 


5 Farmers 


,, 


5 


)» 


)> 


2 


>) 


I Blacksmith 


') 


I 


maid 


>' 


2 


>> 


I Mercer 


» 


I 


»j 


>» 


I 


man. 


I Miller 


)) 








I 


)> 


I Mason 


>) 


I 


maid. 








I Carpenter 


>' 


I 


>» 








The Slater 


)) 


I 


)) 








The Warrener 


»j 


I 


» 








I Labourer 


>> 


I 


)> 








4 Widows 


)) 


4 


maids 


and 


I 


man. 


4 Widowers 


,, 


3 


» 


„ 


2 


men. 


4 Bachelors 


)! 


4 


,, 


)) 


3 


» 



30 27 17 

The 13 apprentices were distributed as follows : — 

3 To Joseph Riley, tailor, evidently the leading man in his 
trade. 

2 To Nathaniel Hazard, the cordwainer, who also kept a 
journeyman. 

2 To Owen Maples, the flaxdresser, who was one of the tax- 
collectors under the Act. 

I To a carpenter. 

I To a weaver. 

I To a tailor. 

I To a smith. 

I To a mason. 

I To a flaxdresser. 

The first name in the list is that of the Vicar, John Troughton, 



26 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 

who was presented to the Vicarage in 1690 by Dr. Smith, Bishop 
of Carlisle. The Royal Manor of Melbourne formed part of the 
endowment of the Sea of Carlisle from the time of its foundation 
by Henry I., in 1133. The fourth Bishop built a Palace here, in 
1230^ and en-parked the adjoining lands. He and his successors 
constantly resided here, and had leave from the Bishop of the 
diocese to hold ordinations in Melbourne church ; for they were 
often driven from Carlisle by the inroads of the Scots during the 
frequent wars between England and Scotland. The Bishop's 
Palace and impropriate Rectory were farmed, in the reign of 
Charles I., by Sir John Coke, Secretary of State, who paid a 
stipend of ;^2o per annum to the Vicar, and a rent of _;^45 per 
annum to the See of Carlisle. The Parliamentary Commissioners 
of 1650 reported that the Vicarage was worth ^^26 per annum, 
and tiiat the rent of ;^4S reserved under the lease of the 
parsonage was " enjoyed by Sir John Coke to the use of the 
Vicar." An agreement, however, was made, in 1701, between the 
Bishop of Carlisle and his lessee, Mr. Thomas Coke, that, in con- 
sideration of the Vicar's stipend being raised from ;!^2o to ;£ss 
per annum, and the rent being increased from ;^45 to ^70 per 
annum, the lease should be converted into a grant in fee simple; 
and this agreement was confirmed by Act of Parliament, in 1704. 
The Palace was at this time known as Beaulie Hall, and was occu- 
pied as a farm-house for several generations by the Earp family, 
as tenants of the Cokes ; but they eventually purchased it, and it 
was pulled down in 182 1. The name of Earp was spelt Erp in 
1695 ; and Thomas Erp, the tenant of Beauhe Hall, who is de- 
scribed in the list as a farmer, was the lineal ancestor of Thomas 
Earp, Esq., the well known brewer and maltster, who has repre- 
sented Newark in Parliament since 1874. 

Melbourne church is one of the most interesting churches in 
England of the early Norman period, and is admirably described 
in the third volume of Mr. Charles Cox's JVbfes on the Churches of 
Derbyshire. The Vicarage, however, is poorly endowed, and, 
accordingly the Vicar and his wife kept only one servant — a 
maiden. Troughton held the living twenty-eight years, and was 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1 695. 27 

buried here on 14th October, 1718. His predecessor, Thomas 
Little, was buried on 26th March, 1690 ; but the assessment shows 
that his widow, Agnes Little, with her two daughters, Elizabeth 
and Dorothy, and her maid-servant, was still living in the parish 
in 1695. 

The next names on the list are those of the two resident Squires 
— Thomas Coke, of Melbourne ; and Robert Hardinge, of King's 
Newton, — each of whom kept 7 servants : 3 men and 4 women. 
But this does not imply equality of estate and establishment ; for 
it must be borne in mind that Hardinge was a man of 41, with a 
wife and five children ; whilst Coke was a young lad of 20, whose 
father had died at Geneva in 1692, since which time the son had 
been the ward of Walter Burdett, Esq., of Knowle Hill. 

The Cokes of Melbourne were descended from Sir John Coke, 
Secretary of State in the reign of Charles I, who was a younger 
brother of Sir Francis Coke, of Trusley, and was in no way related 
to his contemporary, Sir Edward Coke, the Chief Justice. The 
heir of Melbourne took a leading position amongst the Derby- 
shire gentry, and married, at Repton, in 1698, Lady Mary Stan- 
hope, daughter of Philip, second Earl of Chesterfield ; but she 
died on loth January, 1703-4, leaving two daughters. The 
widower soon married again, and his second wife, Mary Hale, was 
one of Queen Anne's maids of honour. He was M.P. for Derby- 
shire in five successive Parliaments, 1701-1710, and was Vice- 
Chamberlain to Queen Anne and George I. He was sworn a 
member of the Privy Council in 171 1, and died nth May, 1727, 
leaving issue, by his second wife, a son and a daughter. His son 
and heir, George Lewis Coke, died, unmarried, 14th January, 
1750, and was succeeded in his estates by his sister Charlotte, 
wife of Sir Matthew Lamb, Bart., M.P. for Peterborough. Their 
grandchildren — Viscount Melbourne, the Prime Minister, and his 
sister, the late Viscountess Palmerston — were successive owners 
of the Melbourne estate, which now belongs to Earl Cowper, Lady 
Palmerston's grandson. It is described in the Parliamentary 
return of 1873 ^s consisting of 2,787 acres, which produced a 
gross rental of;^6,67o per annum. 



28 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 

Stephen Allen, who stands at the head of the list of Mr. Coke's 
servants, was evidently the steward of the Manor, for he is de- 
scribed as " gent." This was no small distinction ; because he 
was the only person in the parish who is so designated, except 
Thomas Swetnam, who lived on his own freehold, and kept a 
man and a maid. 

Next in the list to Squire Coke, comes Robert Hardinge, 
Esquire, of King's Newton, with his second wife Ehzabeth, his son 
John, and his four daughters — Mary, Anne, Jane, and Isabel. 
These were his children by his first wife Jane, the daughter and 
co-heir of William Buxton, Esquire, of Youlgreave, Derbyshire, 
who was buried here 22nd October, 1692. These four daughters 
all died unmarried; but the son, John Hardinge, who was 
baptized here on 26th September, 1685, graduated M.A. at 
Cambridge in 1705, succeeded to the family estate on his father's 
death in October, 1709. He was afterwards the King's Remem- 
brancer in the Court of Exchequer, and married here on 12th 
April, 1711, Alice Coke, sister of the Right Honourable Thomas 
Coke, M.P., above-mentioned. He died without issue, and was 
buried here on 27th January, 1728-9, when the elder line of the 
Hardinges became extinct. 

Robert Hardinge, the magistrate, who signed the assessment, 
was the son and heir of Sir Robert Hardinge, a staunch Cavalier, 
who had the honour of entertaining Charles II. in his hall at 
King's Newton, which is still standing ; and was knighted at 
Whitehall on 2nd February, 1674-5. He died on 29th November, 
1679, and is described on his monument as " a faithful servant to 
God, the king, the Church of England, and his country in the 
worst times." He sprung from a family of yeoman origin, who 
had been owners of land in King's Newton from the reign of 
Henry VI. ; but they were not entitled to bear arms, and the 
family was not noticed in the Visitations of 161 1 or 1636. Sir 
Robert claimed descent from Hardinge of Bristol, the ancestor of 
the Berkeleys ; and remonstrated with Dugdale when his preten- 
tions to bear the arms of that noble family were disallowed. But 
his family name was originally written Hardie and his uncle 



LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 29 

Henn', who died in 1613, is so named in his monument in 
Melbourne Church ; whilst Sir Robert himself is described as Mr. 
Robert Hardye, in 1652, in the marriage register of Highgate 
Chapel.* His brother Nicholas was an attorney of Furnivall's Inn, 
and amassed a considerable fortune by practising the law. He 
purchased, in 169 1, the Manor of Canbury, in Surrey, with the 
impropriate Rectory of Kingston-on-Thames, and in the next year 
presented Sir Robert's youngest son, Gideon Hardinge, to the 
vicarage. Gideon does not sound a likely name for the son of a 
Cavalier knight ; but Sir Robert Hardinge's wife was the grand- 
daughter of Gideon de Laune, the famous apothecary. Gideon 
Hardinge was vicar of Kingston-on-Thames twenty-one years, and 
married 6th May, 1699, Mary Westbrook, daughter of Caleb 
Westbrook, gent., of Kingston, who was baptized there on 4th 
March, 1669-70. Her parentage is unknown to all the peerages, 
but is of some interest, as showing how Gideon's younger son, 
Dr. Caleb Hardinge, the Queen's physician, came to be christened 
by a Puritan name. Gideon's eldest son, Nicholas, became the 
head of the family in 1729, on the death of his cousin, John 
Hardinge, of King's Newton. He was Clerk of the Parliaments, 
and afterwards Joint-Secretary of the Treasury, and married a 
sister of Earl Camden, the Lord Chancellor. He was the great- 
grandfather of the present Viscount Hardinge, by whose courtesy 
I am enabled to print this assessment. 

The 44 labourers enumerated in the assessment evidently be- 
longed to a class of better standing than the agricultural labourer 
of our own times. They were, as I have shown before, better fed 
and better paid, and were often poor relations of local freeholders 
and shopkeepers. For example — the Cantrells were probably the 
oldest family in the parish, and had intermarried with the 
Hardinges in the reign of Henry VI. Their pedigree can be 
traced, beyond question, from John Cantrell, of King's Newton, 
who died in 1615, although the parish register of Melbourne is 
not of earher date than 1653. They formed, in 1695, seven 

* Register of Highgate Chapel, Middlesex. :— " 1652, April 19th, Mr. 
Robert Hardye and Mrs. Anne Sprignell married." 



30 LIST OF THE INHABITANTS OF MELBOURNE, 1695. 

separate households, who are all described as labourers, except 
two, one of whom was a farmer and the other a weaver. One of 
these labourers, Josiah, was the head of the family ; whilst the 
farmer was his uncle, and the weaver was his granduncle. Josiah's 
father had died a few months before ; but his stepmother had 
some provision, for she kept a maid. Josiah's grandson, Hugh 
Cantrell (son of Joseph, who is mentioned in this hst) married, in 
1768, Mary Boultbee, the only child of the Vicar of Castle 
Donington ; and their grandson, Joseph Thomas Cantrell, was 
the County Court judge in Derbyshire in 1852, and married a 
granddaughter of Dr. Markham, Archbishop of York. 

The Berrisfords were a family of the same kind, and were 
distributed in six separate households of very unequal condition. 
John Berrisford, jun., was the leading mercer in the town, who 
kept a man and a maid; Thomas was a glover, and Cornelius 
was a flax-dresser ; whilst Mary was a widow, with two daughters, 
receiving alms ; and John was a labourer, who lived with his wife 
and his grand child, and kept a maid. The Berrisfords, or, as 
they afterwards spelt their name, Beresfords, continued to be free- 
holders in the parish of Melbourne until 1814. It can scarcely be 
doubted that they sprung from the same stock as the noble 
family in Ireland, which is now represented by the Marquess of 
Waterford, but had not in 1695 J^^ "^en to the peerage, for the 
ancestor of the Irish Beresfords was a native of Derbyshire. 

Many additions might be made to these notes ; but enough has 
been said to show how much could be gleamed from this interest- 
ing record by those who are better qualified by local knowledge 
to read between the lines. 



3' 



it l^cltgious (2Bcnsus of ^cvtigsi^tvc, 1676. 



By Rev. J. Charles Cox. 




N the invaluable library of the Salt Society, Staiford, 
is a manuscript folio volume of exceptional worth 
and of excellent penmanship. It is a Return of 
the population of the province of Canterbury, over sixteen 
years of age, for the year 1676, divided into three classes : 
" Conformists, Papists, and Nonconformists." The Return was 
drawn up by order of Henry Compton, Bishop of London, and 
was obtained from the clergy at the archidiaconal visitations. 
The returns are divided into parishes, and in some dioceses 
grouped under Archdeaconries or Rural Deaneries. The Returns 
do not appear to be absolutely complete for each diocese, for 
occasionally certain parishes are missing, and of the diocese of 
Bristol and of Bath and Wells no details are supplied, but 
merely the totals under the hands of their respective bishops. 

The totals for the then diocese of Coventry and Lichfield are : 
Conformists, 155,720; Papists, 1,949; Nonconformists, 5,042. 
It is remarkable to note, small though it seems, how far larger 
the proportion of Roman Catholics was to the population in 
this diocese than elsewhere. London alone exceeds it with 2,069, 
but then the Conformists of that diocese were 263,000. Only one 
other diocese reaches to four figures, namely, Lincoln, with 1,244 
out of a conforming total of 215,000, but few other dioceses 
reached to 500. 

So far as I am aware, this census, made at a time when materials 
for forming any estimate of the population, putting aside their 



32 



A RELIGIOUS CENSUS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1676. 



religious creeds, are singularly lacking, has hitherto been unknown 
save to a few midland scholars who use the Salt Library, and has 
not previously been noticed in print.* 

To form a general total of the whole population, when the 
numbers given are of those over sixteen years of age, it is neces- 
sary to add about 40 to every 100. 

The following is a verbatim copy of the Derbyshire portion 01 
this Return : — 

Archdeaconary of Derby in y"^ Diocess : of Litchfeild 
AND Coventrey. 





Conformists. 


Papists. 


Nonconformists. 


Clowne ... 


273 


... 


5 


Matlock 


980 




20 


Stone Middleton 


236 


3 


... 


Hathersage 


440 


140 


... 


Eyam 


526 


3 


3 


Elmton 


94 


... 




Winsters 


304 


... 


I 


Darley 


495 




5 


Yolgrave ... 


806 




14 


Castleton 


498 


2 




Glossopp 


1984 


4 


52 


Ashover ... 


696 




4 


Boulsover 


449 




2 


Sutton & Duckmanton .. 


38s 


12 


3 


Barleybrough 


213 


23 


... 


Chesterfeild 


3394 


6 


100 


VVhittington 


2X2 




6 


South wingfeild ... 


332 




3 


Wingerworth 


145 


4 


8 


Whittwell 


250 


2 


2 


Norton ... 


479 


7 


10 


Allfreton 


448 


I 


12 


Brampton 


1060 




40 


Staveley ... 


493 


6 


I 



* Since the above was in type, I have been informed that there is another 
copy of this Return at the Bodleian Library, Tanner MSS., 150; but I have 
not had time to collate it in any way with the Salt Library copy. 



RELIGIOUS CENSUS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1676. 



33 





Conformists. 1 


Papists. 


Nonconforn 


Dronfeild 


517 






Tibshelfe 


208 




2 


Beighton ... 


183 


2 


15 


Longwith ... 


70 






South Normanton 


300 




2 


Moreton ... 


222 






Scartcliffe 


200 






Plesley .. 


174 






Shetland ... 


64 


... 


12 


Pinxton ... 


190 


... 




Edensor 


296 


2 


2 


Northwingfeild ... 


634 




16 


Killamarsh 


145 


15 




Haute Hucknall ... 


132 




9 


Eckington 


"63 


32 


5 


Barley 


376 


... 


4 



Deaneryes of Darby and Repinton. 
All Saints & St. Alkmunds 



in Derby 


1113 


4 


49 


St. Peters in Derby 


500 




40 


Ilkiston 


273 




7 


Bredsall 


199 




I 


Aston 


295 




5 


Kirkhallam 


99 


I 


... 


Swarkeson 


100 




... 


Osmaston 


85 






Allvaston & Boulton 


143 






EUvaston... 


215 






Newton Soney ... 


326 




... 


Greasly .. 


357 


... 


... 


Charles home ( ? Harts- 








liorne) ... 


146 


3 


7 


Stanly 


73 


4 




Spoondon 


304 







34 



A RELIGIOUS CENSUS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1676. 







Conformists 


Papists. 


Nonconformists 


Croxall ... 




100 






LuUington 




144 




6 


Merely ... 


... 


229 






Horsely . . . 




293 






Barrovv-upon- 


Trent 


194 






Ticknall ... 




213 




2 


Mackworth 




348 




2 


Stanton-juxta 


Dale 


100 


6 




Caldwell ... 




68 




I 


Stretton-le-feild 


226 






Melburne 




437 


2 


16 


Denby 




175 


I 




Formarke & Ingleby 


96 






Roslaston 




61 




I 


Walton-upon- 


Trent 


207 






Willington 




84 




3 


Heynor... 


... 


522 


8 


10 


Measham 




309 






Cheallaston 


... 


102 








Smisby ... 




84 








Weston-upon 


-Trent 


I2S 


4 






Sandacre ... 




120 








Duffeild ... 




1795 


I 


4 


Ockbrooke 




240 






Westhallam 




107 


40 


3 


Repton ... 




471 




4 


Crich 




404 


2 


3 


Pentridge... 




389 


... 


II 


Stanton-juxta 


■Pontem . 


100 






St. Michael in Derby 


63 




... 


St. Warburg 




338 




12 


Ravenstone 




119 




2 


Chaddesdon 




160 






AUestrey ... 




95 




... 


Stapenhill 




200 




• 





A RELIGIOUS 



Kniveton... 
Tidswall .. 
Bakewell ... 
Hope 

Chappell-le-frith ... 
Fenny Bentley ... 
Parwick Chappellry 
Alsop-in-le-Dale ... 
Thorpe ... 
Carrington 

Allow 

Hognoston 
Ballidon ... 
Tissington 
Bradburne 

Brasington Chappelry 
Bonsall ... 
Kirke Ireton 

Etwall 

Radburne 
Langford . 
Kedlaston 
Kirke Langley ... 
Edlaston ... 
Bradley 
Ashburne 
Mapleton 
Mickleover 
Scropton ... 
Sudbury ... 
Sutton-on-y^-Hill . . . 
Snelston... 
Dalbury Lees 
Norbury ... 
Dovebridge 



Dnforinists. Papists. Noncon 


"or 


no 






467 


30 


3 


4235 


65 200 


782 


10 


8 


587 


3 


8 


78 


I 


I 


248 




2 


40 






80 






200 




... 


98 




2 


200 






100 




... 


175 




... 


110 






375 




5 


612 




2 


297 




3 


160 


I 


9 


72 


I 




322 


6 


2 


78 






216 






67 


2 




114 


3 


3 


2470 


10 


20 


70 






400 




20 


214 






200 






210 






206 


14 




"5 






74 


65 




291 


12 


8 



36 A RELIGIOUS CENSUS OF DERBYSHIRE, 1676. 

Conformists. Papists. Nonconformists. 



Egginton 


216 


3 


4 


Marston-upon- Dove 


248 




16 


Boylston ... 


166 




4 


Shirley 


180 






Braylesford 


254 


6 


40 


Church Broughton 


180 


I 


4 


Cubley 


127 


II 




Marston Mountgomery ... 


179 


5 


3 


Somersall 


98 


2 




Trusley 


104 






Mugginton 


716 


I 


I 



Totals for Derbyshire... 47,151 5^8 918 

N.B. — It will be noticed that this return for Derbyshire is not 
quite complete. There is no return for Barton Blount, Blackwell, 
Hartington, Heath, Sawley, and Wirksworth. The smaller of 
these parishes may probably have been included in other parishes 
by clergy who held double cures, but this is not likely to have 
been the case with a small town like Wirksworth, or important 
villages, such as Hartington and Sawley. 



PLATE n 




V 26 ^ 

SEPULCHRAL SLAB DISCOVERED AT KEDLESTON CHURCH, 
OCTOBER, 1884 



37 



0X1 a Sepulci^val %lai) trtscol?eutr at 
Wtttiltnton dEi^itvci^, 



By Rev. I. Charles Cox. 



IHILST the nave and north transept of the interesting 
httle cruciform church of Kedleston were being re- 
seated and restored during the past autumn, under 
the supervision of Mr. J. Oldrid Scott, a fine old sepulchral 
slab was found by the workmen about six inches below the floor 
level, on the south side of the nave. Lord Scarsdale kindly at 
once communicated with me, and the stone remained /-'/ sifu until 
October 29th, when I was able to visit the church. The slab was 
carefully turned over on its side, and the space beneath dug out. 
About two feet six inches below the surface the interment was 
found, first the skull, and afterwards other bones. These were 
speedily re-interred, and the earth filled in. The body had 
evidently been buried, as was most usual, without any coffin or 
protection, other perhaps than a grave shroud of a leather hide. 
The stone could not possibly be left in its position with any due 
regard to the necessary seating of the small nave, and it was there- 
fore decided by Lord Scarsdale that it should be removed to the 
south transept, where a large number of the Curzon monuments 
are placed, and that some record should be made of its removal. 

The massive grey stone measures 5 ft. 9 in. in length, and tapers 
in breadth from 1 ft. 10 in. at the head to i ft. 4 in. at the foot. 
The stone is about 9 in. thick. A portion is broken off' at the foot, 
as shown on the plate, but otherwise it is in very good and clear 
cut condition. It is neatly bevelled at the edges. The flat surface 



38 SEPULCHRAL SLAI! DISCOVERED AT KEDLESTON CHURCH. 

is ornamented with a cross in bas-relief, springing from tlie usual 
" Calvary," or base steps. There is a boss in the stem near the 
upper part, resembling the boss or knob always found in old 
processional crosses, from which the idea has doubtless been 
taken. The design of the floriated head of the cross is compara- 
tively simple, but singularly eff'ective. It is formed by four inter- 
rupted circles, with a quatrefoil within the diamond formed by 
their conjunction, and each circle enclosing a slipped trefoil. 

The plain cross is hardly ever found upon the old monuments, 
whether incised or in relief It is said that the symbolists regarded 
the plain Latin cross as the Cross of Shame, and it is almost un- 
known either in architecture or illumination of the best periods of 
Christian art. The floriated cross was the Cross of Glory, and by 
its very design alluded to the triumph over death of the Crucified 
One. It is indeed the cross adorned with garlands or with 
crowns. 

The variety of designs produced by the old sculptors on their 
monuments by combinations of the cross and circles is simply 
astonishing, and says much for the fertility of their inventive 
power. Instead of finding many alike, it is most rare to find any 
two specimens that exactly correspond in design. I have looked 
through the books of Boutell and Cutts on monumental slabs, as 
well as a very large number of archaeological transactions of 
various societies, but nowhere have I met with one that is quite 
similar in pattern to the handsome and interesting specimen found 
at Kedleston. 

The slab was placed with its foot to the east, and the 
interment below corresponded in position. The rule was to bury a 
layman with his face to the altar, but to bury a cleric with his face 
to the people. This, therefore, is a memorial stone to a layman. 

The design is beyond question of Early English or thirteenth 
century date. A closer study of it, and a comparison with various 
others, whose date is accurately or approximately known, inclines 
me to the belief that it is of the first part of the reign of Henry III., 
probably between 1225 and 1250 

There was no family within the limits of the small parish of 



SEPULCHRAL SLAB DISCOVERED AT KEDLESTON CHURCH. 39 

Kedleston who would be in the least likely to use so comparatively 
costly a stone, save the Curzons, who were lords of the manor, and 
who also held the advowson of the rectory. I take it, then, to be 
the sepulchral slab of a layman of the house of Curzon, who 
died early in the reign of Henry III. 

Giraline de Curzon, of Breton origin, came into England with 
William the Conqueror. His son, Richard de Curzon, held four 
knights' fees in Derbyshire, viz., Croxall, Edingale, Twyford, and 
Kedleston. Robert de Curzon, the son of Richard, had three 
sons, Richard, Robert, and Thomas. From Richard, the eldest, 
were descended the Curzons of Croxall, Edingale, and Twyford. 
Robert de Curzon, the third son, became the celebrated Cardinal 
of that name, the intimate friend of Pope Innocent III. ; he 
died at Damietta, in Egypt, 12 18. Thomas, the second son, 
inherited Kedleston, and from him Lord Scarsdale is directly 
descended. Thomas de Curzon died young, but left an infant son 
of his own name, by his wife Sybyl, in ward to his uncle Richard- 
This Thomas de Curzon was born in 1185, but on coming of age 
was debarred from taking possession of Kedleston by his grand- 
mother, who had married a Somerville for her second husband, 
and who claimed the manor as dower. After a lawsuit of three 
years, 1206 to 1209, Thomas de Curzon entered upon the manor, 
and upon the advowson of the rectory, certain concessions being 
made to his grandmother, Alice Somerville. I have not been 
able to ascertain the date of Thomas de Curzon's death, but he 
was living in 1226. 

I take it, then, that this sepulchral slab is the gravestone of 
Thomas de Curzon, fourth lord of Kedleston of that name, son of 
Thomas de Curzon and Sybyl, and nephew of the famous Cardinal 
Curzon, who preached the crusade against the Albigenses. 



40 



^arisi^ i^ccottfs of ^^tt^^oxn, ^ttf)^Qf\ivt. 



By the late Thomas North, F.S.A., 

I/bu. Me77iber of the Derbyshire Archaological and Natural 
History Society. 




MONG the papers formerly in the possession of the late 
Rev. More wood Gresley, Rector of Overseile, Leices- 
tershire, and for many years one of the Honorary 
Secretaries of the Leicestershire Architectural and Archaeological 
Society, have been found some MS. Records belonging to the 
parish of Hartshorn, Derbyshire. 

I do not know how they came into the possession of my 
friend Mr. Gresley, but I have no doubt that in some way he 
rescued them from a threatened destruction, or a probable dis- 
persion. 

They have, very courteously, been placed in my hands for 
inspection, and they will, I hope, shortly be handed over to their 
proper owners, if they will undertake their safe custody. 

These records consist of — 
I. — A book of Churchwardens' Accounts (with a very few years 

missing) from 1612 to 1681. 
IL — A second book of Churchwardens' Accounts extending from 

1738 to 18 10. 
in. — Constables' Accounts from 1602 to 1636. 
IV. — Two books of Overseers' Accounts, the first extending from 
1 67 1 to 1700; the second from 1711 to 1777. 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 4I 

Knowing the value of such documents in elucidating local 
history, I have transcribed in full the Churchwardens' Accounts 
for the year 1612 — the first year given in the earliest book— which 
is well kept, and has many interesting entries, not the least being 
the very full inventory of goods then belonging to the parish 
church. To this full transcript I have appended extracts from 
the accounts for succeeding years of all entries likely to be of 
value to the local historian. 

[To Mr. North's excerpts, I have added a few brief notes. — 
J. C. C, Ed.] 

A°- 161 2 
Hartshorne James Royll and Denis Hashard 
Churcliwardens ther Accompts are as 
foloweth. 

1. Imp^- paid att london y'^ v"' of Male for a 

bible ... 47'- 6'*- 

2. Itm. paid att london for exchange of the 

Comuion Cupp ... ... ... ... 23^- 

3. Itm. p*^ for bringing them dowen ... 2^- 2^ 

4. Itm. layd forth y^ 5"' of Maie att y^ Arch- 

byshop visitation att Repton.* ... 5^ lo''- 

5. Itm. maie 14 gevin to a poore man ... 4^* 

6. Itm. 14 of June gevin to y* inhabitanc of 

Harsmworth in middlesex vppon leters 

patents ... ... ... ... ... 2'- 

7. Itm. June y* 16 pd. to y^ apareter for his 

ffees for recording o"^ Regester for A° 

1611 6^ 

8. Itm. July 23 gevin to a poore man traveling 

w"" letters patents ... ... ... 6''- 



* Provincial Visitations of an Archbishop are most exceptional in post-Refor- 
mation times. The Visitation of his former See by Archbishop Abbots in the 
year after his translation to Cariterbur)', seems to have been caused by a desire 
to assert his authority in various disputes in which he was engaged witii his late 
Chapter. The Lichfield muniments show that the Dean and Chapter success- 
fully resisted the Archbishop's unprecedented and repeated claims to nominate 
Canons Residentiary. 



42 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

9. Itm. September 12 p'^- for bread and wine 

for Comuion. ... ... ... ... ig"! 

10. Itm. Septemb'- 22 gevin to M' Ward S'- 

Ihon Harpur man ffor Recording y" bible 

and Comuion Cupp ... ... ... iz*" 

11. Itm. 23 of Septemb'- laid forth att archby- 

shopp visitation att Repton ... ... 2'- 10'' 

12. Itm. October 25 gevin to liion Astle of 

Darby towards his losse by ffire... ... 18''' 

13. October 28 geven to a lame man ... ... ^■ 

14. Itm. p"*- to Ihon Colle ffor a bord to inlarge 

y' Deske for y^ bible to lye vppon & for 

his paines ... ... ... ... lo** 

15. Itm. v"' of november geven Ihon Swane 

for Ringinge ... ... ... . . S** 

16. Itm. p**- Ihon Swane for mending y" 

Singles* vppon y^ church and for neals ib^- 

17. Itm. p''- for a buckell & a beult for a 

baldricket ... ... ... ... 7.^' 

18. Itm. 24 of January gevin to a poor man of 

I.,ancaster traveling towards London ... 6*'- 

19. Itm. p*^- Ihon Swane for candle lights ffor 

curffer:}: 8"- 

20. Itm. January 28 gevin to a poor man ... 6^- 

2 1 . Itm. p''- for a paper booke att london for 

to write o"^ accompts in ... ... .. i4''* 

22. Itm. ffebriiaire 3 my chargs to li.\feild to 

dd in a terrer & to paie money towards 

S'- Albons Church iz"- 



* i.e. Shingles. — Hartshorn church was rebuilt in 1835. Down to that 
date the nave roof was covered with wooden shingles. 

f This baldrick would be the sword-belt for the parish constable, or man- 
at-arms. See Note on the Repton Accounts in the ist vol. of these Trans- 
actions. But the term baldrick (spelt in an infinite variety of ways), which 
occurs once or twice again in these accounts, was also used for almost any sort 
of belt, collar, or strap. 

+ A candle would be required in the winter months for ringing the curfew. 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 43 

23. Itm. febriiarie 21 gevin a poor man ... 6'^- 

24. Itm. march 23 p''- ffor inlarging y' Kings 

Armes w"' Helmett Crest & mantell & 

paintinge lords praier and y^ beleivfe ... 5^' 4''' 

25. Itm. for washinge y" surplusse and table 

clothe 4"^- 

26. Itm. p''- for a locke & key for y' bell house 

Doore S"^- 

27. Itm. p''' more to Ihon Swane mendinge 

Singles and for neals ... ... ... 8'*- 

28. Itm. p'' for bread & wine aginst Palme 

Sondaie sonndaie (s/c) ... ... ... 3'- 6'' 

29. Itm. p'*- for bread & wine aginst Easter daie a^- 8' 

30. Item, for makinge y^ booke ... ... i2''- 

The Some of all that 
we have laid forthe 
Disbursed is ... v/z. xij^- i"* 



I 



A°- 1612 

Tames Royll and I /-,, u j 
•' ■' > Churchwardens. 

Denis Hashard, ' 

An accompte of o""- Recs. 
ffrom y" Towne. 
fifirst Rec. of y" ould Church wards ... ... 6'- 

2. Itm. gathered vppon a leave levied 27 of 

Septemb'- by Lyving ... ... ... 44' 

3. Itm. gathered vpon a leave levied y* same 

daie att i'^- a beast @ iuf- xx"* sheep... 3''- 

4. Itm. Rec. of Ihon Swane for his years rent 3' 

Suma recs is ... v" xiij*- v^" 

Suma disbursed ... v"- xij'- i"*- 
Remaing in o' hands ) 

serve to y'' towne ' ■' 



44 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

An Inventory of y" Church goods of the 
Parishe of Hartishorne : — 



Imp^- a Comuio Cupp of silver w"' a plate 
of Silver having Ihon Bapf*- head vppon 
it.* 



2. Itm. a large bible. 



Itt. Jewell & Hardinge. 



4 Itt. erasmus paraphrase vppon y" 4 Evan- 

gelists & y^ Actes. 



5. Itt. a newe booke of Comon praier. 



6. Itt. two books of Homylyes. 



7. Itt the late Quenes Iniunctions together 
w"' y^ Iniunctions of y*^ byshopp of Co- 
vent^ «& Lixfeild bound w' hitt. 



8. Itt. Certayne Advertisements gevin by y* L 
Byshopp of C. & L. w' other treatise 
bound w"" itt. 



Itm. certayne prayers sett forth by authoryty 
to be used &c. 



10. Itt. two Register bookes y^ one in parch- 

ment y" other in paper. 

11. Itt. a great chest w* ij lockes & kees. 

12. Itm. a poore man's box w'" lock & key. 

* This was doubtless an error in description. A head of St. John Baptist 
on a paten would he eminently unsuitable — and no example is known. The 
face of our Saviour, as transferred to the handkerchief of St. Veronica, an 
emblem usually termed the Vernicle, was, on the contrary, of frequent oc- 
currence upon mediaeval patens. See the photograph of the ancient pnten of 
Shiiley in the Society's Transactions for last year. 

[Since the above was in type, a note reaches me (Jan. loth, 1885), from 
Mr. St. John Hope, to the eflfect that a mediseval paten, with the Vernicle, is 
extant at Hartshorne, and is being photographed for our Society.] 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 45 

13. Itm. an old Surplice. 



14. Itm. an new table cloth for y" Comuion 
table & an ould. 



15. Itm. a Carpen for the Comuion table. 

16. Itm. three bells. 



17. Itt. Constitutions & canons Ecclesiasticall. 



18. Itt. viij boords or plancks lying in Church 
sawne. 



19. Itt. a beare w"* a Coflfin.* 



20. It. a pewter bottell of ij quarts & ^ a pint 

p me James Royll 1612. 
Itm. wee have vsed most of the planckes 

towards the making of the seates. 
Memorandum Mr. William Dethick Parson 

of this Towne gave a Long Lather to the 

church the yeare 16 13. 

p me Xpofer Wilbore. 
Memords that Mr. James Roylle of Short- 

haselles gave to the churche a newe beere 

beinge made att his owne coste and 

chardges, box woode and workmanshipp 

this presente yeare 1626. 
It' Given by Mr. James Royll in Au. 161 2 

one pewter botle conf* 2 quarts @ ^ pint. 

Extracts. 
16 1 3. Itt. gevin to Ringers 5 of november 

Itt. p'^' towarde y^ repaire of S*' Albons 
Church more than was collected 



* Coffins at this period were only used by the rich for actual interment, but 
it was usual in some districts for the parish, not only to provide a bier, but also 
a coffin with a loose lid, in which the corpse was carried from the house into 
the church, and removed at the edge of the grave. 



46 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

Itt. j/ ffor three new bellropes ... ... vj'- 

Itt. p'*' for bread & wine for Easter daie . . . iij'- ix"*- 

Itt. gevin Ihon Swane ffor going to Asliby 

ffor wine aginst Easter day ... , iij''- 

1 6 1 4. Itt. p"^- to James Meacock for killing of three 

foxes ... ... ... ... ... 2'^- 

Itt. p**- for whitleather for lohn Swanne to 

make Baldrocks of ... ... ... 2o''- 

Itt. P''- lohn Johnson for amending the 

weathercock shaft and nails ... ... ^'^■ 

Itt. p''' to Humfrey Wetton for killing cer- 

tayn foxes ... ... ... ... i^- 5''- 

Itt. p''- to James Meacock his man for 

killing two urchins ... ... 4''- 

Itt. p''- to lohn Hollis for killing a Badgger 6^- 

Itt. p'^- to James Meacock for 3 strikes of 

Lime ... ... ... ... ... g"^ 

[Ringing on 5 Nov : & the Curfew men- 
tioned. 
Three payments for Bread & Wine 
for Holy Communion.] 

1615. Itm. geven to one y' had bene Robd by the 

high waye ... ... ... ... 2'^- 

Itm. geven to one y* was sicke had 

bene at the Bath* 6"^- 

Itm. payd for killing of vj vrchins to Tho. 

Hopkins S"*- 

[Three trees bought for the seats.] 
Received of the Ladye ferrers Executors 

that was geven for the repayre of the 

seates ... ... ... ... ... iij"- 6'- S"*- 

1616. Read to Gilberd Radford for a bagers head i'- 
[Many " urchins " killed, the churchwar- 
den himself killing one & taking his two 

pence. Foxes heads paid for at 6'^- each.] 

* This and like entries probably refer to the baths of the neighbouring town 
of Ashhy-de-Ia-Zoiich, which were of ancient repute. 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 47 

1617. Ite. p''- vnto Richarde Swanne for a Hedge- 

hogge's headde ... ■• ••• •-• 2' 

1618. [Urchins, foxes and badgers killed.] 

1619. [Seventeen urchins killed & paid for this 

year.] 

1620. Ite. geeven to a man that came to looke 

on the Bell iiij''- 

Ite. when I went to nothingam for the Bel 

founder for my charges ther ... ... x^- 

Ite. geeven in ernest to him ... ... vj'*' 

Ite. for his horse greas ... ... iij'*' 

Item, paid to the Bellfounder for casting 

our littel Bell 3" six'- viij'*' 

Ite. for mettel over and above the weight 

it waid 20 eght pound ten pence the 

pond of the ould Bell 20 3'- iiij"^- 
Item for casting toow new bra,sses of our 

one mettell and toow pound and a halfe 

moer ... ... ... ... ... if viij''- 

Ite. geeven and spent in ale of the worke- 

men ... ... ... ... ... xiiij** 

Ite. to John Cantrill and ourselves for earr- 
ing the Bell to nottingam ... ... xij'- 

It. paid for Thomas Swanne super at 

nottingam ... ... ... ... vj'' 

Ite. when wee tooke downe the bell and 

when we loded it spent in ale*... ... vj"*- 

1621. [The "urchins'' had a bad time of it as 

usual.] 
It. for the Sirpelis ... ... ... ... xxxvj'- x''- 

1622. [Charges for bread & wine five times.] 



* This small bell has been subsequently recast or sold. The tower now 
contains two of the three old bells which were scheduled in 1612, and which 
are finely lettered specimens of pre-Reformation date. There are three other 
bells of the year 1792, cast by Arnold of Leicester, as afterwards chronicled in 
these notes. 



48 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

Ite. p'^- the Vintner for sweetning the tounes 

bottell ... ... ... ... ... o o 2 

1623. Ite. geaven to John Swann for ringinge at 

the Cominge of the prince * ... ... vj**- 

It.' geaven to two criples y' travelled to y^ 

bath for help ... ... ... ... vj**- 

1624. Ite. received of M"'- Benskin for repaireinge 

the churche concerninge the buriall of 

his sister ... ... .., ... ... iij'- iiij"* 

1625. Ite. p''- for two bookes for the fastet ... ij'^' iiij'*' 
Ite. p'^- for a booke of publique thanksgive- 

inge ... ... ... ... ... xij"*- 

[Eighteen " urchins " paid for this year.] 

1626. Ite. received of M'- Benskyn for breaking 

the church floure where his wife was 

buryed ... ... ... ... ... iij' iiij''' 

Ite. geiven to goodman Ragge for his 

paines coming to see the Bell frame ... xij^' 

Ite. geiven Johnson in earnest of his bar- 

gaine ... ... ... ... ... vj"*- 

Ite. p"* Robt. Green to buy Besse Harrison 

a paire of shoes ... ... ... ... ij'- 

Ite. p**- Glasser for worke as appeares parte. xxiij'- 

[Repairs at steeple & weather cock. 

Forty urchins killed this year.] 

1627. [Receipts as in former years made up of a 

levy upon " livinges " and another of i''- 
upon "cattell," & "4'^ a skore of 
sheepe." ] 

* Prince Charles visited the Midlands in the autumn of 1622, and is said to 
have stopped a night at Bretby Castle ; hence he would probably pass through 
Hartshorn. 

t This fast was the one petitioned for by the majority of the Parliament that 
met in the winter of 1623-4. Hitherto, in James I's. reign, a small minority 
had always petitioned for a General Fast to inaugurate the opening of Parlia- 
ment, and the sensible answer had been returned that the Church always 
appointed a weekly fast, viz. : on Fridays. But now the majority, being 
Puritan, pressed the point, and the King and Bishops thought it best to give 
way, though there was no national calamity. 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 49 

The totall some of our wholle receiptes as 

by our pticulars dothe appeare is ... x" iiij'- v**- 

1627. Ite. p"^ my chardges to Darby e 4"" of Maye 

touching presentmente of our church *... xij**- 

[And other charges there on 9"" May on 

the same business.] 
Ite. p"* M^- Brandrithe for writeinge a 

letter to our pishioners for giveinge time 

to repaire church... ... ... ... viij''- 

Ite. p^ for my chardges 30"' of Maye in goo- 

inge to Newboroughe to buye Shingles... xx*- 

Ite. p^ for 1 2 hundred of shingles for the 

churche xxxvj'- 

Ite. p'^ for 2 Carts for carriage of them ... xij^ 

Ite. p^ for my chardges myself & horse 

nighte and daye and for a guide over the 

water if- iiij"* 

Ite. p**- for lyme to repaire decayes in the 

churche ... iij^ iiij'^ 

Ite. p*- goodman Plante for paintinge the 

churche ... ... ... ... ... xl^ 

Ite. p**- goodman Johnson for makinge a 

frame for the paintinge of the kinges 

amies for wood workmanshippe and nailes vij'- vj"^- 

Ite. p**- the workers which laide the shingles 

for 9 dayes woorke thone at i6'*- p daye 

and thother att I2''- p. same daye ... xxj^ 

Ite. geven them to Berriaget ... ... iiij'*' 

Ite. p"*- lohn Swanne for candles to ringe 

Curfur' for the time appointed ... ... v"*- 

[Total payments ;^ii 4 8J. So due to 

Wardens ;^i o 3^.] 



* Hartshorn Church was presented at the Archdeacon's Visitation of 1626, 
for '■ roofes very decayed & perrillous." 
+ i.e. for Beverage, or drink money. 

7 



5Q- PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

1 6 -J 8. Ite. for ale for Richard Sheppeard and his 
men and others when the drew wood into 
the topp of the steeple ... ... ... iiij''- 

Ite. for mending the weathercocke shaft 

and iron that was laid upon it ... ... j'- vj*^ 

Ite. paide to Richard Sheppeard for worke 
done about the topp of the steeple ... vij'"- 

Imp'- for i6 stone and 1 3"- of lead att ij"- 

and I ''■ the stone.. ... . xxxv"- iiij** 

Ite. for sixe pound of Soyder ... ... vj"- 

[Many payments about the steeple.] 

Ite. paid lohn Jonson for mending a bell 

wheel and hanging vp the great bell ... iiij"' 

1629. Ite. given to Contarinus Peleologus y" 

grecian ... ... ... ... ... 020 

It. for bread &: ale at the bringinge of the 

tymbre for the bell frame ... ... o o 10 

It. for a pulpit cushion ... ... ... o 9 10 

It. to Edward Heywood for makinge the 

desk for the pulpit ... ... ... o 2 6 

It. to lohn Cantrell fees & expences who 
was cited about the bellframe beinge 
decayed 036 

It. to the clarke for ringing the 5"' novem- 

ber ... ... ... ... ... 008 

It. p"^- Tho. Swann for helpinge to vnloade 
the tymber for the bellframe & to lay it 
together ... ... ... ... ... o o 4 

It. for court fees & expences when we were 

cyted about a newe Comion booke ... o 2 8 

It. p""- Jo: Bate whoe made the newe bell- 
frame ... ... ... ... ... II o o 

It. p'^- him more for carriage of the bell 
wheeles mendinge the bell brasses & a 
woodden baldrock ... ... ... o 3 6 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 



SI 



[t. geven for a beverige when he reared the 

bellframe & his man 
p*"- for bread & ale at sevall tymes when 

the frame & bels were drawne up into 

the steeple 
[t. p"^- for the castinge of the bell brasses & 

for newe brasses put to them ... 
[t. p''- lohn Johnson for mendinge the quire 

& pulpit beinge a day & an halfe 
:. p"*- for a newe Comunion booke 
[Sixteen hedgehogs killed and paid for this 

year.] 
[te. our Charges att Repingdon when we 

were called before the Justices to receave 

directions for the Contayning of Par- 

rishoners w^'in their Owne Parrishes . . . 
[te. p"*- for the Houre glasse & for some 

nailes vsed about the Pulpitt [&c.] 
[te. p''- vnto Henry Plante for varnishinge 

the Pulpitt 

[te. p"*- vnto James Swan w*"** hee laid out for 

the settinge on a claspe w^'' was come of 

the great Bible ... 
[te. p"^- vnto him for makinge two newe 

Bauldrackes 
[te. p''- vnto Lawrence Hill for the Rodds 

to the pulpitt cover w"' a Staple & Cotters 

for itt 

[Twenty-two urchins killed this year.] 
[The bier and lesser church ladder are hung 

up within the church : twelve pence a 

week destributed as dole in bread to the 

poor.] 
1632. Ite. payde for Lavender to James Swan to 

lay the cushion & pulpit cloth ... 



16 



08 



ODD DO II 



000 CO 10 



000 00 06 



52 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

Ite. payde for two bookes of Articles one 

of y^ old Archdeacon and one of y® newe 008 

[The Churchwardens had in hand " this 
present Lowe Sunday " ;^i4 — as " Toune 
Stocke."] 

1633. It. p''- for a wallet to bring bread for the 

poor weeklie ... ... ... ... 00 01 00 

It. p*^- to Thomas Swann for laying shingles 

on the roofe of the church which the 

wind had broken vpp * ... ... ... 00 ooj 06 

It. p*^- for sweetening and washing the 

Serples ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 06 

It. for 4 formes which stand in the Church 

Alleyes ... ... ... ... ... 00 05 04 

1634. [Among the payments — such occur every 

year — to poor people are : — ] 
It. geeven to an Irish gentlewoman ... iiij^- 

It. geeven to a Skottish gentleman that 

had house and wife and all his people 

burned by Rebels in Ireland ... ... iiij''' 

It. geeven for a wip to wip dodges out of 

the church ... ... ... ... ij^- 

It. paide to Edward Hewood for making 

a cover for the font ... ... ... x^' 

It. paide to Robert Cock for whiping the 

doges out of the church .. . ... ... xij** 

[The " Clockhouse " made at a cost of 

20V- & the Clock hammer " set " upon 

the great bell.] 

1634. It. p''- for a corde to draw vpp the ffont 

cover w^'all ... ... ... ... viij''- 

1635. Ite. p"*- vnto Robte Bluddworth for goinge 

to bespeake the Paynter to Doe the 

Clockediall if 

* There must have been a wide-spread and considerable storm in the Mid- 
lands in 1632, for most of the Churchwardens Accounts that I have consulted 
have similar charges for repairs about this date. 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 53 

Ite. p''- unto George Smith for the Clocke 

& setting itt vpp... ... ... ... ij''- xj'- 

' Ite. spent in Beare att the fetchinge itt 
from Swepston & before att another 
Tyme goinge to see itt ... ... ... vj''- 

Ite. p"^- for lead to make the Clocke waights. x'- iij''- 

Ite. p''- for Carryage of itt from Darby ... xx'*' 

Ite. p''- unto James Swan Clarke his quarters 
wages endinge att Midsomer 1635 for 
Ringing Curfurre & Day bell & keepinge 
the Clocke ... ... ... ... v 

Ite. p''- vnto Edward Heawood for finde- 
inge Timber & workemanshippe to make 
& Sett vpp the Rayle about the Com- 
munion Table and the Clarkes seate and 
the Seate over against itt standinge be- 
fore the seate on the south side the 
chancell and the seate standinge in the 
vpp end thereof vnto the south wall of 
the said Chancell ... ... ... ij''- x'- viij'' 

Ite. p"*- unto Tho. Gibson for the carryage 
of thaforesaid Communion Table Rayle 
& Seates from Ticknall ... ... ... ij'- vj''- 

Ite. p'^- unto Tho. Domell for carryinge the 
money collected for the ministers of the 
Palatinate vnto Walton sup Trent ... vj**- 

Ite. p"^- vnto the Clarke for Ringeinge on the 
Gunpowder Treason day the 5"' Novem- 
ber 1635 xij**- 

Ite. p"^- for the Table of Degrees ... ... viij'^- 

Ite. spent att the fetchinge itt from Ashby. ij"^- 

Ite. p'^- for Parchem'^ w'^'' the Terriers of 
the Glebe & Tythe of Smythesby be- 
longinge to our Parsonage were engrossed 
vppon ... ... ... ... ... x**- 



54 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

Ite. p*^- unto M'- George Ullocke for write- 

inge and ingrossinge the aforesaid Terrier viij'- 

Ite. p** for Court ffees att Deliveringe the 
said Terriers into the office att Lichfeild 
and for my owne charges & the charge of 
my horse there & in my Journey thither 
the 2 1 of January 1635 ... ... ... iij"' viij'' 

Ite. p** vnto Henry Plant Paynter for 
payntinge the Clocke Dyall & Doinge 
other vvorke in the church ... ... xx'- 

[Payments to the Poor from alms at Holy 
Communion and from interest on the 
" Toune Stock,"] 

1636. [A short account, badly kept.] 

1637. Ite. George Wetton dwellinge in Newe- 

borowe for 800"" of Shingles viz. 700"" att 
3=- io<^- the C^ & one C" att 3=- 2.^- y= C* 
and alsoe for Certayne Shingles more 
than y'' 800"" w"" 001 10 08 

Ite. p''- for nayles att severall tymes when 
y* Church was Shingled & alsoe when y* 
winde had shaken itt agayne ... . 000 03 oS 

It. for wine spilt Sz: bottle broke ... ... o 5 2 

1638 &: 1639. Ite. p'^- for a Booke to be read y^ 

5"* of Novem. ... ... ... ... 00 01 00 

Itm. p''- M'- Porte for a fflaggon w'^'' hee 

bought for the Towne ... ... ... 00 07 00 

Ite. spent in goeinge y® perambulation 
aboute the Bounds of y'' parrishe being 
2 dayes ... ... ... ... ..- 00 11 00 

Ite. p''- Mathewe Hackett a mason for 
Buildinge y^ Porch to y^ settinge on of y° 
roofe & drawinge y*" Church . . . w'*" 
Lyme on y^ outside of y* walls & settinge 
on two gable courses of stone for w'^'^ hee 
is to have by Bargayne 5'' Soe p'^ him ... 005 00 00 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 55 

[Other payments about the Porch : a But- 
tress at the church end and an arch over 
the church door.] 

Ite. p''' for goeinge over the Trent att 

Walton .. ... ... ... ... oo oo 02 

Ite. Spent goeinge to Litchfeild goeing over 

y* water it beinge out ... ... ... 4 

[The parish had a suit about " Woolsey : " 
query, an Estate in the parish ? ] 

1640. Ite. p'^' for 2 Bookes w''"' came from y' 

Bishopp for y^ ffast to bee kepte. * ... 2 

Ite. p"*' for a ffox heade ... ... ... i 

1 64 1. Ite. geaven thappriter for comniinge w"" the 

order for y^ Thakesgiveinge betwixt Eng- 
land & Scotlande t ... ... ... 00 00 06 

[Many payments connected with the " suit " 
including : — ] 

Itm. p'^- M'- Edwarde Pooterell'our atturney 

att y*" Common lawe his Retayne fee . . . 00 3 04 

Itm. p**- Sir Robte Heathe Sargante att y® 
lawe his ffee makeinge a motion for vs 
att y*" Comm Pleas Barr y' y'' plaintive 
should put his Suggestion by a certayne 
daye ... ... ... ... ... 01 00 00 

Ite. p"*- Rich. Barke & Tho. Swann for 
watchinge on y^ Toppe of y" Steeple on 
a ffast daye :{: ... ... ... ... 00 01 00 

Ite. p"^' Tho : Swanne for watching on Twoe 

ffaste dayes ... ... 00 02 00 

* This was another of the unmeaning Parliamentary Fasts, forced on the 
country at the opening of Parliament on April 13th by a " Committee on 
Religion," and resisted by Archbishop Laud. 

t This refers to the agreement come to between the Parliament of England 
and Scotland, on the former consenting to abandon episcopacy to win the 
latter away from the King. 

+ The observance of the Parliamentary Fasts, upon which all work was 
prohibited, was so much resisted, that the watchers were placed in some parts 
upon the church towers to note and present all who might be seen engaged in 
their fields. 



56 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

1642. [Three celebrations of the Holy Com- 

munion during the year.] 

1643. [A very short account this year.] 

1644. [Four Celebrations of Holy Communion : 

the wine being fetched each time from 
Derby.] 



Several years omitted here. 



1648. 1649 

& 1650. It. payd for 7 quarts of muscadine* for 
Easter day at i^- 6'^' the quart and 'j'^' in 
bread both cost in 1648... ... ... o 11 01 

It. the 3 of ffebuary 1648 for 5 quarts and 
a poynt of muscadine at 18 pence the 
quart and sixpence in bread ... ... o 08 09 

It. the 5"* of August 1649 for the Com- 
munion more than was collected ... o 00 10 

It. payd for 5 quarts of Clarrit wine at 1 2'^- 
the quart and five pence in bread for the 
Comunion the 3"* of March 1649 ••• o 05 05 

[Similar payments of Bread & Wine & 
many gifts to poor people out of Ireland, 
e.g. :— ] 

It. the 20* of December 1684 to one Skydi- 
more that came out of Ireland with a 
Testimonial ... ... ... ... o 00 06 

It. the 27"^ of January 1648 toapooreman 
that came out of Ireland with a certifficat 
by order of M'- Rycharde & M'- John 
Benskin ... ... ... ... ... o 02 06 



* Muscatel, spelt in endless variety of ways by parochial scribes, was a 
sweet wine resembling Canary, frequently used for Holy Communion about this 
period. 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 57 

It. to y* Clarke for washing out of y^ Kings 

Arms ... ... ... ... ... o 00 05 

1 65 1. [There is a receipt attached for 157- col- 

lected in the parish ' ' ffor the p'pogation 
of the Gospell in New England."] 

1652. [Fifteen hedgehogs paid for] 

1653. It. given Jane Pepper and Jane Morre and 

their Companye being 18 travellers in 
number in the presence of M'- Richards 
and by his consent ... ... ... 02 00 

It. I lent Joane Ledam when her husband 
went to leicester with John Benskin for 
horses which was charged out of the 
towne for the States Service ... :.. 3' 00'' 

1654. [Nothing special.] 

1655. [Leaves torn out here.] 

1662. [?] Item p**- for binding the church 

byble ... ... ... ... ... 066 

Item for Carrying the byble to Darbye and 

againe ... ... ... ... ... o i 6 

Item p"*- to John Johnson for mending the 

belles and for a Cover for the fonte ... o 2 8 

Item p*^- to Anne hurste and her Soone for 
going to Ashbye and to Calke halle 
aboute the surples ... ... ... o o 8 

Item p"*- to William Swane for going to 

Calke hall for a surples ... ... ... o o 4 

Item p^- to Will Swane for helping the bell- 
founder for halfe a day ... ... ... o o 6 

Item p*"- for killing of a bager in our leberty. 010 

Item for our accountes writing paper and 

Ink ... ... ... ... ... o I o 

1663. It. payd to Will Swann for Candles & oyle 

for y^ bell & for ringing Curfur ... ... o 01 04 

It. for setting vp y^ paper with y* frame y' 

Concerned matrimony ... ... ... o o i 00 



oo 


oo 


06 


oo 


OI 


06 


oo 


II 


00 



58 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

Payd to y^ Ryngers vpon new year's day for 

ringing ... ... ... ... •■• o 01 00 

It. payd for y^ Hood and to y'' Taylor for 

makeing & charges ... ... ... i 06 08 

1664. Ite. when wee went of perambulation ... 00 01 06 

It. p^ to the paratur for a Cora prayer 

booke for the Nauall (Naval) ffast ... 00 01 06 

It. p"^- for Ringing on the Restored day of 
our kinge... 

It. p'^' for the Booke of Artickles 

Item for a regester Book ... 
i665. 1667. 1668. [Payments in one account : — ] 

It. payd for ringing one y^thankesgiveing day 00 02 o 

It. payd y*" Apparitor for a booke and 
procklamation for y^ fire at london ... 00 01 10 

It. payd to Rych. Sheepey, Appariter for 
cominge for y^ Colection money for y"" 
fire at london & lost his labour ... 00 00 08 

It. payd M'- Stanhope for y= acquittance 
when hee payd on y^ Collection money 
for y^ fire at london ... ... ... 00 00 04 

It. payd for ringing on Christmas day & 

new yeares day ... ... ... ... 00 02 00 

It. given to leuetenant bankes & his wife 
y' was in his late maiesties service by 
ISr- Stanhopes order ... .. ... 00 00 10 

It. payd to John Smedley for mending ye 
Communion table & makeing a new bell 
wheele «S: for setting stayes to y'^ bell 
wheeles ... ... ... ■• ••• 00 08 00 

It. payd to raife owen for 3 basses for y" 

pulpitt &: deske in July 1667 ... ... 00 02 00 

Item, payd the Court ffees for the takeing of 
M'- Ports Excommunication and my own 
for not takeing our oathes although both 
of us were sworne before ... ... 00 03 09 



PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 59 

1669. My charges at the monthly meeting at 

Castle Greasly* 

[" monthly meetings " at other places.] 

1670. [Nothing of interest.] 

167 1. Spent att the Perambulation att the butt- 

house ... ... ... ... ... 00 12 00 

Given to a poore man y' had been a foot 

post ... ... ... ... ... 00 00 02 

1672. [Nothing of interest ; some leaves lost] 

1678. P''- for a booke concering the fast at begin- 

ing of the yeare ... ... ... ... oi 06 

1679. [The payments are, and for other years, in 

two portions — the upper and nether town.] 
16S0. To lohn Hackit for 3 new quinest for y'' 

end of y^ gable of y^ church ... ... 6''- 

There is a second Churchwardens' Book, commencing 1738, 
and terminating, at about the middle of the book, with the year 
181 2. For the first 50 years no particulars, only totals are given ; 
one example is quoted : 

Sep"- 22'^- 1738 lohn Wilkins Churchwarden for 
the Neather-Town of Hartshorn gave up 
his Acc'^ as follows, viz. : — ■ 
Rec""- by Cash ... ... 211 6 

Rec''- by a Double Leavy ... 211 3 
Disbursements ... ... 4 12 i 

Due to the Town ... o 10 8 

The following extracts may be of interest : 
June II, 1746 Mem'^"- We whose hands are here- 
unto subscribed agree to the following 
proposals : — 



* These monthly meetings were probably joint meetings of certain neigh- 
bouring parishes for voluntary united action in supporting the poor and in other 
parochial business. A sort of informal Union Assessment preceded any 
general legislation in that direction by more than a century in some parts of 
England. 

t "Quines," i.e. ridge or crest tiles. 



6o PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

That there shall be nothing alow'd to the 
Breifs. 

That there is nothing to be alow'd for Ring- 
ing the 8 o'clock Bell. 

That there be nothing alow'd for sparrows 
but such as appear in full feather w"" the 
Bodies & for those they shall be alow'd 
2"^- <p- dozen. Everything else excluded. 
1 77 1. 7"' May at a Vestry it was represented that the Rev'' 
William Cant Lord of the manor, The Rev''- Stebbing 
Shaw Rector, Richard Willder one of the Churchwar- 
dens Thomas Richards Esq'-, lohn Mynors Gent. 
Proprietors & owners of Estates in the parish with 
several other Parishioners " being Desirous to Accom- 
modate themselves & other Inhabitants at present un- 
provided with sitting places in the Church of Hartshorn 
aforesaid had entered into a subscription to Erect and 
Build a Gallery at the West-end of the said Church 
facing the Pulpit with a staircase to lead thereunto 15 
feet or thereabout in breadth and 9 feet or thereabout in 
width with Benches and sitting Places therein for the use 
of themselves their Heirs and Assignes and the severall 
persons who shall be Approved of by the Minister and 
Churchwardens for the time Being to sing the Psalms of 
David According to the use of the Church of England, 
and to apply to the Bishops Court of Litchfield for a 
Faculty to carry the said work into Execution . . ." 
1787. W"- Heaton for Whiping the Dogs ... o 5 o 

1789. Paid for one Haughtboy for the Church .. . o 19 o 

1790. Paid for a Haughtboy and Reeds... ... o 19 o 

1 79 1. Paid at the Confirmation at Burton for 34 

Dinners for the Persons attending there 

from Hartshorn at 6''- each ... ... 017 o 

Paid for ale and Porter ... ... ... o 9 o 

1792. June II Expences when treating with M'- 

Arnold about the Bells ... ... ... o 6 o 



PARISH RECORDS OK HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 



6i 



1793- 



1794. 
1796. 

1799. 
1804. 



Paid for 2 letters from Leicester ... ... o o 6 

Turnpike when the old Bell went to Ashby 009 

Carriage of the old Bell to Ashby... ... o 2 6 

Ale at M'- Ravens taking the Church Wall 

down and the old Bell out of the Steeple o 010 

Expences when delivering the Bell at Ashby 010 

July 9. Journey to Leicester Man & Horse 

two days ... ... ... ... ... o 8 6 

16. [Letters from Leicester 3"^- each.] 

22. A man coming from Leicester on ac- 
count of the Bells. Journey & Expences 066 

31. Paid for Ale and Porter the recovering 
the Bells was opened. Ale 12 quarts 
Porter one ... ... ... ... o 5 6 

Paid for ale the same evening 22 Quarts ... o 9 2 

Porter the same time 8 Quarts ... ... o 4 o 

Paid the Leicester Ringers by Order 

Paid for Liquor at their Departure 

Jan. 5. Expences with M"'- Arnold 

Set of strops in the Ringing floor ... 

Jan. 9. Paid to M'- Arnold 

Paid M'- Arnold at various times on ac- 
count of the Bells. See receipts ... 91 09 15 

[,-/^6i 3s. 6|d. of this was raised by voluntary 
subscipttion.] 

July 5. Paid M'- Arnolds Bill on all De- 
mands of account of the Bells ... ... 3 16 o 

Nov. 7. Paid for wood for the floors in the 

Steeple 314 4 

Paid for 5 New Bell Ropes ... ... 012 o 

[Wall built round the Church Yard.] 

Repairing the Case for the Award... ... o o 3 

Paid for new Prayer book for the Church 150 

Aug. 4. Paid W"- Rose for Shoes for Rob' 
Jaques for putting dogs out of the Church 
&c. ... ... ... ... ... o 10 o 



i62 PARISH RECORDS OF HARTSHORN, DERBYSHIRE. 

[Same in 1805, in 1806, and in subsequent 
years.] 
1801. Paid M'- Ingle for a new Surplice & making 2108 
1805. Paid M'- Stenson for Parchment & Copy of 
the Registers and 2 Terriers of the Rec- 
tors Land ... ... ... ... i 5 6 

1 8 ID. Feb. 17. Paid for a new Register Parch- 
ment Leaves ... ... ... ... iii 6 

Paid for a new Book of Common prayer for 

Church ... ... ... ... ... 2 o o 

Feb. 24. Paid M'- Tetley's Bill for wood 

and work to the Pulpit ... ... ... 6 5 8 

Ap. 16. Paid for 5 new Bell ropes ... i 5 o 

181 2. [The last account closes with ^3 9s. 8|d. 
in hand.] 



63 



its 3lcatr iEmins, 



By William Webb, M.D. 




|IRKSWORTH is a town of considerable antiquity. 
It derives its name from two Anglo-Saxon words* 
weorc, work, and weorthig, land or estate, which 
mean a work or labour estate, and it is stated on the authority 
of Camden to have received this name by reason of the neigh- 
bouring lead works. The use of the word tor, rock, a word 
believed to be of Phoenician origin, has led some authorities 
to believe that the Phoenicians and ancient merchants of Gaul 
traded in Derbyshire, as they are known to have done in counties 
adjacent to the coast. It may be said very safely that the work of 
lead mining has been pursued in Derbyshire from time immemo- 
rial. Lead miners are constantly in their workings coming upon 
old grooves, or works, which they call the "old man," meaning 
thereby that the works were wrought in a large majority of instances 
in the distant ages of the past ; but when or by whom history tells 
not. 

At the Norman survey, Werchesuorde (Wirksworth) had a priest, 
a church, and sixteen villanes, and nine bordars, having seven 
ploughs. Historians tell us that the manor was the property of 
the King ; although the neighbouring hamlets of Bradebune 
(Bradburne) and Bratizinctun (Brassington), were possessed by 

* Derbyshire Archseological Society's Journal, vol. ii., page 70. 



64 EARLY HISTORY OF WIRKSWORTH AND ITS LEAD MINING. 

Henry de Ferrers, and Bdidene (Ballidon) by Ralph Fitzhubert. 
This may have been the origin of the title, "The King's Field." 
It formed at this period a part of the Wapentake of Hammenstan. 
In the reign of King John, Wirksworth passed from the Crown to 
William de Ferrers, Earl of Derby. It subsequently became a part 
of the Duchy of Lancaster, and has continued so to the present 
time. 

Long before the Norman Conquest, lead mining must have been 
carried on in the district of Wirksworth, for in the year 1777* 
there was found on Cromford Moor, a foot from the surface of the 
ground, a pig of lead bearing an inscription as follows : f 

No I. 



\¥A P C#^ 1. S V^ K ^ R\ /^l^\I^^^ av^l.'t\MA\ 




It weighed i261bs., and was believed to have been cast about 
A.D. 130. A second pig of lead was discovered in 1783, at 
Matlock, which was presented to the British Museum by the late 
Adam Wolley, Esq., as was the one found at Cromford, probably 
by the Nightingale family. The second pig was lettered as 
below : — 




This pig weighed 84lbs. A third pig of lead was found on 
Matlock Moor in 1787, having upon it the following inscription : — 
TI. CL. TR. LVT. BR. EX. ARG. 



* Gough's " Camden," vol. v., p. 369. 
t Lettering after Lysons — Magn. Brit., vol. v., p. ccvi. 



EARLY HISTORY OF WIRKSWORTH AND ITS LEAD MINING. 65 

These inscriptions will be better interpreted by some of the 
archaeologists present at this meeting. I will simply remark that 
Pegge makes out the first to mean — " The sixth legion inscribes 
this in memory of the Emperor Hadrian ;" and the second — "The 
property of Lucius Aruconus Verecundus, lead merchant of 
London." Now it is not at all likely that the sixth legion would 
use a pig of lead as a memorial to an Emperor, and therefore the 
explanation given by Lysons '•' as to the meaning of the letters 
" LVT " in these inscriptions forms a more ready solution of the 
difficulty. He believes these letters to refer to " Lutudarum," the 
Roman station next to Derwentio, and which is believed to have 
been the site of the town of Chesterfield.t The inscription on 
pig of lead No. i would therefore mean " the pig was cast from 
works belonging to the Emperor Caesar Hadrian Augustus, from 
the metallic district of Lutudarum;" on pig No. 2, "Lucius 
Aruconus Verecondus, from the metallic district of Lutudarum ; " 
and on pig No. 3, " A Tribute to Tiberias Claudius from the 
Mines in the British Lutudarum." Be this explanation accurate 
or not, the lettering on these pigs of lead found in the latter part 
of the last century, and just 100 years ago, in different parts of the 
Wapentake of Wirksworth, affords conclusive evidence of the great 
antiquity of lead mining in this part of Derbyshire, and of the 
absolute certainty that it was pursued here during the Roman 
occuption of Great Britain, and probably before the Christian 
era ; indeed, Derbyshire is said by some authorities to be referred 
to by Pliny when he wrote, " In Britain, on the surface of the 
ground, lead is dug up in such plenty, that a law was passed to 
stint them to a set quantity." If. 

That the lead mines were energetically worked during the Saxon 
period we are assured by the following circumstances : — 

I. From the fact that a mine near to Castleton is called Odin, 
after one of their gods. 2. Eadburga, Abbess of Repton (to 



* Magn. Brit., vol. v., p. ccvii. 

t Mr. Watkins, in another paper of this volume of the Transactions, argues 
.j^ for the identity of Lutudarum with Wirkswojth. 
B' X Camden. 

b 



66 EARLY HISTORY OF WIRKSWORTH AND ITS LEAD MINING. 

which monastic institution the lead mines of Wiiksworth appear 
to have belonged at this time), sent from Wirksworth, a.d. 714, 
a leaden coffin in which to bury St. Guthlac, Prior of Croyland 
Abbey, and formerly a monk at Repton. 

3. Kenewara, also Abbess of Repton, gave the estate at Wirks- 
worth, A.D. 835, to Humbert, the Alderman, on the condition that 
he gave lead to the value of three hundred shillings, to Archbishop 
Colenoth, for the use of Christ's Church, Canterbury. 

4. From the name Bergmote (A. S.) being applied to the Court 
for the trial of mineral disputes. 

That the mines were worked after the Norman Conquest is 
proved by a survey, still, I believe, in the possession of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, of Peveril Castle, made in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, who greatly encouraged mining operations by inviting skilled 
workmen from abroad ; and this survey describes tlie castle as 
being covered with lead. As it was built in the reign of the 
Conqueror, it is more than probable that the lead used in its con- 
struction was obtained from Derbyshire mines ; in fact, Domesday 
Book mentions the working of three lead mines at Wirksworth, one 
at Crich, one at Ashford, one at Bakewell, and one at Metesford, 
a manor in the neighbourhood of Matlock. 

Perhaps you will not consider it out of place if I refer to 
important discoveries, although not connected in any way with 
lead mining, during the cutting of the road called Via Gellia 
through the estate of the Cells, of Hopton. This road was made 
in 1791-2. 

There were found : — (Plate III.) i. An iron head of a 
spear. 2. The head of an arrow. 3. An iron dagger. 4,5. Two 
iron spear heads (Plate IV.) 6. A marble spear-shaped instru- 
ment supposed to have been used for examination of the victims 
sacrificed by the Druids. All these six ancient implements 
or weapons were found between Hopton Moor and Ible, but 
the most remarkable discovery of all during the making of this 
road was (7). An urn found in a large barrow at Abbot's Low, near 
Hopton. The inscription upon the stone which covered this urn* 



" Archeeologia," vol. xii., p. 2. 



PLATE m. 




. If, Iron luad. vfa Sp,-,u- An Iron nan,,.r. 



A llurd Inm heati iifa.'ipeui- 



'RON SPEAR HEADS FOUND IN THE VIA CELLIA 1791-2 
PHOTO. LITHO. FROM THE ARCH/50L0GIA VOL.XII. PL. I . 



PLATE 17. 




EARLY HISTORY OF WIRKSWORTH AND ITS LEAD MINING. 67 

was supposed at first to indicate the following, viz. : — Gellius 
PrcBfedus Cohortis Tertia Legionis QiihitcR Brittanica ; but as the 
fifth Legion was never in Britain, Horsley * considers that the 
sixth Legion is implied thus : — Legio Sexta Vicfrix, the word 
" Legio " signifying the sixth Legion and the V, Victrix 
or Victrices. " It is also remarkable," writes Mr. Hayman 
Rooke, " that the Pr^efect's name should be Gellius, and that the 
urn which contained the ashes should be deposited in a barrow on 
Mr. Gell's estate." Mr. Rooke's original drawings of this, as well 
as of many other Derbyshire antiquities, are now in the possession 
of Mr. E. Cooling, jun., a member of this Society. The urn was 
full of burnt bones and ashes, and was covered by the stone before 
mentioned. 

Let us now proceed to consider some of the mineral lav.'S and 
customs of the Wapentake of Wirksworth — in every part of which 
any subject of the Crown may " dig and delve " in search of lead 
ore without asking leave of or giving any payment to the owner of 
the land upon which he works — churchyards, highways, orchards, 
gardens, &c., being excepted. Manlove, a former steward of the 
Barmote, thus explains it in doggerel rhyme : — 

By custom old in Wirksworth Wapentake, 
If any of this nation find a rake, 
Or sign, or leading to the same, may set 
In any ground, and there lead ore may get. 

They may make crosses, holes, and set their stowes, 
Sink shafts, build lodges, cottages and coes. 
But churches, houses, gardens, all are free 
From this strange custom of the minery. f 

The Barmote Court (originally spelled Berghmoot), which is 
held twice a year in this Moot Hall, is presided over by a steward, 
and there are also other officers, viz., a Barmaster (or Bergh- 
master). Deputy Barmasters, and jurymen. The Barmaster is the 
ofiicer who looks after the Lord's dues, who gives possession to 
new ventures in the mineral field, and who, assisted by his de- 
puties in the different parts of the Wapentake, sees that all the ore 



* "Britannia Romana," p. 200. 
t " Liberties and Customs of the Lead Mines," by E. Manlove, 1653. 



68 EARLY HISTORY OF WIRKSWORTH AND ITS LEAD MINING. 

is measured in dishes which correspond with the dish you now see, 
and which is always kept chained in this hall. This dish (Plate V.) 
has upon it the following inscription : — 

This dishe was made the iiij day of Octobr, the iiij yere of the reigne of Kyng 
Henry the VIII. before George Erie of Shrowsesbury steward of ye Kyng's 
most honourable household, and also steward of all the honour of Tutbery by 
the assent and consent as well of all the Mynours, as of all the Brenners, 
within and adjoyning the lordship of Wyrkysworth percell of the said honour. 
This dishe to remayne in the Moote Hall at Wyrkysworth, hanging by a cheyne, 
so as the Merchantes or Mynours may have resorte to the same at all tynies to 
make the tru mesur aft. the same. 

The word Bergmote means an assembly upon a hill (from A.S. 
Berg — gemote), just as the word Witenagemote means an assembly 
of the Witan or wise men ; and Bergmaster means a master or 
superintendent of the mines. 

The dues to the Crown have been let on lease certainly since 
the reign of Edward IV., and probably for a longer period. The 
Arkwright family have been the lessees for four generations. 

The working miners and the mineral proprietors in the Wapen- 
take pay dues, which are known by the terms lot and cope. Lot 
signifies every thirteenth dish of ore, and cope 4d. or 6d. (accord- 
ing to the locality) for every lode, or nine dishes of ore ; moreover, 
all mines in the parish of Wirksworth pay to the vicar every fortieth 
dish as tithe. This was in former days as much as one in ten ; 
but as litigation was of frequent occurrence, this was commuted in 
1778 to one in forty by agreement made between the Rev. Richard 
Tillard, vicar of Wirksworth, of the one part, and the miners and 
maintainers of the other part. When a miner has searched and 
found ore in any land, he gives a dish to the Lord to free the 
mine ; but to get title and possession he applies to the barmaster, 
who, with at least two of the jury, marks out two meers of ground, 
each containing twenty-nine yards. 

The Barmaster (Bergmaster) was formerly the coroner of the 

mines, and he it was who investigated all cases of sudden death 

which occurred in them — 

If by perchance a miner damped be 

Or on the mine be slain by chance medley, 

The Berghmaster or else his Deputie 

Must view the corps before it buried be, 

And take inquest by jury who shall try 

By what mischance the miner there did die.* 

* Manlove. 



EARLY HISTORY OF WIRKSWORTH AND ITS LEAD MINING. 69 

The following curious record of a verdict in 1761 may not be 
uninteresting : — 

March 26, 1761.* 
We whose names are under written being this day summoned by Mr. Edward 
Ashton, Barmaster for the Liberty of Biassington to a groove called by the 
name of the Throstle next to Brassington Pasture to enquire into the cause of 
death of T. W., now lying before us: accordingly we have been down the 
shaft to the foot thereof, and down one .Sump or Turn to the foot thereof, and 
on a gate northwardly about sixteen yards to the Forefield, where the de- 
ceased had been at work : and by the information we have from William 
Briddon who was working near him, it appears to us that a large stone fell 
upon him out of the roof, and it is our opinion that stone was his death. 

Then follow the signatures of Thomas Slack and eleven other 
jurymen. This part of his office has, since the new Mineral Act, 
been relegated to the coroner of the district. 

Before this period some offences connected with the mines were 
punished with great severity. The stealing of lead ore was one of 
these, and upon clear proof of this crime having been committed, 
the offender on the first and second convictions was fined accord- 
ing to the gravity of the offence ; but if he were convicted a 
third time, then (it will scarcely be believed now to have been 
possible) he must submit to have his hand transfixed by a knife 
and fixed in this way to the stowes or supports for the windlass at 
the top of the mine, and to keep it there till either he tore his 
hand away or death ended his sufferings, and moreover, according 
to the old rhyme, his sufferings lasted for life. 

And shall forswear the franchise of the mine, 
And always lose his freedom from that time. 

In conclusion, the lead ore was in former days smelted in holes 
on the tops of hills which had generally a westerly aspect. These 
were termed boles. Wood and lead ore were placed in these holes 
and ignited during a westerly wind. Hence the name of Bole 
Hill, near Wirks worth, and in other districts of the Peak. 



* Hardy's "Compleat Miner," 1762. 



7° 



Sl&e l^oman stations of IPcrtigsljite. 



By W. Thompson Watkin. 




IKE the counties of Oxfordshire, Rutland, and Corn- 
wall, Derbyshire, and the Roman Roads and Stations 
it contained, finds no place either in the Itinerary 
of Antoninus, the Geography of Ptolemy, or the Noiitia Imperii. 
The Pentingerian Tables (or rather the fragments of them we 
possess) do not extend so far into the country, and consequently 
the only guide we have as to the position Derbyshire held 
during the epoch of the Roman occupation of Britain, is the 
anonymous work generally called the Chorography of Ravennas, 
written, as far as can be gathered, in the sixth century of the 
Christian era. 

In the present paper, I propose to treat only of the five chief 
Roman Stations in the county, reserving the temporary camps, 
details of the roads, discoveries of hoards of coins, and miscel- 
laneous articles, until some future occasion. 

Until the year 1777, no clue had with any certainty been 
found as to the names of any of these Stations, though it was 
strongly suspected that the castruvt existing at Little Chester, 
represented the Derbentio of Ravennas. But between that year 
and 1783 three pigs of lead were found, two on Matlock Moor, 
and a third on Cromford Moor, bearing Roman inscriptions. 
In these inscriptions the abbreviations LVT., MET. LVT., and 
METAL. LVTVD., occurred, which at once threw light upon 
the approximate situation of the station named Lutudae by 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 7 1 

Ravennas, confirmed by his placing Derbentio next to it on 
his list. 

But the plainest way of stating the case is to let Ravennas 
speak for himself. After naming Deva (Chester) he gives the 
names of the following stations between that city and Ratae 
(Leicester) : — Veratino, Lutudarum, Derbentioiie, Salinis, Con- 
date. Again, between Lindiim Colonia (Lincoln) and Mantio 
(Manchester) he names this other list of stations, Bannovallum, 
Navione, Aquis, Arjienieza, Zerdotalia. Taking the first series, 
S-ilinae and Condate appear to be respectively at Castle North- 
wich, and Kinderton, in Cheshire, whilst Veratinuin, though 
its site is at present doubtful, was probably at Wilderspool, near 
Warrington. Tiiere then remain Lutudae and Derbentio. The 
antiquaries of the early part of this century, amongst them the 
Rev. D. Lysons, Sir H. Ellis, Mr. Bateman, and Mr. Albert May, 
concluded from the inscriptions on the pigs of lead that Lutudae 
was at Chesterfield. 

But that Chesterfield is the site of this station seems to me 
more than doubtful. No traces of Roman circumvallation or 
of buildings have been found there. True that Dr. Pegge in 
a private letter to Major Rooke states that two Roman urns were 
found in 1790, in excavating (or foundations of buildings on 
the south side of the Market Place." True that the same 
author had a second brass coin of Claudius found there in 1720, 
and that Mr. Hardy, of Nottingham, had a third brass of 
Valerian also found there.t It seems likewise certain that in 
1820, a third brass of the Constaiitinopolis type was found in 
an old garden near High Street; that in 1822, a second brass 
of Trajan was found in digging a grave in the churchyard ; that 
in 1832, a silver coin of Trajan was found whilst repairing gas- 
pipes in the High Street; and that in 1836, a second brass of 
Maximianus was found in a garden at the bottom of Lord's 
Mill Street ; % but these do not indicate the long continued 

* Bateman " Vestiges Antiq. of Derbyshire," p. 164. 

t "Bib. Top. Biit.," Pt. xxiv. p. 29. 
X Bateman "Vestiges Antiq. of Derbyshire," p. i6i. 



72 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

residence of a Roman population, and especially of a mining 
one. They are just what might be expected to be found in 
the vicinity of a Roman Road, and the Ryknield Street has 
been traced to the neighbourhood of Tapton (or Tupton) Hill, 
near which the town is situated. In Leland's "Collectanea" 
(Vol I., p. 276), it is said that in 1266, Robert de Ferrars was 
taken prisoner apud castmm de Chesterfelde, and in the Chester- 
field Parish Register of a.u., 1605, Tupton Castle is mentioned. 
It is therefore quite possible that some future discovery may 
be made of a Roman Station on Tapton Hill. It has been 
pointed out by Mr. Pegge, that the oldest parts of the town 
are " about the Church, Tapton Lanehead, and Holywell 
Street," also that the present Market Place is styled in the 
old Chartulary of Beauchief Abbey, the New Market Place. 

So far as the present evidence goes, the site oi Lutudae would 
seem to be nearer Wirksworth. Let us first take the inscribed 
pigs of lead found, and consider the purport of their epigraphic 
evidence. In April, 1777, on Cromford Nether Moor, in the 
parish of Wirksworth, a pig of lead was found, described in the 
" Archseologia " (Vol. V , p. 369), by Dr. Pegge, and which is now 
in the British Museum. It is 22 inches in length, 5^ inches 
in width, and weighs 127 lbs. The inscription is 

IMP . CAES . HADRIANI . AVG . MET . LVT. 

The second pig found in Derbyshire, also described in the 
first instance by Pegge, was discovered shortly before October, 
1783, in "ridding" some ground near Matlock Bank, on 
Matlock Moor, during the inclosure of some common land. 
It lay at the depth of a few inches only, and was covered by 
a large stone. Like the other, it is now in tlie British Museum. 
Whilst 2i| inches long, and 4^ inches wide, it is by no means 
so thick as the first named pig, and weighs only 83 lbs. Its 
inscription is 

L . ARVCONI . VERECVNDI . METAL . LVTVD. 

Close to where this pig was found, the remains of a smelting 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 73 

hearth, with heaps of rubbish, were discovered, as if the pig had 
been cast on the spot. 

The third of the Derbyshire inscribed pigs was found in April, 
1787, near Matlock, and was described by Pegge in the "Archse- 
ologia" (Vol. IX., p. 45). Whilst the one last described appeared 
to have been cast in nine or ten layers, this one was said to 
consist of about thirty layers, " as if smelted at so many different 
times." It weighed 173 lbs., was 17^ inches long on the inscribed 
side, and 20 inches on the other, 6i inches wide, and 4f in thick- 
ness. Its inscription was— 

TI . CL . TR . LVT . BR . EX . ARG. 

After a vast amount of discussion of these inscriptions by anti- 
quaries, the opinions of Dr. McCaul (author of " Britanno Roman 
Inscriptions "), and Professor Hiibner, of Berlin, are those which 
are generally recognised as yielding the correct translation. 
In the main these two antiquaries agree, though there are some 
slight differences of construction. 

The first inscription is expanded by Dr. McCaul — /w/(eratoris) 
Caes{ans) Hadriani Aiigi^i'sXx) Met(i}X\%) Z;//'(udensibus). Dr. 
Hiibner reads the two last words as .^/^/(allorum) Z2^/(u(lensium). 
He gives the last word with a query. The sense in either case, 
as far as the translation is concerned, is that the pig belonged to 
the Emperor Hadrian, and tliat it was of Lutudensian metal. 
The mines may either have been worked by the Roman govern- 
ment, or if leased to private individuals, a certain amount of the 
lead produced was held as tribute for the Emperor, in which case 
this block would be a portion of the said tribute. 

The second inscription Dr. McCaul expands Z(ucii) Arttconi(i) 
Verecimdi Mefal{\is) Ztitud(ensibus) , thus agreeing with his con- 
struction of MET . LVT. in the first inscription. Dr. Hiibner's 
reading is the same, with the exception that he also adheres to his 
construction of MET . LVT. in the first-mamed inscription, again 
expanding it as iJ/<f/a/(lorum) Zu/ud{ens'mm). This pig was from 
a private mine, its owner being Lucius Aruconius Verecundus. 

The third inscription is read by Dr. McCaul 7/'(berii) C/(audii) 



74 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

7>(ophimi) (or Trajani) Lut{ . . .) ^/-(itannicum) ex. rt'ro-(entaria) ; 
by Dr. Hiibner 7}'(berii) C/(audii) 7>(ophimi ?) Zz^/(udense ?) 
^r(itannicum) ex «r^(ento). 

This shows that the pig was like the last-named, from a private 
mine belonging to Tiberius Claudius Trophimus. Dr. McCaul 
leaves the expansion of the proper adjective in abeyance, as he 
admits he cannot give the correct version of the Latinised form. 
Dr. Hiibner expands it doubtfully as Liitudense. Both agree 
that it was from the British Lutudae, but whilst Dr. McCaul avers 
that ex. argentaria, which he renders as meaning that the lead 
contained silver, is the proper expansion of ex arg., Dr. Hiibner 
asserts that ex argento, meaning that the silver had been extracted 
from it, is correct. 

But whatever may be the correct reading, it is certain that all 
of these pigs of lead found between Matlock and Wirksworth 
bear in an abbreviated form the name of Lutudae. Mr. Bateman 
also tells us (p. 135) that "besides these inscribed pigs of lead, 
others of a similar form, without the important accompaniment of 
a legend, have been discovered in the neighbourhood of Wirks- 
worth. From the similarity of shape, the presumption is strongly 
in favour of their Roman origin ; " and at p. 159, when speaking of 
Oker Hill, Darley in the Dale, where he says 3rd brass coins of 
Gallienus, Postumus, Tetricus, Claudius Gothicus, etc., besides 
other Roman remains were found, he adds that, "In 1846, a pig 
of lead, of the Roman shape, was dug up near some ancient 
mineral works on the hill." 

We have also the evidence of Roman interments, with a portion 
of an important inscription (hereafter to be described) found in 
the last century at Hopton, which is only one and three quarter 
miles from Wirksworth, that a station of some kind must have 
existed in the neighbourhood ; and I think there can be no doubt 
that it bore the name oi Lutudae. We have no such evidence at 
Chesterfield, and should the remains of a station ever be brought 
to light there, they will probably be those of some other town 
named by Ravennas. 

The station Derbentio, named next in the list by Ravennas, is 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 75 

SO plainly the Roman ^«^/;-«/// on the eastern bank of the Derwent, 
about half-a-mile from Derby, and from which that town took its 
name, that little or no doubt has ever been expressed on the 
subject. It is now much obliterated, but in 1721, Dr. Stukeley 
" traced the track of the wall all round, and in some places saw 
underground the foundations of it in the pastures, and some vaults 
along the sides." He describes it as being " of a square form, 
and the castrum five hundred feet by six hundred." (This would 
be a parallelogram, with an area of close upon seven acres. — W. 
T. W.) " Within the walls are foundations of houses, and in the 
fields round the castle may be seen tracts of streets laid with 
gravel." By 1829, when Mr. Glover wrote his "History and 
Gazetteer of Derbyshire," these streets had disappeared, though 
he says that a way laid with gravel still divided the station into 
nearly two equal parts, running east and west, whilst a second ran 
from the north-east corner in a direct line across the pastures 
towards Breadsall. He adds in a note (vol. i. p. 293), "When 
Darley Grove was broken up in the year 1820, skeletons, coins, 
and various Roman relics were discovered." The site of the 
station appears to be called Cestre in Domesday, and in the Ash- 
mole MSS. in the Bodleian Library, fo. 201 b., there is (in a MS. 
" Historie of Darbyshire," by Philip Kinder, written circa 1663), 
the following passage : " Little Chester . . . by ye Roman 
monies there found seems to be a colonie of ye Roman souldjers, 
for soe ye name may import from Castrum." Formerly (if not 
now) the remains of the piers of a bridge across the Derwent, 
might, it was said, be seen, when the water was clear, but I have 
not been able to ascertain its exact position. The station is placed 
between the Derwent and the Ryknield Street (which latter runs 
nearly north and south through the county), whilst another road 
from Rocester, in Staffordshire, comes to it on the west ; another 
leads from it east into Notts. ; and another leads north-west to 
Buxton.* 

This station has been very prohfic of coins — Mr. Glover 

* Dr. Pegge states that a fragment of the wall of the station, 5 feet thick, 
was remaining in 1 759, and that a Roman road ran from E. to W., just out- 
side the northern wall. 



76 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

(vol. i., p. 293), says that coins of Vespasian, Trajan, Hadrian, 
Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Crispina, Gordian, Gallienus, 
Postumus, Victorinus, Tetricus, and Carausius, had been found 
before he wrote, which he does not describe, though he says 
they were reported to be of silver, the copper ones being too much 
defaced to be made out. He then adds a list of a number 
found, which he bad seen (and Mr. Bateman repeats the list.) 
They were 2 of Septimius Severus of silver, i of Severus Alex- 
ander of silver, i of Maximinus of silver, 3 of Philip of silver, 
I of Theodora 3rd brass, 3 of Carausius 3rd brass, 18 of the 
Constantine family (i of 2nd brass, 17 of 3rd brass), i Constan- 
tinopolis, I Urbs Roma, and 3 of Magnentius.* 

Mr. Llewellynn Jewitt, in the Ititellectual Observer (Dec. 1867, 
p. 347), says — " At Little Chester, some (coins) in connection 
with human remains, and others scattered about in different 
parts of the station some hundreds of Roman coins have at 
various times been found. In my own possession are con- 
siderably more than a hundred examples from that locality, 
ranging from Vespasian to Arcadius, and including Vespasian, 
Titus, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Faustina senior, 
Marcus Aurelius, Faustina junior, Commodus, Gordianus IH, 
Philippus senior, Volusianus, Gallienus, Salonina, Postumus 
senior, Victorinus senior, Tetricus senior and junior, Claudius 
Gothicus, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius Chlorus, Helena, 
Licinius senior, Constantinus, Maxinius, Constantinus H., 
Constans, Constantius H., Family of Constantine, Magnentius, 
Valens, Arcadius, etc., etc." From this it would appear that the 
station was occupied during nearly the whole period of the 
Roman sway in Britain. In the same volume (pp. 345-6), Mr. 
Jewitt also engraves a fibula, and an iron spear head found at 
the station. 

In the winter of 1873-4, the Rev. S. B. Brasher, late Vicar of 
St. Paul's, Derby, the vicarage of which is at Little Chester, made 

* Gough, in his 1806 edition of Camden's " Britannia," says (vol. ii., p. 419), 
" Mr. Degg showed the Society of Antiquaries, 1721, a coin of Antoninus, rev. 
two hands joined holding a caduceus, COS . III., thrown up by a mole, at 
Derventw, and in 1726, several coins of the Lower Empire." 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 77 

some excavations in a raised bank, which runs along one side 
of the vicarage garden, and which he says was originally more 
than one hundred yards long, I have every reason to think 
this bank is, from the nature of the discoveries made by Mr. 
Brasher, the remains of a large bototitinus which has been nearly 
destroyed. Mr. Brasher only dug into it to the bottom for about 
7 or 8 yards in length. He found it composed of undulating 
layers of gravelly soil, a reddish clay brought from the adjacent 
hills, and black and brown ashes ; also an enormous quantity of 
all kinds of Roman pottery broken into pieces, mostly small, 
quantities of animal bones, some horns, and a few flints, the 
last of which must have been brought from some distance. After 
speaking of the great variety of ware found, Mr. Brasher, says — * 
"What surprises me much is the great number of odd pieces, 
both of the better and the more common ware, especially of 
the former . . . The only complete vessel that I have 
found, is a conical Samian cup, about 2 inches high, and 3^ 
inches in diameter, it was found in three pieces. "t 

Amongst the fragments was the bottom of a "Samian" ware 
vessel, stamped with the maker's name, SAMOGENI. The 
only previous occurrence of this stamp in England had been 
at Cirencester. Another fragment was the rim of a vase, covered 
with a rich brown vitreous glaze. Glazed pottery of the Roman 
period is rare, both in England and on the Continent. 

The whole nature of the bank or mound — the layers of gravel, 
clay, and ashes, different to the soil around — the pottery all 
purposely broken into fragments, the deposit of bones placed 
there, and the, ?^\Vi\.^ purposely brought from a distance, all mark 
the "find" as being that of d. botontinus , or land mark,]: which 
seems further confirmed by Mr. Brasher informing me that he 



* Proc. Soc. of Antiq., vol. vi., 2nd series, p. 120. 

+ With regard to the horns, etc., found, Gough (1806 edit, of Camden's 
" Britannia." vol. ii., p. 419), saj'S, " Coins, e.irthen pipes, brass rings, human 
bones, and stags' horns have been dug up, and the foundations of a bridge may 
be felt in the river, crossing to Darley Hill, which overhangs the town." 

X See Mr. Coote's description of these hotmitini, in his paper on the " Cen- 
turiation of Roman Britain," in " Archseologia," vol. xlii., p. 143, also in his 
work " The Romans of Britain." 



78 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

came upon what he considered a Roman well beneath the bank. 
He says that he opened it to a depth of twelve feet, found it built 
of rough and approximately square or rectangular slabs placed 
edgeways one above another, thus making the " well" square, and 
not round in form. 

I take this well to be a shaft forming an arcafinalis, or Roman 
subterannean landmark, of which numbers have been found. Had 
Mr. Brasher excavated it to the bottom, he would have probably 
found layers of pottery, bones, charcoal, etc., in succession. A 
very similar instance of a boiontinus superimposed upon an ana 
Analis occurs at the " Mote Hill," Warrington, which I have 
described at length in "Roman Lancashire," p. 224-5. 

In 1875 ^ railway was carried through the village of Little 
Chester, it does not invade the camp itself, but sweeps round the 
south-east angle. As it is carried on an embankment, the latler 
has probably precluded us from reaching part of the cemeteries of 
the station which will lie buried beneath it. The only excavations 
necessary during the railway works were for the foundation of the 
piers of a bridge over the road in the village, and they yielded a 
few coins and some pottery, but I have been unable to trace the 
former. 

Mr. Glover tells us that on i6th Sept., 1824, the workpeople of 
Mr. Harrison, digging for the foundation of a wall upon the green 
at Little Chester, found fifteen inches below the surface a skeleton, 
which had around it a thin stratum of an ochre yellow colour, as 
if formed by a decomposed suit of armour, and amongst it several 
rivets were found. Mr. Glover, Mr. Bateman, and Mr. Jewitt, all 
speak of this as a Roman interment— which, however, seems to me 
impossible. There is not, so far as I am aware, another instance 
(in Britain at least) of a Roman soldier having been buried in 
armour. It seems totally at variance with the Roman custom, 
and the slight depth at which the remains were found is another 
(and conclusive) proof that the interment is at least no older than 
the Saxon period, when it was customary to bury a soldier with 
his arms, etc. 

Proceeding now to the second list of stations which I have 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 79 

given, (that between Lincoln and Manchester), Barmovallum is 
most likely in West Lincolnshire or South Yorkshire, I have 
sometimes thought that Templeborough represented it (if that 
place be not Motbiiwi). Navio and Aquae I will now deal with. 

In June, 1862, there was found in a garden, in the occupation 
of Mr. Matthew Lees, near the Silverlands in Higher Buxton,* 
the lower part of an inscribed Roman milestone, formed " of the 
flinty gritstone of the neighbourhood, being similar to the rock at 
the summit of Corbar." From the fact of the commencement of 
the inscription being on the lost portion of the stone, we are 
unable to say which of the Roman emperors was named, but the 
remainder is — 

(TR)IB . POT . CoS. I (I) 

I P . P . ANjyiOIE 

MP . X~ 

I have supplied the TR in the first line, as traces of letters are 
visible at the commencement, which could be no other than TR. 
I have also supplied an I, which is not visible, at the end of the 
line, for COS . I would be contrary to precedent. When an 
emperor had only been consul once, COS without any numeral 
was the u^Vi-aS. formula. Mr. Jewitt reads the line as COS IL, and 
possibly when first found the numerals may have been visible on 
the stone. The letter which seems like an I at the beginning of 
the second line is puzzling, it may possibly be part of an orna- 
mental stop, but putting it on one side, the inscription should be 
read — Tribunitiae potestatis . Co{ti)s(tir) . ii . P{ater) \ P{atriae) A . 
Navione M . P . X-^-a.. In the last hne no numeral is visible but 
the X, though there is an elevated horizontal line after it (as in 
most cases where numerals are used), which would seem to infer 
from the space covered, that II follow^ed, making the line read 
M . P . XII. This stone, marking, as will be seen, twelve miles 
from the station Navio, has lately been re-discovered (after many 

* " Reliquary," vol. iii., p. 207, and " Archceological Journal," vol. xxxiii., 
pp. 49 — 55, where I have described the stone and inscription at length. 

t This is assuming the name of the emperor is in the nominative case, as it 
occasionally is. 



8o THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE 

years search for it by the author) in the possession of Mr. Beres- 
ford Wright, of Wootton Court, Warwick, who has generously 
presented it to the Derbyshire Archaeological Society. 

The question now arises, where was this station Navio, or (as it 
would no doubt be pronounced in Roman times) Nauio, whicli 
was twelve Roman miles from Buxton. Twelve Roman miles 
would be equivalent to about eleven English miles. The place 
where the stone was found is in the angle between the Roman 
roads leading from Buxton to the station at Brough, near Hope, 
and from Buxton to the station at Little Chester. Taking the 
line of the former, we find that Brough is about eleven English 
miles from the spot where the stone was found, and that one of 
the streams adjoining it is called the Noe (probably a corruption 
of Nauio). There is thus a prima facie case that Brough and 
Nauio are one and the same, which seems confirmed by the other 
evidence I shall adduce. 

The station at Brough is a parallelogram of 310 feet north and 
south, by 270 feet east to west. It lies as usual on a Hngula, or 
tongue of land, embracing two fields called the upper and lower 
Halsteads, between two streams called the Bradwal (or Bradwell) 
and the Noe. The latter I have already mentioned, but Bradwell 
(probably originally Broadwall) is a name that occurs on many 
Roman sites. 

Dr Pegge, in his essay on the Coritani {Bib. Top. Brit., part 
xxiv pp. 39, 40), was the first who described any discoveries 
made on the site. He visited it in 1761, "in company with John 
Mander of Bakewell, Esq.," when he was shown "a rude bust of 
Apollo, and of another deity in stone, found in the fields there. 
There had also been a coarse pavement composed of pieces of 
tiles and cement discovered, as also urns, bricks, tiles, in short 
every species of Roman antiquities but coins, of which we could 
not hear that any had been found. However, I saw a very fair 
gold coin (in) 1783, which had been found at Brough Mill. It 
was of Vespasian, and bore in the rev. COS . Ill . FORT . RED. 
J^ig. stans. dextra globum, sinistra caduceum .... In the 
upper one" (the field called the Upper Halsteads) "innumerable 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 8l 

foundations of hewn stone had been ploughed up, and in the 
lower, very near the angle made by the two brooks, are the appa- 
rent marks of an oblong square building., the angles of which were 
of hewn grit-stone, but in the other parts, as between a and b, for 

N 



W 



example, you find fragments of bricks and tiles. At this place the 
pavement above-mentioned was found, and is now there mixed 
with the other rubbish." He adds, there was no doubt that this 
was a Roman building, for among the many baskets full of bricks 
and tiles which he dug up, there was one stamped COH. (This 
he engraves, but it is only the left-hand portion of a tile. 

Whitaker, the historian of Manchester, tells us (" History of 
Manchester," vol. L, p. 197), after describing a stone in the belfry 
of the church at Ilkley — " And at Brough, in Derbyshire, which 
was equally a town of the Romans, in 1767 I saw a stone exhibit- 
ing a somewhat similar figure. It was large and rough, had been 
discovered in a field a little distant from the Gritstone water, and 
then lay in one of the hedges. And ia the bending hollow of one 
side is presented the half-length of a woman, crossing her hands 
on her breast, and wearing a large peaked bonnet on her head," 
etc. ; and at p. 251, in a note, he says that the prcetoriutn at 
Brough " was upon one side, and along the lofty margin of the 
river bank." 

According to Mr. Bateman (p. 153), "In 1773, a tesselated 
pavement, of which the prevailing colours were red and white, 
was discovered at the Halsteads, also many inscribed bricks." 

From Mr. W. Bray's "Tour in Derbyshire," pp. 211, 212 (pub. 

1783), and Gough's 1806 edition of Camden's "Britannia" (vol. 

ii. p. 430), we gather that " many foundations and bricks had 

been ploughed up " in the station, and that urns had been found 

9 



82 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

" on the other side " of the river. The pavements, etc., named 
by Pegge are also noticed ; and then we have the statement, 
" Here also was found a fragment of a Roman pavement " (per- 
haps that named by Mr. Bateman) " and also a fragment of tile 
inscribed OH., part of the word Cohors, a brick 8 inches by yf 
and if thick, with CH fair in the middle, and a broken one with 
C. Mr. Wilson, of Broomhead Hall, Sheffield, has a piece of an 
urn" (another account says part of the rim) "found here 
inscribed 

VI 2S 

VIV 

TR. 

and part of a fine red patera. In a field at the conflux of the 
two streams a double row of pillars is remembered to have crossed 
the point of land, but they have been entirely destroyed some 
time. On the left of a gate by the road side, near the mill, is a 
base and part of a column of grit stone, and on the ground by the 
gate lay a base or plinth with part of a column on it, and a torus 
moulding to a pedestal now serves to cover a well. Two large 
well-preserved urns, full of ashes, were found, and a third two 
years ago."* The half length figure of a woman with arms folded 
across her breast, described by Whitaker, is then alluded to by 
both authors, but Bray adds that it was sold to a gentleman near 
Bakewell. (Can this gentleman be the Mr. John Mander pre- 
viously alluded to — W. T. W. ?) Bray also says " that pieces of 
swords, spears, bridle bits, and coins have also been found here." 
He seems to read the first line of the above fragmentary inscription 
as VIT. Others have read it as VIX, and still others as VIA. 
To me the word seems plainly to be VITA, the T and A being 
ligulate, but as the original appears to be lost (as are also the 
tiles), nothing can be said with certainty. All agree that the TR 
in the third line was in smaller letters than the other portion. 

Mr. Bateman, who wrote as late as 1850, says : " Foundations of 
various buildings, one of considerable size, are to be observed " ; 

* Another account says they were of the usual globular shape. 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 83 

but if SO, they have during the last thirty-five years been removed 
from the surface, and can only be found underground. He also 
says (page 152): "Three of the 'sides' (of the casirum) remain 
nearly perfect." Though far from perfect, the earthern rampart, 
upon which stood the stone wall, is still plainly visible on the 
three sides named. Mr. Bateman, on the same page, says that 
" the fences of the surrounding fields are built of squared sand- 
stone, pieces of tiles," etc. These still remain much the same, and 
were the walls searched, it is far from improbable that altars and 
other inscribed stones might be found, perhaps with the inscribed 
face built inwards. But to continue Mr. Bateman's account :— 
"Very recently a bust of coarse sculpture and the base of a 
column, with a moulding running round it, were to be observed 
built up in the walls, whilst a small well in the village is covered 
by a moulded slab of stone." In April, 1882, the base of a 
circular pillar still remained built up in the wall of the farmyard 
on the spot, and I had word sent to me that a few years previously 
the man who built the house ploughed up stones morticed, or 
grooved, to fit into each other. In 1872 a quantity of pottery was 
found on the site in cutting a trench, which passed into the hands 
of N. H. Ashton, Esq., of Castleton, but so far I have been unable 
to ascertain if any potter's stamps have been found. One Roman 
road (Doctor Gate) is plainly traceable, connecting this station 
with that at Melandra Castle, and a second (Batham Gate) con- 
nects it with Buxton. 

It is most unfortunate that no complete specimen of the inscribed 
tiles made at the station has been discovered, or, if discovered, pre- 
served, as it renders us ignorant of the name of the cohort' that 
garrisoned the station. My own idea is that it was a cohort of the 
Brittones, a people of Belgic Gaul. But as I shall no doubt be 
asked to give my reasons for such a statement, I must enter shortly 
into the subject. At Fuligno (the ancient Fulginium) in Central 
Italy, there was discovered an interesting inscription, which is now 
preserved in the Palazzo Comunale of the town. It is fragmentary, 
but the remaining portion is as follows :— 



54 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

O. PRAE 

. . HORTIS.TRIB.MILI . . . 
.RAEF.EQVIT.CENSITO . . 
BRITTONVM. AN AVION . . 
PROC.AVG.ARMENIAE. MA. 

As I have previously stated (^Archceological Jotirnal, Vol. XLL, 
p. 255) the fourth line of this inscription has puzzled many anti- 
quaries, who considered it to refer to a subordinate tribe of the 
Brittones styled Anavionenses. I would read the remaining part 
of the inscription t\m?, -.—Prae {fecto) {Co) hortis, Trib{und) 
MiKJtum), Prae{fecto) Equitium) Censito[ri) Brittonum, A Navione, 
Proc{tiratori) Aiigijisti) Armemae Ma{Joris). The person who was 
named at the commencement of this inscription would thus be 
(amongst the other various offices named) Censitor of the Brittones 
stationed at Navio. Now, that there was a cohort of the Brittones 
in Derbyshire, we ascertain from the inscription I have before 
alluded to, found at Hopton by Major Rooke in the last century 
{Archceologia, Vol. XII., pp. i to 5). It was discovered in a 
barrow called " Abbot's Lowe," covering the top of an urn, which 
was full of burnt bones and ashes. The urn was four feet three 
inches in circumference, and made of coarse baked earth. The 
stone was two feet six inches by one foot eight inches, and about 
nine inches thick, and was a soft yellowish freestone much worn, 
and the inscription consequently much defaced. From Major 
Rooke's drawing the inscription was — 



GE LL . . 
PRAE Colli 
L V. B R IT . 

All that can be made out of this is that a person of the name of 
Gellius who was a prsefect of a cohort of Brittones is named. The 
letters LV before BRIT are most puzzling, but they are doubt- 
fully given by Major Rooke. If they were there, it would almost 
seem that the cohort bore the name of Lutudensian, but in that 
case we should look for the abbreviation to follow instead of 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 85 

preceding the nationality.* It may, however, be a variation from 
the rule. This inscription like the pigs of lead, was found close 
to VVirksworth, near which LjtUidae must have been. To my mind 
it seems to confirm the idea • that the Brittones of Navio were 
stationed at Brough, and thus the Derbyshire and the Continental 
inscriptions throw light upon each other. 

The next station in the second series, Aquae, can from its name, 
hardly be elsewhere than at Buxton. To no other site in this part 
of the kingdom would the name " The Waters " apply. Three 
Roman roads met there, and various discoveries have been made 
of Roman remains. Whitaker, in his " History of Manchester " 
(2nd edit. 1773), p. 201, thus speaks of the Roman baths there, 
" The Roman bagnio at this place was plainly discernible by its 
ruins within the present century. The dimensions were then 
traceable by the eye. And the wall of it was brick, still rising 
about a yard in height upon three sides, and covered with a red 
coat of Roman cement, hard as brick and resembling tile. The 
bason was floored with stone, and supplied not by any of the springs 
which feed the present bath immediately above, but by that finer 
source of water which is now denominated St. Anne's Well, and 
was then inclosed within it. And thus continued the very 
curious, and only remains of the Roman baths in the kingdom, so 
late as the year 1709, when Sir Thomas Delves, with a gothick 
generosity of spirit destroyed the whole, in order to cover the 
spring with the stone alcove that is over it at present. But about 
fifty yards to the east of this, on driving a level from the present 
bath to the river in 1697, was found an appendage probably to the 
Roman bagnio,' a bason about four yards square, but made with 
sheets of lead that were spread upon large beams of timber, and 
broken ledges all along the borders. This additional bath was 
replenished from another spring which is about fourteen yards to 
the south of it, and called Bingham well. And both the springs 
and all the others of Buxton are only of a blood warm heat, and 



• I have tried for many years to trace the present whereabouts of this stone, 
but without success. 



86 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

must, therefore, have been more congenial to the state, and more 
friendly to the health of the human frame . . • . than the 
boihng waters of the sun at Bath." 

In 1 781, when the foundations of the houses in the Crescent 
were being dug, another bath was discovered, thirty feet in length 
from east to west, and fifteen broad from north to south. It was 
supplied by a spring which rose at its western end, and there was 
an outlet for the water at the opposite or eastern end, which had 
a " floodgate " attached. It was lined with a concrete formed of 
lime and pounded tile, and at one end was a deep cavity. No 
trace of the station is visible above ground, but it is generally 
supposed to have been on the " Stane Cliffe," a hill rising above 
the Hall, for occasionally Roman remains have been discovered 
there. Major Rooke, in 1787, found what he considered to be 
the ruins of a temple, but unfortunately very little has been pub- 
lished of the discoveries made between 1781 and 1787.* 

Mr. Bateman (p. 151) says that "Roman coins are frequently 
discovered at Buxton or in the neighbourhood, and that the late 
Dr. Buxton {sic) possessed several of 3rd brass of Constantine, 
found in the vicinity in 18 11." 

There still remain two other stations in this second series to be 
noticed, Amemeza and Zerdotalia. The first I hardly think is in 
Derbyshire (though it may be) ; I am inclined to place it at the 
well marked Roman station at Toot Hill, above Forest Chapel in 
Cheshire. The other is very probably the castrum, now called 
" Melandra Castle." Ravennas gives the names of many of the 
stations in a very corrupt form. Taking for instance some of 
those on the Roman Wall (of which we know the names from the 
Notitia), instead of Segedtmo he gives Serduno, instead of Conderco 
he gives Condecor, instead of Huimo he gives Onno, and instead 
of Cilurno he gives Cehmno, and there are many other instances 
of incorrect orthography in his work. I am, therefore of opinion, 
that instead of Zerdotalia he should have written Zedrotalia, for 
the following reason. The river Mersey, in its upper portion, 

* See " Archceologin," vol. ix., p. 137, etc. 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. • 87 

above Stockport, is known, as Mr. Watson first remarked * by 
the name of "the Edrow," now softened into Etherow by the 
same process of euphony by which Niii[titii) in Glamorganshire 
is styled Neath, and Caer Alaridiin(u/n), Caermarthen. This 
" Edrow," as the natives of the locahty still term it, runs imme- 
diately under Melandra Castle, and the river seems to have 
derived its name from the Station, in the same way that the name 
of the Noe t was derived from the Station of Nauio. 

Melandra Castle, now to be described, was first brought into 
notice as a Roman Station, by the Rev. John Watson, F.S.A., in 
a communication he made to the Society of Antiquaries, Dec. 10, 
1772. It is situated on a commanding site, at the junction of the 
Edrow with Dinting Brook (as usual with most Roman Stations 
on a litigula,) and is a parallelogram of about 122 yards by 112, 
its angles facing the cardinal points. The ramparts are still very 
visible all round, being about 6 to 7 feet high, and about 9 feet in 
thickness, with considerable quantities of hewn stones remaining 
in them. In Watson's time, the ditches on the S.E. and S.W. 
sides were fairly traceable, but during several visits to the spot 
during the last ten years, I have found them, though faint at first, 
growing still fainter. The two other sides, being protected by the 
streams, do not seem to have had a fosse. Watson also says, "on 
the north east side, between the station and the water, great 
numbers of worked stones lie promiscuously both above and under 
ground ; there is also a subterraneous stream of water here, and a 
large bank of earth which runs from the station to the river. It 
seems very plain that on this and on the north west sides have 
been many buildings, and these are the only places where they 
could safely stand, because of the declivity between them and the 
two rivers." As far as the stones named as being above ground 
are concerned, they are now removed. The writer remembers 
.seeing several small heaps of them which had been collected and 
were subsequently carried away. All four of the gateways of the 



* " Archseologia," vol. 3, p. 236. 
t It is also called by the country people the Nooa and Nooe. 



60 THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

Station are visible, one in the centre of each side, and the founda- 
tion of a building about twenty-five yards square (unless very 
recently removed), is visible in the area in the south-western half 
of the station. 

Just outside the east angle of the castrum, a few years before 
Watson described it, there was found an inscribed centurial stone, 
the face of which is sixteen inches by twelve. It is now built up 
over the doorway of the house of the person who farms the land 
(Booth), and the inscription, which has ansae on each side, and 
a moulding round it, is — 

cHo . r 

FRISIAVO 
3 VAL . VIT 

ALIS. 

i.e., C{o)ho{rHs) I. Frisiavo(nuni) cetituria Valierii) Vitalis. The 
reversed C is the usual symbol for centuria. The interpretation is 
simply "The century (or company) of Valerius Vitalis, of the first 
cohort of the Frisians " (made this), thus showing that the same 
cohort which at one time garrisoned Manchester, was at another 
time stationed here, and built the castrum. Some time prior to 
1851, "Captain de Hollingworth, Mr. Dearden, and Mr. Shaw," 
who were making an examination of the site, found the upper left- 
hand corner of what had been a large inscribed tablet ; * probably 
one of those put up over the arches of the gateways. The only 
letters remaining were — 



IMP 



the abbreviation of Imperatori, usually commencing these inscrip- 
tions, which were dedicated to the reigning Emperor. This 
fragment was preserved by Captain de Hollingworth at his resi- 
dence, Hollingworth Hall, according to information given to me, 
on the site, of the castrum in 1874. 

* Vol. 7, " Journal of Brit. Archreological Association," p. 17. 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 89 

" In the N.E. gable of the pile of buildings in Hadfield, of 
which the Spinner's Arms is a part, are some stones with what 
appears to have been an ornamented design of an elaborate cha- 
racter in relief." (These have apparently been removed from the 
station). " A few years since some men were employed in an 
exploration of the rampart, but as soon as they discovered sufficient 
evidence of a building having stood here, they were ordered to 
desist. During the spring of 1875, the farmer who owns (? rents 
— W. T. W.) the field, in digging up some fifty yards of the soil, 
came upon the foundation of the wall, towards the south-east, and 
took out a large quantity of unhewn stone. He discovered the 
remains of an entrance to the station." It "was arched over as 
the stones clearly indicate, and was probably the main entrance ; 
it was at least the same end as the praetorium . . . . " Two 
(of the stones) " with bevelled edges, one having also a recess cut 
into it, seem to have been pedestals on which the pilastys were 
supported, others the parts of the pilasters ; there are also three 
arched stones, one apparently the key stone. They are all in 
an excellent state of preservation, their angles as sharp as if newly 
cut." * 

A fine first brass of Domitian was found in the station a few 
years since. t and a quantity of tiles and pottery. An urn found 
here is preserved in the Warrington Museum, with a drawing of a 
second. Some tiles and concrete from Melandra are also pre- 
served there, and casts of nine coins of the following Emperors — 
from within or near the area of the casirum — Domitian, Marcus 
Aurelius (2), Alexander Severus (3), Julia Maesa (2), and another, 
of which only the reverse FELICI TAS . AVG. is visible. 

From these various accounts i,t will be seen that excavation 
might reveal much, both within the area, and amongst the sub- 
urban buildings, which, as at other Roman stations, surrounded it. 
The walls of the internal building, supposed to be the praetorium, 
were found to be four-and-half feet thick. The area of the station 



• " Antiquary," Sept., 1882. 
t Vol. 7, "Journal of Brit. Archseological Association," p. 18. 



go THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 

bears the name of " Tlie Castle Yard," and eleven fields surround- 
ing it, are called in old deeds " The Castle Carrs." 

Roman roads from this station run to Brough, to Buxton, 
towards Stockport, and one northwards to "Doctor Lane Head," on 
the border of Lancashire and Yorkshire, where it falls into the 
Roman road from Manchester to Slack {Caml'odunum). 

The Edrow is a little over a furlong from the steep hill on which 
the castnims,i?inds, and the latter is within the township of Games- 
ley and parish of Glossop. 

These are the whole of the known permanent and fortified 
Roman stations in the county. There have been small settle- 
ments at other places, which I hope to describe in a future paper, 
but before closing, in order to embrace the wiiole of the inscrip- 
tions, Lmust mention the altar found near Bakewell, of which an 
account was first published by Bishop Gibson, in his edition of 
Camden's " Britannia," at the commencement of the last century, 
and since then many authors have written upon it. All, however, 
have been wrong as to the fourth line, which they have read 
OSITTIVS, whereas it is, as Professor Hiibner (" Corpus Inscr. 
Latin.,'' vol. vii., No. 176) was the first to point out, in 1873, 
Q . SITTIVS. The whole inscription is — 

DEO 

MARTI 

BRACIACAE 

Q . S I T T I V S 

C A E C I LI A N 

PRAEF.COH 

I.AQVITANO 

V . s 

/.<?., Deo Marti Braciacae. Qitdntus) Sittius Caedlian{us), 
Praef{ecius) Coh{prtis) I. Aqtiitano{rtim) Viptuni) S(plvit), or 
translated " To the god Mars Braciaca, Quintus Sittius Caecilia- 
nus, Praefect of the first cohort of the Aquitani, performs his vow." 
The only obscure part of the inscription is the epithet Braciaca 
given to Mars, but so numerous are the titles given to some of the 



THE ROMAN STATIONS OF DERBYSHIRE. 9 1 

classical deities it need not cause much discussion. We learn, 
however, that the first cohort of the Aquitani were at some period 
in this neighbourliood. They were a French people, the Aqui- 
taine of later times representing their country. From the Riveling 
tabula of Hadrian, we know they were in Britain in A. d. 124, 
and they have left an inscription, the date of which is uncertain, 
at Procolitia, on the Wall of Hadrian in Northumberland. 

The altar has been preserved for nearly two centuries at Haddon 
Hall, and was lately, if not now, in the porch between the outer and 
second court-yards of that building. I unfortunately did not myself 
take its dimensions, and now find there is a conflict of evidence 
on the point. Lysons' "Magna Britannia" (Vol. V., p. 205) says 
it is 2 feet ii inches high ; whilst in the Reliquary (Vol. XII. for 
187 1 ), it is stated to be " 4 feet in height, 15I inches across the 
lettering, and 12 inches in thickness." Perhaps some of the 
members of the Society can get the correct dimensions.* 

It is singular that nothing approaching to a villa, or a tesselated 
pavement (unless the small and rude fragment found at Brough 
be counted) has been discovered in Derbyshire. 



* Mr. Sleigh has kindly supplied the following measurements of this altar, 
which still stands in tbe inner porch of Haddon Hall. Full height 3 ft. 10 in. ; 
width of the capital and base I ft. 7 in. ; width of the plinth I ft. 4 in. ; thick- 
ness of the capital and base i ft. ; thickness of the plinth 9 in. — Ed. 



92 



0n t^t l^ammoti^ at CvesiuclL 



By a. T. Metcalfe, F.G.S. 



HE bone-caves of Creswell have, during the last ten 
years, through the able exertions of the Rev. J. M. 
Mello, F.G.S. , been subjected to a systematic explora- 
tion, and are now so well known to all interested in science that 
no general description of them need here be given. 

They are somewhat exceptional as regards the geological forma- 
tion in which they are found, not occurring in Carboniferous Lime- 
stone, but in Permian dolomite or Lower Magnesian Limestone. 
The Magnesian Limestone in England forms a very narrow tract of 
country extending from Durham to Notts. In the former county 
it has a thickness of 600 feet, but gradually thins southward, and 
dies out near Nottingham, at a point twenty miles south of Creswell. 
The lofty cliffs of Creswell, we know from other sections in the 
locality, must there represent the entire thickness of the formation. 

The picturesque ravine known as Creswell Crags probably owes 
its origin to the action of the little river Wollen which now runs 
through it. This statement will cause no surprise to anyone who 
is familiar with the mode of operation of denuding agencies in 
limestone districts. Going back into far antiquity, the whole 
defile was, in all likelihood, one large cave excavated by the 
stream slowly eating its way along points of weakness in the rock. 
Some of the present caves are particle by particle losing their 
roofs, and their history in this respect is doubtless that of the 



ON THE MAMMOTH AT CRESWELL. 93 

ravine. It is merely a question of time for each cave to become 
itself a small lateral ravine. 

On the north or Derbyshire side of the ravine, and at the western 
end, is the " Pin Hole Cave." This cave is the one in which Mr. 
Mello, in 1875, discovered bones of the Arctic fox {Cams lagopus), 
thus adding that species for the first time to the British antral 
fauna. It was indeed the first explored of the caves at Creswell, 
which have now become of such high interest, from affording 
evidence of two periods of human occupation during the Palaeolithic 
age in Britain, when man was contemporary in the Midlands with 
the characteristic Pleistocene fauna. It forms a narrow fissure, 
extending for over forty yards into the crags in a northerly direction. 
Its name is said to be derived from a curious ancient custom for 
each person who came to the cave to throw in a pin at a certain 
spot, and at the same time to take out another pin thrown in by 
a prior ^yisitor. Mr. Mello, who has fully described this cave in 
the "Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society," gives the 
following section of its beds : — 

1. Surface soil, containing recent pottery, 

bones, &:c 1 foot 6 inches. 

2. Damp red sand, with rough blocks of 

magnesian limestone, quartz, quartzite 
and other pebbles, and numerous 
bones 3 feet. 

3. Lighter-coloured sand, consolidated by 

infiltration of lime. No bones (?) 

In the red sand of this cave I, some time ago, discovered a portion 
of the jaw of a very young elephant, Elephas primigenius , or, as it 
is commonly termed, the Mammoth. 

According to Professor H. Alley ne Nicholson, elephants appear 
for the first time in the Upper Miocene (Siwalik formation) of 
India. Some geologists, however, refer the Siwalik formation to 
the Lower Pliocene. It is in deposits of Post-Pliocene age that 
their remains most abundantly occur, and of these the most familiar 
and the most important species is the Mammoth. In giving to it 
the specific appellation oi primtgenius, however, Blumenbach little 



94 ON THE MAMMOTH AT CRESWELL. 

suspected how many Proboscidea had flourished in prior ages. This 
remarkable form considerably exceeded in size thelargestof the living 
elephants, and was essentially an inhabitant of northern regions. 
It is said never to have passed south of a line drawn through the 
Pyrenees, the Alps, the northern shores of the Caspian, Lake 
Baikal, Kamschatka, and the Stanovi Mountains. If, as stated 
by Professor Boyd Dawkins, it may be regarded as proved that 
it lived during Prse-glacial times, it certainly survived the Glacial 
age, for its remains are found abundantly in Post-glacial deposits 
in Britain, France, Germany, Russia in Europe, Asia, and North 
America. Indeed it lived until after the advent of man on the 
earth. This fact is placed beyond all question by the great num- 
ber of instances in which its remains have been found associated 
with implements of human manufacture, under circumstances 
precluding the possibility of subsequent admixture. 

Bones of the Mammoth are found in great abundance in Siberia. 
This fact alone would, in the absence of any further evidence, 
have led geologists to the conclusion that the Mammoth was fitted 
by nature to withstand the vicissitudes of a colder climate than 
either of the two living species of elephants. But we are not left 
to inference in this matter. Sir Charles Lyell records, in his 
"Principles of Geology," that, in 1803, Mr. Adams discovered, on 
the banks of the Lena, in lat. 70°, the entire carcase of a Mammoth, 
which fell from a mass of ice in which it had been encased. So 
perfectly had the soft parts of the carcase been preserved, that the 
flesh as it lay was devoured by wolves and bears. The skeleton 
is still to be seen in the museum of St. Petersburg. Instead of 
being naked, like the existing African and Indian elephants, the 
creature was found to be covered with a very thick and shaggy 
coating of fur. It must not, however, from this and other similar 
discoveries, be inferred that the Mammoth was, in every latitude, 
enveloped with such a thick covering. In this respect it may have 
presented variations according to the climate of the particular 
region in which it dwelt, after the manner of the modern domestic 
goat. Sir Richard Owen has pointed out that the teeth of the 
Mammoth have a larger proportion of dense enamel than either of 



1 



ON THE MAMMOTH AT CRESWELL 95 

the two species of living elephants. This circumstance doubtless 
enabled the Mammoth to grind down and employ for food the 
harder and more ligneous tissues of trees and shrubs, thus (com- 
bined with the nature of its covering) fitting it to live in a cold 
climate, " a meet companion for the reindeer," with which its 
remains are frequently associated. The late Mr. Charles Darwin, 
in his " Journal of Travels in South America," shows conclusively 
how completely erroneous is the idea that herbivorous animals of 
large size require a luxuriant vegetation for their support, and 
points out various parts of the world which, though comparatively 
sterile and desert, are remarkable for the number and great size of 
their indigenous quadrupeds. 

That the Mammoth roamed over Derbyshire is sufificiently 
evidenced by the number of its remains found at Creswell. Mr. 
Mello records that each of the four caves— Pin Hole Cave, Robin 
Hood's Cave, Church Hole, and Mother Grundy's Parlour- 
yielded remains of this proboscidean. 

In various parts of England, including Creswell, detached milk 
teeth of the Mammoth have been found ; but a specimen exhibit- 
ing, as the one discovered by me, in the Pin Hole Cave, does — a 
portion of the jaw containing the ante-penultimate and penultimate 
milk molars, set in their natural position — is a great rarity. Sir 
Richard Owen, to whom I submitted the specimen, and who 
kindly described it in a joint paper with myself, before the 
Geological Society, pronounced it to be the first one he had seen. 
It is said that the late Dr. Falconer had in his possession milk 
teeth of the Mammoth /// situ, obtained from the gravels of 
Barnwell, near Cambridge ; but if this be correct, it is certain that 
no trace of the specimen can now be found. There is a specimen 
similar to the one discovered by me, at Creswell, in the Bright 
Collection, at the British Museum, but it is not known from what 
part of the world it was derived ; it is moreover labelled, and is 
believed by many to belong, not to Elephas p-imige?iius, but to 
Elephas antiquus. As the difference between the teeth of these 
two species is one of the relative abundance and width of the 
folds of enamel, there is doubtless considerable difficulty in 



96 ON THE MAMMOTH AT CRESWELL. 

drawing this distinction when dealing with the teeth of very young 
individuals. The Creswell fossil, then, appears to be the only one 
of its kind in this country that is forthcoming, and of which the 
precise place of derivation is known. 

A figure of the Creswell fossil accompanies this paper. It will 
be seen that it is a portion of the fore-part of the upper jaw of a 
very young elephant. The teeth of the right side only are present, 
those of the opposite side having been torn away. The longitudinal 
extent of the two molars is a fraction over three inches. The 
surface of the foremost and smaller tooth has suffered very con- 
siderable wear ; indeed it has been worn down into a triangular 
shape (the apex being forward) ; the foremost plate being almost 
removed. The length of the grinding surface of this tooth is 
fourteen millimetres, and the breadth, near the base, fifteen milli- 
metres. Of the second molar, only the anterior portion has suffered 
wear, the two hindermost divisions of the tooth not having risen 
into use; thus, while the grinding surface of this tooth is only 
fifty millimetres in length, the whole length of the tooth is sixty- 
two miUimetres. The roots of the smaller molar are fully deve- 
loped, and one (the anterior) is curved forward. Of the larger 
molar, three roots are visible. 

Sir Richard Owen having informed me that the British Museum 
did not possess an illustration of the phase of dentition of the 
Elephas primigenms, exemplified in the smaller molar above- 
described, I have presented my specimen to the National Collection. 
It takes our thoughts back to the far distant age when Britain was 
joined to the Continent, and when the Creswell ravine echoed to 
the roar of the lion, the howl of the wolf, and the laugh of the 
cave-dwelling hyaena. It needs no effort of imagination to picture 
the probable circumstances under which the ill-fated young 
elephant — a portion of whose skull has so recently been brought 
to light — came to an untimely end by the deadly attack of one 
of the fierce carnivora of Pleistocene days. 



Plate VI. 





INDER AND SIDE VIEWS OF A PORTION OF THE IFPER JAW OF A YOUNG MAMMOTH, 
FROM THE " PIN HOLE CAVE," CRESWELL. (NATURAL SIZE.) 

ri I d 2. Grinders, or Milk-molars, in situ, right side. 
a. Cavity, through which is visible the curved anterior root of the smaller Grinder. 



97 



[DERBYSHIRE PORTION.] 
Bv General the Hon. George Wrottksley. 




INTRODUCTION. 

URTON was a Benedictine Abbey, founded between 
A.D. I002 and ioo4t by Wulfric Spott, who endowed 
it, according to the "Annals of Burton," with the 
greater part of his wide-spread possessions. The date and mag- 
nitude of the endowment, which took place shortly after the 
general massacre of the Danes, who, unsuspicious of danger, were 
dwelling peaceably within the Saxon territories, makes it not 
improbable that it was the result of the remorse felt by one of 
the ministers of King Ethelred for his share in that treacherous 
transaction. This statement, although little more than a surmise, 

* When writing my "Notes " on the Churches of South Derbyshire, several of 
which used to pertain to the Abbey of Burton, I made every endeavour to obtain 
a sight of the Burton Abbey Chartulary. Bishop Hobhouse kindly searched 
for it among the niuniments of the Marquis of Anglesey, but in vain. Since 
then it has been happily discovered, and still more happily placed in the capable 
hands of such a skilled palasographist as General Wrottesley. General Wrot- 
tesley has transcribed or given abstracts of the whole Chartulary for the forth- 
coming volume of the Salt Archeeological Society of Staffordshire, a most 
laborious task. He has generously allowed all the parts relative to Derby- 
shire to appear in our Journal. Some few parts of the Chartulary relative to 
Derbyshire manors were not fully taken out by General Wrottesley. These 
omissions I have to some extent supplied. For a short charter on folio 9, 
for a description of a charter on folio 16, and for the lists of the tenants on the 
Derbyshire manors I am responsible. I have to thank the Marquis of Anglesey 
for permission to visit the Strong Room at Beaudesert to make these additions. 
For a few notes, distinguished by a terminal "Ed.," I am also responsible. 
General Wrottesley 's " Introduction" applies to the whole Chartulary. 

J. Charles Cox. 

t Two of the Chronicles name a.d. 1002 as the date of the foundation of 
Burton. The " Annals of Burton " gives the dateas a.d. 1004. The massacre 
of the Danes took place in the former year. 
10 



98 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

is strengthened by the fact that Wulfric's "will" was drawn 
up and confirmed by the King when the testator was in 
the prime of life, and still more so by the circumstance 
that the massacre is stated, by one of the chroniclers, to 
have commenced at Marchinton, in Staffordshire, which 
was one of Wulfric Spott's manors. The King's confirma- 
tion of Wulfric's grant is the first deed in the Chartulary, and is 
dated a.d. 1004. The Church was dedicated to the Virgin Mary 
and to Saint Modwen, an Irish female anchorite, who had dwelt 
for many years on one of the islands of the Trent, near Burton. 

Like all the Saxon foundations, Burton was greatly shorn of its 
splendour by the Norman Conquest. Of seventy-two manors 
named in Wulfric's will, there remained to the monks at the date 
of Domesday thirty-two only, and seven of these had been given 
to them by the Conqueror."' 

The great reduction in the revenues of the religious houses of 
Saxon foundation after the Conquest, was not owing so much to 
the rapacity of the Normans, as to the policy of the Conqueror. 
These monasteries had amassed enormous possessions during that 
superstitious era immediately preceding the close of the eleventh 
century, and these were held by them for the most part free from 
all secular obligations. 

The Conqueror, with a view of increasing the military strength 
of the kingdom, which had been greatly impaired by the alienation 
of so much land to religious uses, subjected the monastic posses- 
sions to the feudal law, and compelled the monks to furnish a 
certain number of knights in time of war, or to relinquish a part 
of their endowments. The monks of Burton appear to have 
chosen the latter alternative, for none of the tenants of this 
monastery after the Conquest held their lands by military service. 
In this they probably acted wisely, for monastic bodies derived 
little or no benefits from lands in which military tenants were 
enfeoffed. The feudal obligations, such as the aid on the knight- 
hood of the eldest son, or on the marriage of the eldest daughter 

* See Confirmation by Pope Lucius, folio vii. The list in Domesday is 
incomplete. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 99 

of the feudal lord, were obviously inapplicable in the case of a 
religious superior, and the only benefit which accrued to an eccle- 
siastical lord, in the case of military tenures, was the rare and 
uncertain contingency of the wardship of a minor; and against 
this advantage had to be placed certain undefined obligations, for 
in most, if not in all cases, the great religious houses paid the 
expenses of their knights when in the service of the King.* 

The manors or lands in possession of the monks at the date of 
Domesday were : — 
In Staffordshire — 

Burton and its members, Branstone, Shobnall, Stretton in 
Burton, Horninglowe and Wetmoor ; Anslow, Pillatonhall, 
Whiston (in Penkridge), Darlaston (in Stone), Abbots 
Bromley, Leigh and Field Ham, Okeover and Casterne, 
Hampton in Blithfield, and land in Tatenhill and Stafford. 
In Derbyshire they held — 

Cotes (Coton-inthe-Elms), Winshill, Bersicote (Brisling- 
cote ?t) Ticknall, Stapenhill, Appelby,^ Caldwell, Mickle- 
over, Littleover, Henover (Heanor), Findern, Potlock, 
and Willington. 
In Warwickshire — 

Austrey, and land in Wolston. 
The above list is taken from the Confirmation of Pope Lucius 
at p. vii. of the Chartulary.§ This specifies that all the lands 
named in it had been given to the monks by their founder, Wulfric 
Spott, or by William the Conqueror. These lands must therefore 
have been in the possession of the monks at the date of the 

* There is direct evidence of this in the case of the Evesham and Croyland 
Monasteries, and by analogy it may be assumed to be true of the other Houses. 
The Evesham Chartulary thus describes their military tenants : — 

Hie notantur milites et liberi tenentes de Abbatia de Evesham, nmlti injiiste 
fefati, pauci vera juste. Isti nullum servitium faciutit Ecelesia nisi serviluim 
Regis, et hoe tepid e.'^ 

And in the Feodary of a.d. 1166, the Abbot states after each of his Knights 
named, " Abbas invenit ei expensas quamdiu fuerit in serviiio Regis." 

f I take this to be Bearwardscote, alias Barrowcote, in Etwall parish. — Ed. 

X The greater part of Appleby is in the county of Leicester ; from entries 
in the Chartularj', I take it that the Burton monks' estate in that parish was 
wholly in Leicestershire, and not in Derbyshire. — Ed. 

§ I have added Cotes to this list, the monks having been deprived of that 
Oianor between the date of Domesday and the Confirmation by Pope Lucius. 



100 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

Survey, but the list differs in some respects from the extant 
Domesday. Some valuable manors, such as Anslow in Staiford- 
shire, and Willington in Derbyshire, are not mentioned in the 
Survey ; and it is not unlikely that the monks, either by interest or 
by bribery, had obtained the suppression of some of their estates 
in the Survey as finally codified. 

On one important point, however, I think they have been 
maligned. Eyton states in his Staffordshire Domesday that they 
had procured the suppression of the whole of their home estate of 
Burton, amounting to nearly 6,000 acres. I am inclined to believe 
that the following entry from Domesday refers to the abbatial 
manor of Burton, and the other members of Burton are included 
in the Domesday Survey. 

Under the Hundred of Pirehill, it will be seen that Domesday 
gives the following account of an estate of the Abbey in Stafford : — 

In villd de Stadford, Abbatia Sanctce Afarice de Bertone tenet 
I hidam et dimidiam. Terra est 2 cariicata valet ;£t, ios. 

The Burton Chartulary contains at folio 3 what purports to be 
a copy of the Domesday Return of their estates. It is headed : Sic 
conttnetur super Domesday apud Wintoftiam. 

Ecdesia Sanctcp Marice de Burtone in Staffordshire. In ipsA vUld 
habet hidam et dimidiam. Terra est 2 cariieatoe valet xl. solidos. 

It is not probable that the monks held so large an estate in the 
town of Stafford, and we find no trace of it in after years ; * the 
error has arisen no doubt from a mistake of the clerk who compiled 
the fair copy of the Survey, and who, confounding Staffordsira with 
Staffordia, has assumed that the words ipsA villd, referred to 
Stafford instead of Burton. The Hundreds are wrongly rubricated 
in several other instances in the Survey.t 

* The Confirmation of Pope Lucius names among their possessions terram 
in Staffordia ; but this may refer to the burgage tenements of the monks in 
Stafford, and which are named elsewhere in the Survey ; Wetmoor, Stretton, 
and Winshill, members of Burton, and which formed portions of the home 
estate, are accounted for in Domesday. 

f There is another copy of the Domesday Return of the monks endorsed 
on King Ethelred's Confirmation of Wulfric Spott's will now at Beaudesert. 
This copy, which from the character of the handwriting appears to be coeval 
with Domesday, agrees in every particular with the Return in the Chartulary 
above quoted. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. lOI 

The Chartulary is essential for the history of the above-named 
places ; but some of its contents have more than a local interest ; 
it contains, for instance, a nominal list of all the Burton tenants of 
the time of the Abbot Nigel, who died a.d. 1113. Many of these 
tenants must have been born before the Conquest, and all of them 
within a few years after it. This part of the Chartulary has there- 
fore an ethnological interest, for the names of these tenants supply 
us approximately with the relative proportions of the Saxon and 
Danish races in this part of the Kingdom. No doubt any assump- 
tion based on baptismal names only must be received with caution, 
for these races had become much blended by intermarriage by this 
date- ; but it is impossible not to be struck by the large proportion 
of Danish or Scandinavian names amongst the Burton tenantry ; 
and this tends to confirm an opinion which has been long held by 
the writer, that men of Danish descent formed a very large pro- 
portion of the English race at the Norman Conquest, and that this 
important political and ethnographical fact has not received suf- 
ficient attention in recent histories of the English people. 

The social habits and condition of the people receive many 
illustrations in the pages of the Chartulary. Thus the " corrodium " 
or allowance of food and clothing made by religious houses in 
exchange for a gift of land or money, was the method by which an 
annuity was secured in the middle ages, and the details of the 
charges on this head throw some light on the mode of hfe 
and food of the middle classes in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. 

The legal proceedings (folios 86 — 93) between the monks and 
their customary tenants of Mickle-Over, who claimed to be free 
tenants, are very curious and interesting. Although the villains 
were unsuccessful in their suit, they appear to have found in- 
fluential protectors, and on two occasions obtained access to 
King Edward I. and laid their grievances in person before him. 

The prosecution of the Abbot for appropriating the missing 
treasury of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, attainted and beheaded a.d. 
1323, is noteworthy when taken in connection with the finding of 
a large number of coins (over 100,000) in the River Dove near 



I02 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

Tutbury in the year 1831. It is evident that the bulk of the 
treasure had disappeared, and a part of it had been traced to the 
possession of the monks. They were therefore suspected very 
naturally of secreting the remainder. A mixed Staffordshire and 
Derbyshire jury found the Abbot guilty, and a fine of ^^300 * 
was set upon the monastery; which on appeal was afterwards 
remitted by the King. The monks state that the jury was entirely 
composed of men badly disposed towards them ; and this seems 
likely to have been the case, for their rapacity and unjust encroach- 
ments on their neighbours, of which their own Register affords 
many examples, must have made them very unpopular with all 
classes. 

The dates of the accession of the Abbots after the Conquest, 
according to the Annals of Burton, are as follows : — 

Leuric or Leveric, elected Abbot a.d. 1051, died a.d. 1085. 

Geoffrey de Mala Terra, was deposed a.d. 1094. 

Nigel, died in May, 11 13. 

Geoffrey, elected a.d. 1114, died a.d, 1150. 

Robert, was deposed a.d, 1159. 

Bernard, elected a.d. 1160, died a.d. 1175. 

Robert, his predecessor, was re-appointed, and died a.d. i 177. 

Roger Malebraunch, elected a.d. 1178, died May, 1182. 

Richard, died a.d. 1188. 

Nicholas, died a.d. 1197. 

William de Melbourne, elected a.d. 1200, died a.d. 12 10. 

Roger, elected a.d. 1215, died a.d, 1216, 

Nicholas de Walingford, died a.d. 1222. 

Richard de Insula, elected June, 1222, died a.d. 1233. 

Laurence de St. Edward, died a.d. 1260. 

John de Stafford, elected July, 1260, resigned a.d, 1280. 

Thomas de Pakinton, elected February 1281, died Oct. 1305. 



* This would be probably equivalent to a fine of more than ;i^20,ooo at 
the present date. Hallam, in his " Middle Ages," shows that the value of the 
knight's fee fixed at ^20 per annum by Edward I., would represent about 
;^i,500 a year at the present time, taking into account the difference of nomen- 
clature of money and its purchasing power. 



I 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. IO3 

John Fisher, or de StapenhuU, died a.d. 1316. 

William de Bromley, elected July, 1316, died a.d. 1329. 

Robert de Longedon, elected Sept., 1330, died March, 1340. 

Robert de Brykhull, elected March, 1341, died a.d. 1348. 

John de Ibestock, elected a.d. 1348, died a.d. 1366. 

Thomas de Southam, elected a.d. 1366, resigned a.d. 1400. 

John de Sudbury, elected a.d. 1400, resigned a.d. 1423. 

William Matthewe, resigned a.d. 1430. 

Robert Ownesby, elected Sep., 1430, resigned January, 1432. 

Ralph Henley, elected February, 1432, resigned a.d. 1455. 

William de Bronston, died a.d. 1474. 

Thomas de Felde, elected April, 1474, died a.d. 1494. 

William Fleghe, elected a.d. 1494, died May, 1502. 

William Bone or Beyne, elected a.d. 1502. 

John Beaton or Boston, was Abbot up to a.d. 1534. 

William Edys or Edes, elected 13th April, 1534, surrendered 
the Abbey 14th November, 1539. 

The Chartulary or Registrum Burtonense, in the possession of 
the Marquis of Anglesey, and of which an abstract is now given, 
is a quarto or small folio volume of 156 leaves of vellum bound in 
white calfskin. It has no title page, but the word " Bourton " in 
large old blackletter of the Tudor period can be deciphered with 
some difficulty on the outside of the cover. The original Char- 
tulary is beautifully written in double columns, with red initial 
letters to the paragraphs : the handwriting dating from the begin- 
ning of the thirteenth to the end of the fourteenth century ; but 
the blank sides of the leaves have been filled in with writing of a 
later date, and additional folios have likewise been interpolated, 
filled with writing of a later period. These parts can readily be 
distinguished from the original Chartulary, not only from the dif- 
ference of the writing, but also from the fact of the writing ex- 
tending across the whole page in place of the usual arrangement 
of double columns. 

In the preparation of the abstract everything has been intro- 
duced which can be useful to a county historian, and in the case 
of the Staffordshire manors I have left in any details which may 



I04 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

be of interest to the parish historian. All matter previously printed 

in the " Monasticon " or in Shaw's " History of Staffordshire " has 

been omitted, but reference has been made to these authorities 

wherever such matter occurs. In the Latin abstract the ipsissima 

verba of the original has been retained in every case, but I have 

thought it best to put the narrative portions of the Chartulary into 

English. This part of the Chartulary contains matter interesting 

to the general reader, and few of our subscribers would care to 

peruse it if left in its original Latin. 

G. W. 



Folio 4. 

[De Consuetudinibus in Derbi,] 

H. Rex Anglias et Dux Normanniee et Aquitanise etc. Vicecomiti de Derbi 
salutem. Precipio quod sine dilatione et juste facias habere Abbati et 
Monachis Burtonse consuetudines quas clamant in Derbi, sicut eas dirationare 
poterunt per legales homines de provincifl. Et nisi feceris Comes Leycestrise 
facial fieri, ne inde clamorem audiam pro j)enuii4 recti. T. Jocelino de 
Bailleul apud Burtonam. 

Folio 9. 

Willielmus, divinft miseratione Conventrensis Episcopus. {Confirms the 
Churches of Broinle and Slapenhiiir\, salvis competentibus vicariis. Testibus 
Roberto Capellano, Roberto de Nevill, Canonicis Liclifeldise, Magistro 
Nicholao de Weston, Magistro Roberto de Bosco, Magistro Johanna Blund, 
Magistro Ranulfo de Essebi, Alexandre de Swereford, W. de Hadfel, Henrico 
de Sto. Botulfo Clericis et aliis . 

Galfridus Prior Conventrensis, etc. [Confirmation by the Chapter of 
Coventry of the Churches of Bromley and Stapenhull. Same witnesses as last 
deed.] 

W. miseratione divina. Conventrensis Ecclesife Minister etc. [inspeximus of the 
indulgences, " camerce et coquina," of the Abbot Nigel, and confirming the 
same.} Dat apud Covintre per manum Magistri Johannis Blundi Pontificatis 
nostri anno primo. Testibus Domino R. de Loges Archidiacono Conventrense, 
Magistro R. de Wileby, Ricardo de Limesia, Philippo de Rameseia, Willelmo 
de Hetfeld Clericis et aliis. 

Alexandrus permissione divin4 Conventrensis et Lichfeldensis Ecclesiarum 
Minister etc. [Confirms the Church of Siapenhall. Dated 12^0.} 
[Resignation of the Church of Stapenhull.] 

Universis ad quos scriptum presens de Stapenhull provenerit Magister 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. I05 

Johannes de Cadomo Salutem in domino. Noverit universitas nostra quod 
ego ecclesiam meam de Stapenhull quantum in me est in manibus venerabilis 
patris A. Dei gratia Coventris et Lichelfeld episcopi resignavi. Incujus rei 
testimonium sigillum meum presenti scripto apposui. Actum anno domini 
M°CC° Tricesimo. In vigilia beate Lucie virginis. 

Folio i6. 

[Contains three Bulls of Pope Honorius, of protection and privileges, dated 
the tenth year of his Pontificate. On the blank portion of the front, and on 
the back of this folio is written in a hand of the fourteenth century an account 
of an ecclesiastical suit between the Monks and Ralph de Cressy, the Rector 
of Thorpe, Derbyshire, respecting the tithes of the Hamlet of Hunsedon (now 
Hanson Grange), heard before Magister S. de Shirele, delegated by W. the 
Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield and by the Pope. The decision was against 
the Monks, and they were ordered to make restitution to the Rector of the 
tithes that they had unlawfully seized. No date ; but Ralph de Cressy held 
the rectory of Thorpe from 1299 to 1347.] 

Folio 7. (Of a different numbering. Date, circa iioo.) 

In Magna Oufra est tantum Inlandse* quantum satis est ad iij. aratra 
fortia in dominio. Terra hominum se defendit pro iiii. carucatas. In terrft 
Warlandi sunt quinquaginta duse bovatse ad opus et xxiiij. ad malam et iiij. 
quietas ad Ecclesiam, idest inter totum Ixxxvi. bovatas. 

[Here follows the names of the tenants, and the detail of their holdings. 
The tenants are : — ] 
Aluric propositus, 2 bovates ad opus Alfac faber (the smith), 2 bovates ad 

and nineteen other villains not op»s, and 5 bovarii, 2 bovates each 

named each 2 bovates Norman, 2 bovates for 3J. 

Godric Presbiter, 2 bovates for 3^. Tochi, 6 bovates for "js. 

Levenot, 2 bovates for 3;'. Alter Willielmus, i bovate for i6d. 

Willielmus, 3 bovates for 4?. Godwin de Finderne, 2 bovates for 2s. 

Ordric, 4 bovates for 4J-. Hugh le Sele, 3 bovates for 4s. 

Godric, 2 bovates for 2s. Edwin (qui fuit homo Ordiici), 2 bo- 

The wife of Aluric, 2 bovates for 3^. vates ad opus 

which Aulric formerly had ad opus Willielmus filius Ernald, 2 bovates 
The tenant {homo) of Thoki, 2 bovates for 2s., formerly held by Osmer ad 

ad opus which Thoki formerly held opus. 

ad malam 
Athelwi, 2 bovates for 2s., which he 

formerly had ad opus. 

* The " Inlands " were the lands held in demesne ; the name still exists in 
many places ; they were, I believe, not liable to taxation like the land in 
hands of tenants. 



Io6 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

In Parva Oufra est tantum Inlandse quantum satis est ad ilj. aratra 
fortissima in dominio. Terra honinum se defendit pro iij. carucatis. In terrS, 
Warlandfi, sunt xxvii. bovatse ad opus et xix. ad malam, idest inter totum Ivi. 
bovatse. De hiis qure sunt ad opus tenent iiij. bovarii viii. bovatas et xiij. 
villani tenent xxviii. bovatas idest unusquisque ij. bovatas. 

[Here follows the tenants and their holdings in detail. The tenants named 
are : — ] 

Aluric, 1 bovate ad opus Ulsius Cotsetus, 2 acres, et operatur 

Godwin Cotsetus, i domum, et opera- Ailric the provost, 2 bovates for 7.s. 

tur I die Ulmer, 2 bovates for 2s. 

Soen, 2 bovates for 2s. Godeva and Edulfus, 4 bovates for 5^. 

Ailwin, 2 bovates for y. Godwin the miller, 2 bovates for 1$. 

Winter, 4 bovates for 4^. Roger his (^i.e. Godwin's) filiaster, 2 

Godwin holds a mill in Derbyshire, acres for i6d. 

which belongs to Parva Oufra, for Gothus, una mansura vasta pro 2d. 

25J-. 

Et preter haec habemus in Derbeia Ecclesiam quam tenet Godricus pres- 
biter et unam mansuram cum domo quam habet Willielmus de Oura et reddit 
inde unum salmonem in ramis palmarum etc. 

[Here follows otlier tenants in Derby, viz. : — ] 
Otho, de Derbei, 9 acres for \2d. Soen, son of Meriet, 2 bovates for 2d. 

Soen, son of Wulfric, 2 bovates for (quas prius tennit pater suus, wi 

y. (quas prius tenuit ad opus Jilius opus) 

Meriet) Godric Halsoen, 3 acres for I2d. 

Winter, 12 acres for \2d. Godric, son of the Turner, 2 bovates 

Richard, son of Wulmer, 2 bovates (ad opus) 

for 2J-. {^quas prius tenuit Engeran, Ralph Palmer, 2 bovates for 3^. 

ad opus) Faber (the smith), i bovate for the 

Winter, part of the Inland for I2d., work on three ploughs 

and another part for 4^-. Uhtebrand the smith, a house and 

14 acre for I2d. 

In FiNDERNE est tantum Inlandaa quantam satis est ad ii. aratra fortissima 
in dominio. Terra hominum se defendit pro ii. carrucatis etc. 

[The tenants named in this place are : — ] 
Brandwin (bovarius), I bovate ad Hadewald, a bovate for I2d. 

opus Hunding (prepositus), 3 bovates for 

William, son of Godwin, 3 bovates 4^. 6r/. 

for 4^. (>d. Umfrid, 4 bovates for 6j. 

Leuric, 4 bovates for 6j. Alured, 4 bovates for 6j. 

Godwin, 2 bovates for 3^'. Soen, 2 bovates for 3J. 

Hugh, 2 bovates for y. Gamel, 2 bovates for 3.?. 

Sortebrand, 2 bovates for 3^. Goding, i bovate for \%d. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARV. I07 

Winemer, i bovate for 18a'., and two Seluwi (Cotsetus), a house, for which 
days' work he works for one day 

Godric (Cotsetus) a house, for which Tedeva, ditto, 
he works one day Stainbert, i. bovate, ad opus 

Alwine (Cotsetus), ditto. 

In POTHLAC, nichil Inlandx est. Terra se defendit pro i. carrucata. In 
hac terra sunt xvi. bovatse, ex hiis sunt vii. in dominio et satis ad i. aratrum 
fortissimum. Ceteras idest ix.* tenent homines hoc modo. [Here follow the 
names of the inferior tenants.] Terram hujus manerii preter i. domum et 
i, croftam et preter sedes niolendinorum habet Gaufridusin fedfirmam pro xl. s. 
quoque anno et per servitia condecencia corporis sui, et debet dare rectam 
decimam omnium segetum ejusdem manerii. Edwinus autem et Wigot habent 
prediclam domum et croftam et molendinum pro 1. s. quoque anno, et de 
piscibus debent presentare Abbati iuxta quod dederit eis Deus. 

Folio 8. 

In WiLlNTONA nichil Inlandae est. Terra se defendit pro iii. carucatis 
In hac terra sunt xxxii. bovatae, ex hiis sunt vii. in dominio et satis ad ii. 
aratra. Ceteras, idest xxv. bovatse tenent homines hoc modo. Godricus 
Presbiter tenet i. bovatam et partem prati ad Ecclesiam. 

Umfrid, 6 bovates for 6x. Edwin, i bovate for 1 6^., and work 

Soen, 4 bovates for ds. for I day for the aforesaid time 

Serlo, 2 bovates for 2J. Ailric, r bovate for i6d., and like 

Lewin (prepositus), i bovate for 2s. work for i day 

Hotin, I bovate for 2s. Aluered, I bovate for i6a'., and like 

Godwine, \ bovate for 14a'. work for i day 

Leuric, 2 bovates for 32(/., and from the Cola, i bovate for i6(/., and like 

feast of St. Peter through the feast of work for i day 

St. John up to the feast of St. Godric, \ bovate for 8a'., and \ day's 

Martin, 2 days' work in the week work for the aforesaid time. 

Lewin 2 bovates for 32</., and like work Lewin the smith, I bovate by the 

for 2 days service of two ploughs, or for i6</., 

and work as above 

Hoc manerium tenet Umfridus ad firmam cum molendino usque ad annos 
xvi. pro c. s. quoque anno et pro decimis omnium rerum ejusdem manerii qua 
sunt m dommio suo. 

In Stapenhulle est tantum Inlandae quantum satis est ad ii. aratra fortis- 
sima in dominio. Terra hominum se defendit pro ii. carucatis. In terr^ 
Warlanda sunt xiiij. bovatse ad opus et inter Warlandam et Inlandam xix. ad 
malam, idest simul xxxiii. bovatse. De hiis etc. 



* I regret to say that the list of these tenants has been mislaid.— Ed. 



io8 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 



Alwin, bissop (sic), 2 bovates of In- 
land and 2 of Warland for 6^. 

Living the goldsmith, 5J bovates of 
Inland, I croft of Inland, and part 
of one mill for 8s. 

Ailric (prepositus), 2 bovates for 3s. 

Hubert, 2 bovates for 3j-. 

Ulnod, 2 bovates for 3j-. 

Aluric the merchant, I bovate for 
i8d. 

Aluric the cobbler, I bovate for iSd. 

Ailwald de Stanton, I bovate for iSd. 

Ernald, 1 bovate for I2d., and I 
fishpond for I2d. 



Ailwin the carpenter, i bovate. 
Lewin, I bovate. 

Ailward the oxherd, 22 acres of In- 
land. 
Aluiet the oxherd, 9 acres of Inland. 
Herold the oxherd, 6 acres. 
Alwin the silversmith, 2 bovates, etc. 
Aluric the cobbler, I house and I acre 

of Inland. 
Aldwin, I house on the Inland, for 

which he works I day. 
Hagemer, I bovate. 
Siward, I house, with a croft. 
Edred, I bovate. 

Preter hasc habet Turoldus carpentarius molendinum pro xx. s. quoque 
anno et pro solidatis suis ut faciat omnia opera Ecclesias quae pertinent ad 
officium suum et de ligno et de plumbo. Hoc molendinum debet molere totum 
wintercorn de curia. 

Bersicote se defendit pro xi. bovatis. Hanc terram tenet Johannes filius 
Maboti pro servitio corporis sui. 

In Stantona habemus unam carrucatam terrae quam tenet Gaufridus de 
Clintona pro x. s. et dat decimam ejusdem terra. 

In TiCHENHALA habemus v. bovatas terrse et tertiam partem unius bovatae 
ad geldum Regis. Hanc terram tenet Robertus de Ferrariis pro x. s. 

In WiNESHULLA est tantum Inlandas ubi possuntesse duo aratra in dominio. 
Terra hominum se defendit pro ii. carrucatis. In terra WarlandS, sunt xiiii. 
bovatae ad opus et xxxviii. ad malam et ii. absque mala quas Mabon tenuit. 
Idest inter totum Iviii. bovatae. De hiis quse sunt ad opus tenent iiii. villani 
plenarii viii. bovatas idest unusquisque ii. bovatas. Ceteras idest, vi. tenent 
vi. villani dimidii idest unusquisque i. bovatam, unus cotsetus habet ibi i. 
domum et operatur i. die. 

Porro de hiis quse suni ad malam, tenet Edricus qui et villanus est i. 
bovatam ad censum et i. parroc* pro xx. d. 



Leured, i bovate for iSd. 

Godric, I bovate for gd. 

Torb, I bovate for I2d. 

Tedric, 3 bovates for 4.?, 

Stori, 2 bovates for 3^'. 

Ailwin the weaver, 2 bovates for 3^. 

Gilwin, 2 bovates for 3J. 



Lepsi, 3 bovates for 4^. 6d. exqui- 
bus retinuit Abbas in sua manu, 
i8d. 

Mahon, 2 bovates. 

Robert, 2^ bovates for 30^/. 

Fromud, 2 bovates for 3^. 

Edward de Lega, 2 bovates for 3^. 



Parroc, i.e., parcus minor, locus ad ferarum custodian. — Ed. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. I09 

Avelina, 5i bovates for Ss. Colling, 2 bovates for 3^. 

William, 4 bovates for 4^. Segan the bridge builder, I house 

Richard, 5 bovates for 6s. and I croft for i8d. 

Molendinum de ponte cum croftS, retinuit Abbas in sua propriS. manu. 
Aliud molendinum parvum at tota omnia quae sunt in manerio tradidit ad 
firmam Edrico monacho pro iiii. libris et x. solidis. 

In Caldewalla est tantum Inlandce ubi possunt esse ii. aratra in dominie, 
idest viii. virgatae de Inlands. Terra hominum se defendit pro ii. carrucatis 
et sunt xvi. virgatas de WarlandS, sunt igitur inter totum idest Inlandam et 
Warlandam xlviii. bovatas. Hanc terram tenet Willielmus filius Nigelli* pro 

XX. s. 

Folio ii. [Date, 1114.] 

In OuFRA Magna, est tantum Inlandse quae potest arari cum debito 
adjutorio hominum in uno anno per iii. aratra, in altero per iiii. aratra. 
Nunc sunt aratra iiij. de xxij. bobus. Equa i. Terra hominum se defendit 
pro iiii. carrucatis. Villani sunt Godrici, Ormer, Aluric, Alwin, Godwin, 
Ulmet, Edwin, Aluric (2), Leuoin, Alwin (2), Leuric, Edric, Uluric, Leuoin 
(2), Leuoin (3), Ordric, Ulsac, Edwin (2), Leuric (2). Villani sunt Edrici, 
Adelwi, Ulnet, Ulwin, William Colling. (Each of these villains holds two 
bovates of land, and works two days a week, carries a load to the garden when 
required, and ploughs once in the winter and twice in the spring, etc. Leave 
and time given when working for the lord to drive home and milk their cows. ) 
Censarii sunt, Godricus filius, Edrici, Aluric, Urner, Elsius, Soen presbyter, 
Ordric, Godwin, Edric, Edric senex, Godricus presbyter habet 4 bovatas 
terre et ecclesiam et nos (si<:.) omnes decimas. 

In Oufra Minore est tantum Inlandas ubi possunt esse iiij. aratra. Nunc 
sunt iiij. de xxxii. bobus. Equa i. Terra hominum se defendit pro iii. 
carrucatis. Villani sunt Godric (prepositus), Aluric, Duming, Edric, Soen, 
Uluric, Soen (2), Alwin, Edric (2), Soen (3), Leuoin, Alga, Sewachra, Aimer, 
Elmer, Meriet, Edward, Orgar. f Bovarii sunt Aid win, Elwric, Godwin, 
Godwia (2). (Each of these four holds one bovate of land and two acres of 
marsh for making the irons of three ploughs.) Censarii sunt, Soen, Edric, 
Elric, Wintrus, Edward, Godwin, Godena, Ulmet, Aga, Roger, Godwin (2). 
Item in Derb' habent ecclesiam quam tenet Godricus presbiter. 

Folio 12. 

In FiNDERNE est Inlanda aratrorum iii. nunc sunt ii. Equus i. Terra homi- 
num se defendit pro ii. carrucatis. Censarii sunt Aluredus tenet iiij. b. pro 

* William fitz Nigel de Gresley probably. 
+ The " bovarii " are the men in charge of the oxen for ploughing. 



Lewin 


do. 


Herman 


do. 


Seult 


do. 


Cotlet 


do. 



no THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

vi. s. et debet prestare aratrum suum ter in anno et equum in quadragesim^ 
ad herzandum et in estate i. hominem ad sartlandum et i. hominem ad falcan- 
dum* et i. die quadrigam ad quadrigandum fenum domini et in Augusto vi. 
dies debet domino prima vice i. hominem ad secandum, secmida, duos, tertia 
totam familiam ad cibum Abbatis, et alias iii. dies omnino similiter et debet 
portare missaticaf ubi precipitur. Leuricus tenet v. b. pro vii. s. et 6d. el 
facit consuetudines supradictas. Walterus habet ii. b. pro iii. j., et pro ser- 
vitio corporis sui et facit similiter consuetudines etc. 
Hunding, i bovate for i8t/. Winemer, I bovate for iSd. 

Penether do. Godwin, 2 bovates for 3^. 

Sortebrout, 2 bovates for 3^. 

POTLAC se defendit pro i. can-ucata. Hanc tenet Nigellus de Rapendon 
pro iiij. s. 

In WiLENTONA nichil Inlands est. Warlanda se defendit pro iij. carrucatis. 
In dominio sunt. Umfridus tenet v. b. pro nichil. Soenus Iiij. b. pro vi. s. 
Colling, 2 bovates for 28s. Aibric, I bovate for 14^/. 

Leuric do. 

Edwin, I bovate for I4(/. 
Olchet aud Godric, I bovate for I4</. 
Cola, I bovate for l^d. 
Algar do. 

Unus cotsetus est qui operatur i. die. Faber i. b. pro ser\atio suo. Molen- 
dinum reddit xx. s. 

Hoc manerium tenet Aluredus de Cumbrai pro xxx. s. et pro decima 
terrse in omnibus rebus. Debet etiam dare decimam equarum suarum ubi 
cunque morentur. 

In Stapehulla est tantum Inlandse ubi possunt esse aratra iii. Nunc sunt 
iii. de xxiiij. bobus. Equa una. Terra hominum se defendit pro ii. carrucatis. 
Villani sunt Godric, Elric, Churchhill, Aluric, Edwin, Aluric (2), Ulnod, 
Alwin, Frawin, Leuric, Utred, Torgar. 

Censarii sunt Levingus aurifaber, tenet iiij. b. et croftam et molendinum 
pro vi. s. iij. d. et operatur opus Monasterii sine mercede ad cibum Abbatis 
dum operatur et post obitum suum debet Monasterio totum censum suum si 
fuerit sine uxore, si autem cum uxore, dimidium. Ailwinus Bissop ii. b. de 
Inlanda et ii. de Warlanda pro vi. s. Six other censarii named are : — Aluric, 
Alward, William, Frawin the carpenter, Godric the smith, and Ernald. 

Bersicote se defendit pro x. bovatis. De hiis ad quietat ad gildam Regis. 
Mabonus duas partes quas inde possidet, tertiam Abbas quam sibi retinuit. 
Item tenet idem Mabotus in Stapehulla i. b. et ii. ortos et in Wineshulla ii. b. 

* Herzandum — harrowing. Sartlandum — hoeing. Fakandum — reaping. 
—Ed. 

t Missatica, i.e., messages. — Ed. ^ 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. Ill 

de terra Sochemanorum et in Wistnera de Inlanda partem pratorum. Haec 
omnia possidet pro servitio corporis sui. 

Stantona se defendit pro i. carrucata. Hanc terram tenet Gaufridus de 
Glintona pro x. s. et dat decimam ejusdem terrae. 

TiCHENHALA se defendit pro vi. bovates. Hanc tenet Robertus de 
Ferrariis et Soenus sub eo pro x s. 

In WiNESHULLA est tantum Inlandae ubi possunt esse aratra ii. et de altera 
terra gildabili sunt etiam in dominio v. i>. Nunc sunt aratra ii. de xvi. bobus. 
Equa i. Terra hominum se defendit pro ii. carrucates cum v. bovatis pre- 
dictis dominicis. Villani sunt. TAe folloiving are named: — Edric, John, 
Lewin, Walter, Gamalus, Ailward, Radulphus, Aluric, Leuric, Osmund, and 
Soen. Cotseti * sunt Osmundus, Goding, Godeva vidua, quisque tenet i. 
cortillagium et operatur i. die in ebdomada. Sochemannit sunt isti. Elwinus 
tenet ii. b. pro iii. s. et debet ii. perticas ad curiam et ii. ad lucum etc. Two 
others named, Tedric and Godric. ) Cum aliquis horum obierit heredes eorum 
debunt xvi. s. de heriete. Item Lepsi tenet iii. b. de terra sochemannorum 
pro iii. s. et xlviii. d. preter alias iii. quas habebat et dimidiam infra dominium 
Abbatis, debet tamen ire ad placita, et ad Hundredas et Syras et Wapentas. 
Item Robertus filius Fromundi habet ii. b. et dimid. de terra Sochemannorum 
pro sendtio corporis sui et pro xxx. d. Torbi i. b. pro xii. d. Item Ricardus 
filius Godefridi habet similiter de terra sochemannorum v. b. et dimidiam iij. 
scilicet et dimidiam pro x. d. et obolo, sicut sochemannus et duas quietas sicut 
Raccheristus etc. Censarii sunt isti. {^Fourteen named: — Stori, Eilmer, 
Almena, Amur, William de Tatehull, Award, Ailwen, Godmer, Elma de Lega, 
Soen, Lewin.) 

Folio 13. 

Caldewell se defendit pro ii. carrucatis. Hie est tantum Inlandae ubi 
possunt esse ij. aratra idest viii. virgatae. Terra hominum est xvi. virgatse. 
Villani sunt. {Ten named: — Ulmer, Aluric, Aluric (2), Alwin, Alwin (2), 
Uluric, Ordric, Brumar, Godwin, and Edric.) Isti omnes simul inveniunt i. 
equum apud Londoniam et auras (carts) ubicunque jubentur ad portandum 
cibum dominii. Censarii sunt Elwinus diaconus i. \'irgatam pro ii. s. Tur- 
chillus, similiter, Gamalus dimidiam virgatam pro xii. d. Isti debent prestare 
aratra sua bis in anno et in Augusto secare sicut predictum est. Elwinus habet 
ii. virgatas et dimidiam quas dedit ei Hugo cum filia sua. Wasta terra est ii. 
virgatse et dimidia. 



* The Cotseti seem to be the lowest class of tenants, cottagers and agricul- 
tural labourers. 

+ The Sochemanni hold by similar services as the Censarii, but they are all 
of English descent, and appear to be the descendants of English freemen, 
holding by hereditary right. 



112 the burton chartulary. 

Folio 17. 

[De Terra Ailwini de Stapehulla.] 

Ego Galfridus Abbas et Monachi Burtonienses mecum concedimus huic 
Ailwino presbitero filio Ailwini iiii. bovatas terrse in Stapehulla etc. Con- 
cedimus quoque ei capellariam Ecclesiae in elemosina ad serviendum parrochie 
etc. et habebit de curia pabulum et prebendam ad unum equum et hospitium 
extra portam monasterii, sicut habuit pater suus ut soUerti cura expleat 
ofificium sunm etc. Hujus conventionis etc. Edwinus Prior etc. 

[De Patronatu Ecclesife de Stapenhull.] 
Hsec est etiam ilia conventio quam fecit Galfridus de Eglintona scilicet 
Camerarius Regis cum Abbate Nigello etc. quando ipse requisivit terram de 
Stantona. Ipse vero fecit homagium Nigello Abbati omnibus quoque 
monachis preterea fidelitatem, ut homo dominis suis, et tunc recepit terram 
tali pacto quod ipse dedit Ecclesiam de Stapenylle etc. et omnes decimas de 
omnibus rebus quas habuerit in villa de Stantona scilicet de ilia parte quam 
ipse tenet de Burtona et de alia parte quam ipse tenet de alio domino etc. 
Pro terra autem dabit x. s. in unoquoque anno cum supradictis decimis etc. 
Huic conventioni affuerunt testes, videlicet etc. 

Folio 18. 

[De Terra de Tichenhale.] 

Ego Gaufridus Abbas etc. concedimus in feudum et hereditatem domino 
Roberto de Ferrariis et heredibus suis tenere de nobis et de Ecclesia illam 
terram de Tichenhale quam tenuit pater suus pro x. s. quoque anno etc. Et 
hoc est servitium quod ipse debet facere EcclesiK et Abbati et monachis. 
Debet reddere similiter ad Festum Sancti Martini x. s. et debet diligere et 
manutenere nos et Ecclesiam nostram et per se et per suos sicut amicus et 
tutor ipsius Ecclesise etc. Hujus conventionis etc. 

Folio 19. 

[De Pothlac] 

Hsec est conventio quas facta est inter Gaufridum Abbatem etc. et Gau- 
fridum de Pothlac etc. Concessit ei Abbas ipsi Gaufrido et heredi ejus in 
fedfirmam terram de Pothlac cum molendino etc. et hoc est servitium etc. 
debet dare decimam suam atque hominum suorum recte et fideliter et debet 
reddere Ecclesise xl. s. quoque anno etc. et quingentas anguillas grossas et 
bonas de Trenta ad Festivitatem Sancti Andrese Apostolici etc. Hujus con- 
ventionis etc. sunt testes Suegnus Prior, Edricus Monachus etc. 



the burton chartulary. ii3 

Folio 21. 

[De Henovere.] 

Ego Robertus Abbas Burtonise concedo etc. donationem quam predecessor 
meus Gaufridus bonK memoricc etc. concesserunt Roberto filio Wachelini* in 
feudum et hereditatem illam terram in Oura quam de eis ipse tenuit etc. et 
pro eadem terra debet reddere Ecclesisev. s. quoque anno etc. Hujus conces- 
sionis etc. Jordanus Prior etc. 

[De OuFRA.] 
Ego Robertus Abbas Burtonise etc. concedimus Ricardo filio Grentonis in 
Oura illam terram quae fuit Ordrici quam prius illam tenuit Willielmus 
heres ejus quam etiam idem Willielmus dereliquit in manibus meis multis 
audientibus et cernentibus, illam inquam ab eodem Willielmo heredibus ejus 
refutatam concedimus Ricardo filio Grentonis et heredi ejus in feudum et here- 
ditatem sicut Ordricus ipsam melius tenuit et eodem servitio. Debet reddere 
Ecclesiae viii. s. quoque anno etc. Hujus concessionis etc. Jordanus Prior, 
Briennius Subprior etc. 

Folio 22. 
[De Stapehulla.] 

Notum sit tam presentibus etc. quod ego Bernardus Abbas etc. concedimus 
etc. huic Ailwino capellano nostro iiii. b. terrse quas pater ejus tenuit et i. 
croftam et i. acram terrre juxta domum suam in Stapenhulla etc. 

[De Bersicote.] 

Sciant etc. quod ego Bernardus Abbas etc. concessimus huic Johanni et 
heredibus suis terram suam in Bersicote in feudum et hereditatem cum perti- 
nentiis suis videlicet ij. bovatas de Wineshulla et i. bov. in Stapehulla etc. 
tenendas etc. pro x. s. singulis annis reddendis etc. 

[De Bersicote.] 

Ego Bernardus dictus Abbas etc. concessimus etc. huic Ricardo de Bersi- 
cote et heredibus suis terram patris sui Johannis quam tenuit die qua fuit vivus 
et mortuus etc. pro x. s. singulis annis reddendis etc. Hiis testibus Willielmo 
Priore, Audoeno Subpriore etc. 

Ego Bernardus Dei gratia dictus Abbas etc. dedimus etc. huic Willielmo de 
la Warde et heredibus suis in feudo et hereditate vi. a. redditus quos Radulfus 
filius Ernulfi reddidit nobis scilicet de Hangelandes pro dimidia libra cimini 
per annum vel pro iii. obolis etc. 

* A Robert fitz Walchelin was one of the knightly tenants of the Earl of 
FerrarsA.D. 1166. (Liber Niger Scaccarii.) Another deed of this Chartulary 
shows he was son of this Robert, the name fitz Walkeline having been 
assumed as a patronymic at this date. 



114 the burton chartulary. 

Folio 23. 

Ego Bernardus dictus Abbas etc. concessimus etc. Alfredo de Cumbray et 
heredibus suis jus suum Wilenton videlicet, et advocationem Ecclesice cum 
pertinentiis suis et molendinum et insulas, tenendas in feudo et hereditate 
etc. pro xl. s. etc. et pro uno salmone ad refectionem monarchorum in quadra- 
gesima etc. 

[De POTLACH.] 

Usee est conventio quae tempore Bernardi Abbatis facta est inter Monachos 
Burtonias et Humfridum de Thoca in presentia Willielmi filii Radulfi Vice- 
comitis Nothighanisira et in presentia aliorum plurimum nostrorum honora- 
bilium etc. Humfridus tenebat et adhuc tenet de Abbate et Ecclesia in feudum 
quandam villulam nomine Pothlac pro xvi. s. singulis annis reddendis, excepto 
molendino, quorum medietatem octo videlicet solidos injuste sua propria 
voluntate sua propria auctoritate sine assensu Abbatis et monachorum, sine 
consideratione curiae sine judicio xiii. annis et amplius detinuerat. Hos viii. s. 
de singulis transactis annis Abbas et Monachi ab ipso exigebatur et propter 
hoc ad placitum cogebatur precepto Regis et justiciae ejus. Tandem Humfridus 
Deo volente cognovit debitum, dicens se propter hoc detinuisse quod deerat ei 
qusedam pars prefatse villse, insula videlicet quae violentia ablata et alienata a 
se et ab Ecclesia per ministros et homines Comitis Cestriae de Rependon 
fuerat ab initio Regni Regis Henrici secundi nepotis scilicet Regis Henrici 
senioris. Haec contentio demum consilio proborum virorum et utriusque partis 
amicorum tali fine terminata est. Abbas totum debitum de transacto tempore 
remisit eo tenore quod Humfridus amodo reddet plenam firman xvi. j. videlicet 
etc. Si Abbas etc. recuperare poterunt insulam quae ad prefatam villulam ad- 
jacet et pertinet, habebit eam Humfridus etc. 

[DeTerre in Derbi.] 

Ego B. dictus Abbas etc. confirmavimus Hugoni de Derbi ipsi et heredibus 
suis unam partem terrae quae pertinet ad molendinum nostrum in predicta villa 
hereditario jure tenendam etc. 

[De Henovera.] 

Ego B. Abbas etc. concedo et confiimo donationem quam predecessor meus 
Robertus Abbas etc., concesserunt Roberto filio Robeiti filii Walchelini in 
feudum et hereditatem illam terram in Oura scilicet Henoveram quam de eis 
ipse tenuit et ipse Robertus fecit nobis et Ecclesiae homagium etc. et pro 
eadem terra debit reddere Ecclesise dimidiam marcham argenti quoque anno 
etc. 

Ego B. Abbas etc. concessimus huic Roberto fratri Briennii xxx. acras 
terree in Assehurst ad perticam xx. pedum et dimidii tenendas hereditario jure 
etc. eo tenore ut singulis annis inde reddat v. s. Concessimus etiam ei has 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. IIS 

libertates ut si aliquando a nobis recedere volueril, dabit nobis xii. d. et salvo 
jure Ecclesiae liber recedat quo sibi placuerit, filias quas amodo habuerit cum 
maritare eas voluerit dabit xx. d. et maritabit etc. 

Folio 25. 
Transcripta Cartarum et Confirtnationes Militum et Libere 
Tenentium tempore Ricardi Abbatis primi.'^- 

Ego Ricardus Dei gratia d ctus Abbas Burtonise etc. concedimus etc. huic 
Radulfo Clerico nostro de Stapehulla ii. bovatas terrse quas pater ejus tenuit in 
eadem villa etc. Hujus concessionis etc. testes sunt Willielmus Prior etc. 
[De Stapehulla.] 

Ego Ricardus Abbas etc. concedimus etc. huic Roberto de Luci et heredibus 
suis unam bovatam terrae in Stapehulla pro servitio suo scilicet v. acras et 
dimidiam in Bradepeltrehull et v. acras ante hostium molendini etc. reddendo 
etc. tres solidos etc. 

[De PoTLAC et Ansedelega.I] 

Ego Ricardus Abbas etc. concedimus etc. Henrico de Thoca et heredibus 
suis Pothlac sine molendino tenendum de nobis jure hereditario, reddendo 
inde singulis annis xvi. s. etc. Preterea concedimus eidem Henrico et here- 
dibus suis Ansedelegam pro vi. s. et y\. d. annuatim reddendis etc. Preterea 
concedimus etc. memorato Henrico de Toch et heredibus suis partem illam de 
Mungai % quae est inter Staniwei et parchum Comitis et sic per eandem 
Staniwey usque in primam canam quie ducit usque in nioram et sic usque in 
Pilebroch tenendam jure hereditario etc. reddendo annuatim ii. s. etc. Hiis 
testibus Johanne de Jerpunvile etc. 

Folio 26. 
Jncipiunt Tra?tscripta Cartaram tempore Nicolai Abbatis primi. § 

[De Stapehulla.] 
EgoNicholaus Abbas etc. concedimus etc. Ricardode Stapenhullaet heredibus 
suis terram quam Bertramus filius Nicholai Bule et fratres sui et heredes eorum 
nobis in perpetuam elemosinam dederunt, scilicet quintam partem terrse qure est 
de feodo Comitis de Ferrariis quam maler predicti Bertrami jure hereditario 
tenuit, concedimus si quidem ei hanc terram jure hereditario de nobis tenendam 
pro duobus solidis et quatuor denariis annuatim reddendis etc. 

* This Richard was Abbot a.d. 1182 to a.d. 1188. 
+ Anslow ; just across the border in Staffordshire. — Ed. 
X The words "in Chirchul " are written over the line in a somewhat later 
hand-writing. 

§ The first Nicholas was Abbot A.D. 1188 to a.d.' 1 197. 



Il6 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

[De Advocatione EcclesiEe de Stapenhulla.] 

Sciant etc. quod ego Bertramus de Verdun concedo etc. Ecclesias de 
Burtonia etc. terram meam de Stnpenhulla et quicquid juris habeo in eadem 
villa etc. et remitimus eis ego et heredes mei querimoniam quam habebamus 
adversus eos de advocatione Ecclesise predictse villte. Quare volo quod predicti 
monachi habeant etc. omnia supradicta etc. libera ab omni servitio et con- 
suetudine ad me vel heredes meos pertinente, preeter forinsecum servitium quod 
per manum meam facient etc. Dederunt autem mihi et heredibus meis pre- 
dicti Abbas et monachi pro homagio et servitio meo et heredum meorum 
servitium Gaufridi de Sancto Mauro et heredum suorum de terra sua de Felda 
silicet XX. s. ad duos terminos annuatim reddendos etc. Procommutatione vero 
supradictarum teiTarum dederunt mihi predicti Abbas et monarchi xxij. marcas 
argento. Hiis testibus Gileberto Pipardo* etc. 

[Carta Vincentii de Stapehulla.] 

Ego Nicholaus Abbas etc. confirmavimus Vincencio filio Ailwini presbiteri 
et heredibus suis iiii. bovatas terrse in Stapenhulla etc. tenendas de nobis in 
feudo et hereditate libere et quiete pro vi. s. vi. (f. nobis annuatim reddendis 
pro omni servitio etc. sicut pater et avus ejusdem Vincentii tenuerunt etc. 

[De WiLENTON.] 

Ego Nicholaus Abbas etc. concedimus etc. Symoni de Tuschet et here- 
dibus suis jus suum quod Johannes de Cumbray dedit ei et heredibus suis 
sicut carta ejusdem Johannis testatur et carta Bernardi Abbatis quam idem 
Abbas fecit Aluredo de Cumbray scilicet Wilinton cum pertinentiis suis et 
advocationem Ecclesise et molendinum et insulas praster medietatem illarum 
insularum quam Nicholaus de Wtlintona remisit Comitissse de Cestra in curia 
Domini Regis etc. pro quadraginta solidis etc. et pro uno-salmone ad refec- 
tionem monachorum in quadragesima etc. 

Folio 27. 

W. permissione Divina Abbas Burtonise etc. confirmasse Johanni filio 
Radulti de Stapenhulla vii. bovatas terrge in Stapenhulla cum una crofta quae 
dicitur Lega et aliam croftam quae dicitur Childescroft etc. Totam islam 
predictam terram concedimus prefato J. filio Radulfi de heredibus suis etc. 
Reddendo inde annuatim coquinario nostro xxii. s. etc. 

Ego Willielmus de Aula donatione et concessione Domini Willelmi Abbatis 



* In the margin, in pencil, in a modern hand, is written, Petro Pipardo, 
Willelmo de Verdun, Adamo de Aldrithlega, Hernaldo Seneschallo, Aluredo 
de Kanoc, Philippo de Wilinton, et Umfrido, fratre ejus, Walerano de 
Appelbi, et Roberto filio ejus, Gaufrido de Tattenhull, et Roberto filio ejus, 
David Caldewalde, et Johanne fratre ejus, Ricardo de Bersicote. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. I I ^ 

etc. teneo mihi et lieredibus meis ix. acras terrse in Finderne arabilcs et duas 
in prato etc. et toftam in qua domus mea est, cum virgulto versus vivarium, 
etc. reddendo eis annuatim iiii. s. pro omni servitio etc. pro hac vero conces- 
sione etc. resignavi eis iiii. bovatas terrae quas habui de villagio sue in Finderne 
etc. 

[Carta R. Cleric! de Finderne.] 

Ego Ricardus Clericus de Finderne donatione et concessione Domini 
Willelmi Abbatis etc. teneo duas bovatas terrse in Finderne quas pater meus 
tenuit in eaJem villa et toftum unum quern idem tenuit in suo decessu 
tenendas eas ab eis in feudo et hereditate etc. reddendo annuatim pro omni 
servitio ad ipsos pertinente iiii. s. etc. Pro hac vero donatione et concessione 
ego Ricardus resignavi eis unam bovatam terra quam habui etc. Testis 
Magister Rogerus Senescallus etc. 

Ego Bernardus Abbas etc. concedimus Johanni de Willentona et heredibus 
suis tenuras suas videlicet vii. bovatas terrae in Wilentona pro servitio eundi 
ad Comitatum Notingham et ad Hundredum Derbeias et xii. bovatas in 
Finderne et vi. acras de domini et ii. partes prati et iiii. bovatas in Magna 
Oufra, salutas et quietas ad omni servitio etc. pro xvi. s. reddendo singulis 
annis et molendinum de Potlach et molendinum de Finderne pro xxx. s. 
quoque anno et molturam de domo sua solutam et quietara ad molendina de 
Wilentona et de Potlac et de Finderne etc. Testes Jordanus Prior et Radulfus 
Subprior etc. 

Folio 28. 

[Confirmatio Tenementi Johannis de Wilintona.] 

Robertus Abbas etc. concetTo et confirmo donationem quam predecessor meus 
Gaufridus Abbas^ptc. concesserunt huic Johanni et heredi [sic) ejus in feudum 
et hereditatem in Wilentona, idest vi. bovatas terras etc. pro vi. s. quoque anna 
quas tenuit pater ejus ante eum etc., concedo ei similiter in feudum et here- 
ditatem iiii. bovatas terra in Finderne quas tenuit pater ejus ante eum et alias 
iiii bovatas terrze in Finderne, idest viii. bovatas etc. pro viii. s, quoque anno 
etc. Testes sunt Jordanus Prior, Briennius Subprior etc. 

[De Terra Nicholai de Wilinton in Finderne.] 

Ego Rogerus Abbas etc. concedimus etc. Nicholao filio Johannis de Wilin- 
ton et heredibus suis donationem quam Bernardus Abbas etc. dedit Johanni 
patri predicti Nicholai, scilicet xii. bovatas terrse in Finderne et vi. acras de 
dominico et ij. partes prati et iiij. bovatas in Magna Oufra etc. pro xvi. s. red- 
dendis singulis annis et molendinum de Pothlac et molendinum de Finderne 
pro xxx. s. quoque anno etc. 

Ego Nicholaus de Wilentona pro hiis in quibus adversus Ecclesiam de 
Burtona maxime deliqui unam virgatam terrse quam adquisivi in Magna 



Il8 THE BURTON CHARTULARV. 

Oufra etc. leddo llberam et quietam in perpetuum de me et heredibus meis 
absque ullo retenemento. Agnes vero uxor mea et Hugo filius meus banc 
donationem concesserunt etc. Abbas et Conventus Hugoni filio meo pro 
concessione hujus terrse xx. s. dederunt etc. Insuper receperunt me et uxorem 
meam et liberos meos in omnibus beneficiis Ecclesise de Burtona et absolverunt 
me et antecessores meos super omnibus hiis quae adversus predictam Ecclesiam 
commisimus etc. 

Folio 29. 

Sciant ego Ricardus de Stapehulla et Margareta uxor mea et Willemus heres 
meus donationem terra: quam Stephanus filius Rogeri et Matilda mater ejus 
Abbatiae de Burtona fecerunt in Stapenhulla, ratam habemus et presenti 
scripto confirmavimus etc. scilicet anno primo coronationis Ricardi Regis 
Abbatiae de Burtona concedimus etc. 

Folio 31. 

Sciant etc. ego Willielmus filius Palmarii de Wineshulle et heredes mei 
non erimus impedimento occasione alicujus tenement! quod de Abbate etc. 
tenemus quin possint pro voluntate sua conditionem suam meliorare in parcis, 
in vivariis, in assartis, in vineis, in fossatis etc. sine aliquo impedimento nostro. 
Item mesuagiuni nobis ab eisdem concessum in villa de Wineshulle quod jacet 
inter mesuagium Reginaldi Knicht et mesuagium Murielis vidua relictae 
Albyni, nemini dabimus vel vendemus vel aliquo modo sine eorum licencia 
alienabimus etc. 

Folio 33. 

Ranulfus Comes Cestriae omnibus hominibus suis totius AnglicC et Nor- 
mannise etc. salutem. Sciatis me dedisse et quietum clamasse a me et a meis 
heredibus Deo et Sanctse Marise et Ecclesise de Burtona, quietum et solutum 
insulas de Wilentona et de Potlac quas aliquando ministri mei preoccupaverant 
injuste etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Robertus filius Walteri quietam clamavi etc. calupniam 
quam adversus Ecclesiam Sanctse Marise etc. habui videlicet de Potlac et de 
molendino etc. cum omnibus rectis meis quicquid jure hereditario clamare 
potui etc. breve Domini Regis per quod predictam Ecclesiam in placitum 
misi tradidi in manibus Vicecomitis quod ipse Vicecomes in pleno comitatu 
de Notigham coram omnibus fregit et comminuit, et ut hoc in concussum 
permaneat in toto comitatu multis cementibus qui se ipsos testes concesserunt 
in manu Vicecomitis Serlonis manu mea hoc tenendum et servandum affidavi. 
Prseter hsec autem omnia in Burthona super altare Sanctse Mariae etc. tempore 
bonse memorise Rogeri Abbatis qui tunc vices antedictse Ecclesise gerebat 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. II9 

tactis sacrosanctis hoc custodire confirmavi tarn propter x. marcas quas mihi 
predicta Ecclesia dedit coram omnibus ipsius Comitates tam propter trans- 
gressiones patris mei et antecessorum meorum quas intulerunt Ecclesise 
predictcC in remissionem peccatoium suorum etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Jordanus de Toka dedi etc. ad sustentationem Capellani et 
Clerici quos vicarius de Magna Oufra constituet ad faciendum plenarium 
servitium in Capella de Potlac dimidiam marcam argenti solvendam in festo 
Sancti Martini, Vicario de Magna Oufra, a me et heredibus meis in perpetuum, 
et decimam molendini de Potlac et unam acram terrse in villa de Potlac etc. 

Universis etc. Robertus de Toke salutem. Noverit etc. me dedisse etc. 
Domino N. Abbati de Burtona etc. licenciam benigne vivaria sua afifirmare 
apud Finderne etc. ita quod nunquam ibi fiat molendinum etc. 

Heec est conventio facta inter Laurentium Abbatem etc. ex una parte et 
Robertum de Toke militem ex alia parte super contentionibus clausturse 
haiarum et pasturae ortis inter eos in Ansedelega, videlicet quod dictus Abbas 
etc. concesserunt dicto Roberto et heredibus suis et hominibus suis de 
Ansedele ut claudatur longa haia a lata via quae Mereweya dicitur quantum 
ilia longa haya extendit inter boschum Abbatis et campum arabilem de 
Ansedele versus fontem Raveneti de omni boscho excepta quercu et hus et de 
quercu capiant palos quantum potest attingi stando in terra de rationabile 
wige et secuti. Item concesserunt ut claudantur hayse de curia domini in 
Ansedele quando necesse fuerit de spinis et de alno et de salice turn ubi 
proprius et competentius poterit claustura capi extra hayam Abbatis quae 
Lithlehaya dicitur et cum necesse fuerit claudi, nunciabitur Domino Abbati 
vel celerario vel alio ballivo suo sero ut veniat vel mittat mane ad rationabile 
estoverium suum clausturoe capiatur ut predictam est de clanstura et veniente 
preteria forestario vel ballivo, ostendatur ei locus captionis et claustura etc. 
Hiis testibus Willelmo de Vernun tunc Justictario Cestriae* et aliis. 

Robertus Comes de Ferrariis omnibus hominibus et amicis suis et nomin- 
atim Radulfo de Seyle Conestablo suo et Roberto de Piro Dapifero salutem. 
Sciatis me concessisse iiii. bovatas in Bromleya quae sunt de feudo meo Ecclesiae 
Burthonensi in elemosinam cum omnibus pertinentiis suis in perpetuum 
propter dampna a me et meis Ecclesiae predictas illata, et infra primes xv. 
dies postquam rediero de Sancto Jacobo adquietabo et deliberabo terram 
predictam ad opus Ecclesiae, et si non redeam, heredes mei faciant, et dabo 
Waltero de Sumervilef suum escambium de molendino de Derbeia et prato si 
hoc ad me pertinet et precipio Radulfo de Seyle et Roberto Dapifero et 
omnibus ballivis meis quatinus teneant firmam pacem meam Ecclesiae de 



* Sir William Vernon was Justiciary of Chester a.d. 1229 to a.d. 1232. 

t This seems to confirm the supposition of Eyton, that Walton who held 
Rideware Hamstall of Earl Roger a.d. 1086 is Walter de Somerville. Ride- 
ware Hamstall adjoins Bromley. [See Eyton 's " Domesday of Staffordshire."] 



I20 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

placitis, de calumpniis, de operibus et de omnibus aliis querelis. Testes 
etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Nicholaus de Wilentona dedi etc. Willelmo Abbati et 
monachis etc. unam bovatam terras in Magna Oufra quam Ethelwi de me 
tenuit et eundem Ethelwi cum tota sequela sua pro animabus antecessorum 
meorum etc. Preterea dedi etc. servitium et homagium Philippi de Burthona 
qui fuit frater Abbatis Nicholai et heredum suorum de una bovata terrse etc. 
in Magna Oura etc. 

Universis etc. Nicholaus filius Johannis de Wilenton salutem. Noverit etc. 
me dedisse etc. vii. acras terrs-arabilis et unam acram prati in Finderne et 
iii. acra (sic) apud Scrichethorn et tres dimidas acras quas tenuit Alicia filia 
Seynburne etc. 

Universis etc. Nicholaus de Wilentona salutem. Noverit etc. me dedisse 
Dominio N. Abbati etc. licenciam benigne vivaria sua affirmare apud 
Finderne etc. 

Folio 35. 

Omnibus etc. Nicholaus de Wilentona miles salutem etc. Noverit etc. 
quod ego Nicholaus dedi etc. Nicholao Abbati etc. Ricardum filium Hugonis 
cum omni sequela sua et illam bovatam terra? quam Hugo pater ipsius Ricardi 
tenuit in Finderne etc. Pro hoc autem concessione etc. dictus Abbas etc. me 
quietum clamavit de suis arreragiis et firmis quibus ipsis debitor tenebar, 
scilicet in summa viginti duarum marcarum. Preterea predicti Abbas etc. 
mihi concesserunt ut sim participes omnium benefactorum Ecclesias Bur- 
thonensis et animas Johannis avi mei et Johannis patris mei et Johannis fratis 
mei et Phillippi et Umfridi avunculorum meorum in participatione omnium 
benefactorum suorum susceperint. Et si quid aliquando contra Monasterium 
Burthonensem deliquerunt, quantum in ipsis est illis dimiserunt etc. 

Sciant etc. Nicholaus filius Johannis de Wilentona dedi etc. totum 
tenementum quod habui in villa de Finderne in homagiis et servitis, in terris 
etc. salvis mihi et heredibus meis, homagiis, tenementis et servitiis Hugonis de 
Finderne et Roberti de Alwethelega et prato quod fuit Walteri quod Dominus 
Reginaldus de Karleolo tenet etc. Pro hac autem donatione etc. prefati 
Abbas etc. quietos clamaverunt mihi et heredibus meis xl. et vii. s. argenti 
quibus Abbati et monachis sub annua firma tempore preterito tenebar, Scilicet 
pro terra de Finderne in xii. s. et pro molendino de Potlac quod Robertus de 
Tok tenet xx. s. pro quadam parte firmae de Wilentona qua eisdem per 
assignationem Thomje Tuschet tenebar xv. s. etc. Hiis testibus Domino 
Radulfo filio Nicholai Seneschallo Domini Regis, et aliis. 

Universis etc. Stephanus de Bellocampo salutem. Noverit etc. me 
reddidisse etc. Deo et Sanctas Mariae et Sanctae Moduennae Virgini de Burthona 
etc. villam de Cotes etc. quam injuste occupaveram, in perpetuum pacifice et 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 121 

quiete tenendum et habendam absque omni reclamatione de me vel heredibus 
meis etc. 

Notum sit presentibus etc. ego Ricardus de Riveriis pro amore Dei et pro 
salute Dominis Regis Henrici etc. dedi Nicholao Abbati de Burthona etc. 
unam salinam et locum salinje quae predictus Abbas edificavit in Wicho ultra 
pontem cum xii. plumbis et cum tlieloneo ejusdeni salinse etc. 

Sorer Matildis dicla Priorissa Derbige ejusdemque loci totus Conventus 
omnibus etc. salutem. Noverit etc. nos accepisse de dono Domini Abbatis 
Burthonensis etc. molendinum quod dicitur Sirrevemulne cum adjacente 
prato xii. s. annuatim persolvendis etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Matilda filia Swani de Parvo Oufra habeo et teneo ex 
donatione Domini W. Abbatis de Burthona etc. medietatem totius terrse quam 
pater meus tenuit cum tola tofta et tola crofta et aliis pertinentiis suis in 
eadem villa exceptis viii. acris in veteri campo. Tenendam de eis mihi et 
heredibus meis qui de ventre meo ex legitime matrimonio pervenerint etc. 
Reddendo inde annuatim duos solidos etc. 

Universis Chrispi etc. Nicholaus filius Walkelini de Henovere salutem etc. 
Noverit etc. Ricardum de Insula Abbatem Burtoniae etc. dedisse etc. mihi et 
heredibus meis pro homagio et servitio nostro vi. acras terras in cultura ilia de 
Magna Oufra quae vocatur Crosforlong versus Parvam Oufram etc. 

Folio 36. 

Sciant etc. ego Rogerus filius Roberti de Huncesdona dedi etc. vi. acras 
terrse in villa de Huncesdona* scilicet extra donum Galfridi etc. 

Omnibus Chrispi etc. Rogerus Abbas salutem. Noverit etc. nos concessisse 
etc. Petro filio Engeranni de Derbi molendinum nostrum in Derbi cum 
sequela Oure Majoris et Minoris et cum Oseburgeholm quod idem P. de nobis 
antea lenuic ad terminum. Tenendum sibi et heredibus suis jure hereditario 
a nobis etc. Reddendo inde annuatim iii. marcas et dimidiam etc. 

Folio 37. 

Omnibus etc. Thomas de Maddelega salutem. Sciatis me dedisse etc. 
Stephano Meverel et heredibus suis etc. totum jus et clamium quod habui vel 
habere potui in septem bovatis terras in Magnu Oufra quas Eda mater mea et 
Hawisa soror Edae matris meas quondam tenuerunt in eadem villa etc. Pro 
hac autem donatione etc. dedit mihi prefatus Stephanus unam bovatam terras 
in Cotes etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Stephanus Meverel pro anima Agnetis uxoris mese dedi etc. 
Deo et EcclesiJe etc. et Laurentio Abbati etc. tres bovatas terrse et dimidiam 

* Hanson Grange, in Thorpe parish. 



122 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

cum pertinentiis in Magna Oufra quas habui de dono Thomse de Maddelega et 
quas predictus Thomas recupeia vit coram Domino Stephano de Sethgrave, 
Willelmo de Eboraco et eoium sociis Justiciariis Itineranlibusapud Notingham 
anno regni Regis Heniici filii Regis Johannis xvi. per breve mortis antecessoris 
et post recuperationem illam piedictas tres bovatas terrse et dimidiam mihi per 
cartam suam dederat. Preterea relaxavi etc. omne ius et clamium quod habui 
etc. per concessionem predicti Thomse de Maddelega dictis Abbati etc. in aliis 
tribus bovatis terras et dimidia in eadem villa, quas idem Thomas clamavit in 
eadem curia coram predictis Justiciariis versus eundem Abbatem per breve 
mortis antecessoris, scilicet de morte Edae matris suae, et unde idem Thomas 
tunc cecidit {sic). Ita quidem quod nee ego nee heredes mei etc. 

Sciant, etc. ego Thomas de Maddelega concessi etc. Laurentio Abbati etc. 
illas iii. bovatas terrse et dimidiam in Magna Oufra quas recuperavi versus 
eundem Abbatem coram Domino Stephano de Sethgrave etc. anno regni Regis 
Henrici filii Regis Johannis xvi. etc. quas habent de dono Stephani Meverel 
cui illas prius dederam etc. 

Folio 40. 

Sciant etc. Robertus filius Roberti de Torp concessi etc. sex acras terra in 
villa de Huncedona quas Rogerus filius Rogeri de Huncedona eis dedit etc. 
Reddendo inde annuatim prenominato Rogero et heredibus suis xii. d. etc. 
salva secta molendini mei de Thorp ad vicesimum granum. Preterea concessi 
etc. unam acram terrse in villa de Huncedon illam scilicet quam Synion filius 
Pagani de Huncedona eis dedit etc. Pro hac autem concessione etc. dedit 
mihi Laurentius Abbas Burtonise xx. s. sterlingorum. Hiis testibus Domino 
Willelmo de Aldithelega etc. 

De una bovata terrse in Wineshull tempore Laurentii Abbatis. 

Sciant etc. ego Willielmus filius Willielmi Palmarii de Wineshulle dedi etc. 
unam bovatam terrse in villa de Wineshulle etc. illam scilicet bovatam cujus 
bovatse dimidia acra jacet in campo versus Brettebi in cultura de Worthinges 
inter terram Roberti Presbiteri et Thomse Brid, et dimidiam acram in Lom- 
brecote inter terram Roberti Presbiteri et Nicholai ad capud villcc, et dimidiam 
acram etc. (33 half acres named altogether and 4 roods of land making up the 
bovate). 

Folio 41. 

Notum sit etc. ego David de Caldewalle do et concede etc. Radulfo nepoti 
Nicholai Abbatis de Burtona tres virgatas terrse in Caldewelle, medietatem 
de dominio meo et medietatem de Warlanda in libero maritagio cum filia 
mea Basilia concedente Radulfo herede meo et aliis heredibus meis et uxore 
mea Matilda salvo servitio duorum solidorum etc. tres etiam mesuagias habebit 
Radulfus, unam scilicet quam Brumman tenuit et alteram quam Siwardus le 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 1 23 

Wise tenuit et tertiam quam profecit et in campo, unam siguidem virgatam et 
dimidiam habebit de Warlanda et unam et dimidiam de culturis de dominio. 
Devenit autem supradictiis Radulfus homo mens de predicto tenemento. Hiis 
testibus etc. 

Omnibus etc. Radulfus Pollard filius Radulfi de Withmere salutem etc. 
Noverit etc. me concessisse etc. duas virgatas terras in villa de Caldewelle illas 
scilicet quas Radulfus de Caldewelle tenuit in dominio et mihi coram 
Justiciariis Domini Regis apud Notingham recognovit ut jus meum etc. 
Reddendo inde annuatim Radulfo filio Radulfi de Caldewelle et heredibus 
suis xii. denarios etc. Et pro hac donatione etc. dedit mihi Laurentius Abbas 
et Conventus Burtonensis unum corredium unius liberi servientis quo 
ad vixero a domo Burtonensi percipiendum in pane cervisia et companagio 
et duodecim solidos annuos proindumentis et calciamentis ab Abbate Burtoni» 
qui pro tempore fuerit tota vita mea preeipiendos etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Robertus filius Roberti de Thorp concessi etc. sex acras 
terrse in villa de Huncedona quas Rogerus filius Roberti de Huncedona eis 
dedit. (A duplicate of a former deed.) 

Omnibus etc. Nicholaus de Wilentona filius Nicholai militis de Wilentona 
salutem etc. Noverit etc. me cartam patras mei Nicholai militis filii Johannis 
de Wilentona inspexisse in haec verba, Sciant etc. quod ego Nicholaus filius 
Johannis de Wilentona dedi etc. totum tenementum quod habui in villa de 
Finderne etc. [as before]. 

Folio 42. 

Omnibus etc. Johannes filius Radulfi de Stapehulle salutem in Domino. 
Noverit etc. Dominum Ricardum Abbatem Burtonise etc. dedisse etc. mihi et 
heredibus meis communam piscatoris in aqua de Trente scilicet ab inferiori 
parte insulse mese de Horseholm usque ad superiorem vadum sub stagno 
molendini camerarii Burtonensis ad piscandum in eadem aqua eum corbellis 
et safna per medium fili ejusdem aquae a parte Comitatus Derbise et ultra 
dictum vadum versus stagnum quantum potest pedes vadari ad piscandum cum 
safna absque corbellis etc. Hiis testibus Galfrido de Gresele etc. 

Gregorius Episcopus servus servorum Dei dilectis filiis Decano Cancellario 
et Subdecano Eboracensis Ecclesise salutem et apostolicam benedictionem etc. 
[Letters of Pope Gregory giving apostolic authority to hear and determine the 
dispute between William de Luceby, the Archdeacon of Derby, and Laurence, 
the Abbot of Burton, respecting the ecclesiastical liberties of the Convent ; 
dated the I2th of the Kalends of November, 8th year of his pontificate. 
After which follow the following instruments referring to the same cause : — 

a. Citatioti to the Abbot. 

b. Commission to the Prior of Tuttebury to hear the cause. 

c. Commission to the Prior of Repindon. 



124 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

d. Excuse of the Prior of Repindon, requesting exemption. 

e. Commission to the Prior of Gresley to hear and determine the cause 

in place of the Prior of Repindon. 

Folio 43. 

Sentence of the Priors of Tuttebury and Gresley in favour of the Abbot. 
Carta IV. de Liiceby super premissis. 

Universis etc. Williehiius de Luceby Archidiaconus Derbia; sahitcm in 
Domino. Noverit etc. concessisse Abbati et monachis Burthonensis Ecclesije 
etc. omnes libertates quae in summorum pontificum privilegiis et in Episcoporum 
Conventrensium etc. scriptis continentur etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Philippus de Roucestre dedi etc. Laurentio Abbati etc. 
totum tenementum et homagia et redditus qua habui in villa de Wineshulle 
etc. scilicet homagium et servitium Willemi filii Roberti de Wineshulle de 
una virgata terrae et homagium et servitium Willelmi de subbosco (Under- 
wood) de unabovata terrse etc. et homagium et servitium Herberti de Soben- 
hall de una bovata terrse etc. 

Universis etc. Walterus filius Radulfi de Sobenhale salutem. Noverit etc. 
me dedisse etc. unum mesagium cum pertinentiis in villa de Sobenhale quod 
Radulfus Bole tenuit cum mesuagio Nicholai de Oxonia et unum parvum 
toftum quod jacet juxta mesuagium Herberti carucarii quod extenditur juxia 
Holebroc versus hayam Abbatis etc. 

Sciant etd. ego Matildis filia Julianas de Sobenhale quondam uxor Willelmi 
Gardinarii de Lichfeld en ligia viduitate etc. dedi etc. omne jus et clamium 
quod habui etc. in toto tenemento quod fuit Julianae matris meas in villa de 
Sobenhale etc. et omne jus etc. in una bovata terrse etc. in eadem villa quam 
clamavi versus Abbatem de Burthona ut jus meum quod ad me spectabat per 
Milisantam sororem meam qute quondam tenuit etc. 

Folio 44. 

Omnibus etc. Nicholaus filius Nicholai militis de Wylentona salutem. 
Noverit etc. me dedisse totam terram meam in villa de Wilentona quae jacet 
scilicet infra Wulveneburinis et veterem campum et stratam regiam quae appe- 
latur Ykeni'.d et brueram, Tenendam etc. 

Notum sit etc. ego Radulfus filius Ricardi de Finderne Clerici concessi etc. 
domino meo Abbati de Burthona etc. quod non ero eis in impedimentum quin 
possint conditionem suam meliorare ut in stagnis levandis et molendinis 
faciendis etc. 

Ranulfus Comes CertricC, omnibus hominibus suis totius Anglire et Nor- 
maniae, necnon et omnibus sanctas Dei EcclesiK filius salutem. Sciatis me 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. j,^ 

^onasse, etc., insulas de Wylintona et de Poblacquas aliquando .ninistri n.ei 
pre-occupaverunt .njuste, in satisfactione o.nnium forisfactoru,n quocunque f 
hcdesise sua restibus. ^ ^ 

slT.Tr\n-Tr' --ordia facta in Curid Domini Regis apud West, in octabis 
Sancta Tr.nUat.s anno regn. Edwarde Regis Anglia. tertii a Conquest.) quarto- 
cmo e, regn, ejusden. Regis Franci. pd.o coram Johanne de Stonor 

de Caldewelle et Ceaham uxorem ejus deforciantes de manerio de Caldewelle 
cmpen,nentns etc. scilicet quod predicti Radulfus et Cecilia recognover 
pred ctum manenum etc. esse jus ipsius W.llelmi et ilium remiLunt e 

wniiein.sdeditpredictusR.drrc:sHj:^:::::-^^^^^^^^ 

Folio 46. 
Finales Cojicordice. 
H.C est finalis concordia facta in Curia Domini Regis apud Notingham die 
Mart, proximo post NativitatemSti. Johannis Baptist, anno regni Regis J 
quarto coram Domino J. Norwic Episcopo etc. inter Rogerum fi.ium Wi'e mi 
petentum et Abbatem de Burthona tenentem de iiij. or bovatis terr. c^m p ^ 
Oura underecognitiodemorteantecessorissumonita fuit inter eos in pt 
fata una schcet quod predictus Rogerus remisit et quietum clamavit totul 
-usetclammm quod habuit in prefatis iiii. bovatis Lr. prefato A bat 
successor.bus ejus de se et heredibus suis imperpetuum. Et pro hac elc ded 
prefatus Abbas prefato Rogero xx. .. sterlingorum. 

H^cest finalis concordia etc. 7 John etc. inter Willielmum Abbatem de 
Burtonapetentemet Nicholaum de Wilintona tenentem de servitiis con 
suetud,n,bus ,uos idem Abbas exegit ab eo de libero tenemento qu d de eo 
tene m Potlach et in Finderne etc. [Nicholas and his heirs to hold the tene 
ment of the Abbots for 43^. (,d. annually.] ' 

H.C est finalis concordia etc. apud Notingham anno etc. Henrici filii Regis 
Johann,s X. etc. mter Ricardum Abbatem de Burthona petentem et Thoma 
Tuschet tenentem de xxx. acris etc. in Magna Oure etc. [The Abbot releas 
hzs cla™, for which Thomas grants him permission to assart 60 acres in Sorte 
g|^ve ; and Thomas and his heirs and their men to have common of pasture for 
alcattle m Magna Oufra, and the Abbots and their men to have commo 
pasture for all cattle m the manors of Macworthe and Marcheton 1 
t 

Folio 47. 

H^ec est finalis concordia facta etc. apud Notingham anno. 10 H. Ill inter 
Ricaraum Abbatem de Burthona querentem et Henricum Tuschet, Basiliam 



126 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

uxorem ejus, Hugonem filium Hugonis, Herbertum Snau, Ricardum molen- 
dinarium etc. and 26 others named, deforciantes de communa pasturse in Ufre 
unde idem Abbas questus fuit quod predicti homines injuste exigebant com- 
munam in terra ipsius Abbatis de Ufre de sicut idem Abbas nuUam commu- 
nam habet in terra ipsorum hominum de Macworth et Marketon, etc. [The 
Abbot acknowledged the claim of the men of Mackworth and Markeaton to 
common of parture in Ufre, for which concession the said men, so far as lay in 
them, conceded that the Abbot might assart 60 acres of land in Sortegrave in 
that part nearest to Ufre. ] 

Hrec est finalis concordia etc. anno 10 H. III. inter Ricardum Abbatem de 
Burthona querentem et Rogerum le Bretun deforciantem de communa pastura 
in Ofre etc. [The Abbot concedes to Roger and his heirs and to his men 
of Rughedich common of pasture in the whole manor of Magna Ufre, and in 
the manor of Parva Ufre after the deaths of Philip Marcus and his wife Anne, 
for which concession Roger (so far as lies in him) concedes to the Abbot etc. 
permission to assart 60 acres in Sortegrave, and Nicholas de Enovere and his 
heirs shall have free entry and exit to the same pasture near Witesiche.] 

Folio 48. 

Hsec est finalis concordia etc. anno 16 H. III. inter Laurentium Abbatem 
etc. per Willelmum de Esseburne positum loco ipsius Abbatis etc. et Philip- 
pum de Roucestre quern Robertus filius Roberti vocavit ad warrantum, et qui 
ei warantizavit de una virgata terrs etc. in Wineshulle in Comitatu Derhi. 
[Philip remits all claim.] 

Hasc est finalis concordia etc. anno 3 H. III. inter Radulfum filium Radulfi 
petentem et Radulfum de Caldewelle tenentem de tribus virgatis terras etc. in 
Caldewelle, unde assisa mortis antecessoris sumonita fuit inter eos. etc. 
[Ralph de Caldewelle concedes to Ralph two virgates of land, which he had 
held in demesne, excepting two selions, for 6d, annually, for which Ralph fitz 
Ralph remits all claim to the other virgate.] 

Haec est concordia fine duelli* coram Thoma Noel Vicecomite in Comitatu 
Stafford inter Godefridum de Sobenhale et Julianam de Sobenhale de dimidia 

* This is a very interesting example of a trial by w.Tgerof battle in the reign 
of Henry II., in the County Court before the Sheriff Juliana had evidently 
transferred her suit into the County Court by writ of right, and it would have 
been decided by a duel if the parties had not come to terms. The ' ' duelhim " 
was waged {vadiatum), but not fought (percussim). As the final concord was 
va?Atfi>ie ditelli, the champions had appeared in the arena, and the duel had 
been stopped at the last moment by a compromise, which is drawn up in the 
above form. Thomas Noel was Sheriff the last five years of the reign of 
Henry II. 

[This is a Staffordshire and not a Derbyshire deed, but in connection with 
General Wrottesley's note, it is so interesting that it has been here retained. — 
Ed.] 



THE BURTON CHARTULARV. I 27 

hida terras quam eadetn Juliana per perceptum Domini Regis clamabit tenere 
de Abbate de Burtona. Predicta vero Juliana cepit unam acram terrrs in 
seisina predictae terrse at residuum de dimidia bovata terras remanet Godefrido 
in vita sua facienti servitium inde ipsi Julianae et pro concessione predictae 
Julianae prefatus Godefridus dedit eidem Julianas xx. s. Post decessum vero 
predicti Godefridi eadem Juliana habebit terram ipsam in feudo et hereditate 
sibi et heredibus suis. Predictus vero Godefridus juravit in Comilatu de Staf- 
ford quod non adquieret artem vel ingenium unde ipsa Juliana vel hevedes sui 
hereditatem istam debeant amittere. Hujus rei sunt testes Robertus Presbiter 
de Stapenhulla, Radulfo filio Erraldi, David de Kaldevi'alle, Philippo de 
Buruhg, Hui (j/V) Bagot, Willielmus de Samford, et plures alii et totus 
Comitatus. 

Haec est finalis concordia etc. anno 36 H. III. inter Laurentium Abbatem 
querentem per Willelmum de Esseburne etc. et Willelnium de Stafford et 
Ermentrudam uxorem ejus impedientes de uno stagno cum pertinentiis in 
Eginton, unde placitum warantizationis cartae sumonita fuit inter eos etc. 
[The Abbot and his successors to hold the mill pool of William Ermentrude 
and the heirs of Ermentrude for 5^. annually.] 

Haec est finalis concordia etc. anno 18 H. III. etc. inter Ricardum de Hole- 
crombe et Margeriam uxorem ejus petentes et Nicholaum de Wilentona, quern 
Laurentius Abbas de Burthona vocavit ad warentum, et qui ei warentizavit de 
quatuor bovatis terrae etc. in Finderne, etc. [Richard and Margery remit their 
claim, for which Nicholas concedes that they shall hold all the land in Wilinton 
they first held of the said Nicholas for a pair of white gloves yearly.] 

P'OLIOS 50 TO 59, INCLUSIVE. 

Contain duplicate transcripts of Deeds which have already appeared. 
Folio 6o. 

Sciant presentes et futuri quod ego Rogerus filius Roberti de Huncedona 
dedi etc. anno gratiae M.cc. quadragesimo secundo Deo et Ecclesiae Sanctae 
Mariae et Sanctae Moduennae etc. et Laurentio Abbati etc. totam terram et tene- 
mentum et dominicum quod habui vel habere potui in villa de Huncedona cum 
boscho etc. simul cum homagiis et servitiis, relevagiis et eschaetis etc. scilicet 
homagium et servitium Henrici de Alsop viginti octo denariorum et homagium 
et servitium Willielrii le Child de Thorp duorum denariorum. Item homagium 
et servitium Henrici de Huncedona fratris mei unius denarii pro tenementis 
qui de mei tenuerunt in dicta villa de Huncedona et triginta acras terrae arabilis 
in campis de Huncedona quas Abbas et Conventus de Cumbremara de me 
tenuerunt ad terminium xxviii. annorum, a festo Sancti Michaelis anno R.R. 



128 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

Heniici filii R. Johannis Vicessimo sexto subsequentium etc. Reddendo inde 
annuatim mihi et heredibus meis xii. d. vel nomine meo et heredum meorum 
capital! domino meo Roberto de Thorp et heredibus suis etc. Hiis testibus 
Domino Willelmo de Andithelega, etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Laurentius Abbas etc. dedimus etc. Rogero filio Roberti 
de Huncedona et heredibus suis etc. pro homagio et servitio suo capitale 
mesuagium quod fuit Radulfi Camerarii in villa de Withmere cum tofto etc. 
simul cum tofto etc. qui fuerunt Hugonis le Halfweyn cum xl. acris terrse 
arabilis in eadem villa etc. Preterea dedimus etc. quolibet anno in boscho 
nostro de Burtona sex bigatas bosci ad ardendum et iiii. bigatas de claustura 
per visum forestarii etc. Reddendo inde etc. xii. d. pro omni servitio etc. 
Hiis testibus Domino Hugone de Acovere, etc. 

Confirmatio Roberti de Thorp Capitalis Domini de Villa de Huncedona 
cum pertinentiis. 

Sciant etc. ego Robertus filius Roberti de Thorp concessi etc. Laurentio 
Abbati etc. totam terram et tenementum et dominicum quod Rogeius de 
Huncedona eis dedit in villa de Hunaedona etc. Hiis testibus Domino 
Jordano de Snitterton, Domino Roberto de Esseburne, Domino Hugone de 
Acoure, etc. 

Folio 6i. 

Confirmatio Roberti de Thorpe Capitalis Domini de Villi de Huncedona. 

Sciant etc. ego Robertus filius Roberti de Thorp concessi Roberto de 
Huncedona et heredibus suis villam de Huncedona etc. ut jus suum et 
hereditatem etc. Reddendo inde annuatim mihi et heredibus etc. duodecim 
denarios etc. pro omni demanda etc. salvo forinseco et salva secta molendini 
mei de Thorp totius vilte de Huncedona ad vicessimum granum sicut 
antiquitus solebant etc. Pro hac autem concessione dedit michi predictus 
Robertus de Huncedona tres marcas argenti et dimidiam in initio hujus 
convenlionis. Prenominatus vero Robertus curiam meam sequi debet ad 
ejusdem curife forciamentum etc. Hiis testibus Nicholao Clerico de Esse- 
burne, Willelmo Persona de Alstanfeld, Rogero de Wodneslega, Jordano de 
Snittertona, Ranulfo de Alleshope, Johanne de Middeltona, Johanne de 
Crumford, Radulfo de Peverwich, Adam de Lege, Thoma de Benetlega, 
Henrico filio Gamel, et pluribus aliis. 

Sciant etc. ego Rogerus filius Roberti de Huncedona dedi etc. Waltero filio 
Willelmi Tinctoris de Esseburne et heredibus suis pro homagio et servitio suo 
unam toftam in villa de Huncedona, illam scilicet quam Swein tenuit inter 
Ernoteheved et toftam quam Henricus filius Edwini tenuit etc. Tenendum 
etc. cum pastura de Huncedona ad quatuor viginti multones et ad quadraginta 
matrices bidentes iu quolibet anno cum toto exitu suo ejusdem anni. Solvendo 
etc. sex denarios etc. Hiis testibus Roberto de Thorp, Henrico de Alsope, 
Henrico de Mathelfeld, Pagano Mercatore, Willelmo de Lege, et aliis. 



the burton chartui.ary. 1 29 

Folio 65. 

Omnibus etc. Willelmus Servelavedi de Derbeia salutem. Nov"erit me 
dedisse etc. unum toftum in villa Derbeise etc. quod Walterus filius Willelmi 
Tinctoris* de Esseburne de eisdem tenuit et idem Walterus post itinere sue 
versus terram sanctam assensu Ynge uxoris suse et Symonis filii eorum et 
heredis eisdem de toto resignaverunt etc. Reddendo inde annuatim camerario 
dictre domus de Burtona etc. unam niarcam argenti etc. Item reddendo inde 
annuatim Domino Radulfo de Freschervile Domino de Alwaldestona et here- 
dibus suis xvi. d. etc. 

Memorandum quod die Martis prox. ante festum Beati Petri quK dicitur 
Ad vincula anno Gratije m.cc.xliii. anno regni Regnis Henrici filii Regis 
Johannis xxvii. anno Domini Laurentii Abbatis Burtonife xv. assisa xii. 
militum per breve Domini Regis tunc in Gasconia existentis, capta fuit apud 
Notingham coram Dominis Roberto de Lexinton etc. Justicariis Domini Regis 
itinerantibus etc. inter Laurentium Abbatem Burtonise, Willelmum de Esse- 
burne et Ceciliam uxorem suam et Ricardum filium Henrici de Huncedona 
petentes et Abbatem de Cumbremara et fratrem Willelmum Grangerium de 
Neutona deforciantes de terris apud Motlawe et Ravenesvvalle tunc cultis et 
seminatis, unde dicta assisa recognovit quod Rogerus filius Roberti de Hunce- 
dona eodem die quo feofavit predictum Laurentium Abbatem etc. de villa de 
Huncedona fiiit in plenaria seisina de omni pastura predictarum terrarum 
videlicet apud Motlawe et Raveneswalle pertinente ad villam de Huncedona 
et omnes antecessores sui, unde dixerunt quod idem Abbas Laurentius 
disseisitus fuit. Quare recuperavit seisinam et Abbas de Cumbremara cum 
predicto Willelmo fratri suo Grangerio de Neutona remansit in misericordia 
Domini Regis Dampna vero appreciata fuerunt viz. unam marcam quam clerici 
Justiciariorum percepunt. 

Folio 68. 

Sciant etc. Symon filius Walter! Tinctoris de Esseburne dedi etc. unam 
viigatam terrse in villa de Benethlegaf illam scilicet quam Ricardus filius 
Godwin! tenuit etc. 

Sciant etc. Ricardus filius Johannis de Benethlega dedi etc. unam partem 
toft! me! in villa de Benethlega super quam grangia quondam mea stetit etc. 



* Tinctor, dyer, !n this case was probably a surname derived from an 
ancestor, and does not denote a trade. The monks appear to have converted 
all the English surnames into Latin in their charters, as de Subbosto, for 
Underwood, aA finem villte, for Townsend, etc. 

t Fenny Bentley, near Ashborne. 

12 



130 the burton chartulary. 

Folio 69. 

Sciant etc. ego Ricardus de Benetlega filius Johannis de Pecco dedi etc. 
Domino Laurentia etc. tres partes prati pertinentis ad unam bovatam terrse in 
eadem villa scilicet unam partem quam Hugo nutricus meus aliquando tenuit 
subtus villam, et duas partes quas habui in dominico etc. 

Sciant etc. Nicholaus filius Ricardi de Benethlega dedi etc. unam bovatam 
prati etc. in villa de Benetlega etc. 

Sciant etc. Nicholaus filius Ricardi de Benethlega concede etc. sub pena 
decem marcarum Domino Regi pacanda quod si ita contingat quod pratum 
quod eisdem in puram et perpetuam elemosinam dedi etc. warantizare non 
poterimus ego vel heredes mei, terram quam ab eis accepi in feodo scilicet 
unam bovatam etc. eisdem reddam sine molestia custo et labore etc. 

Sciant etc. quod ego Nicholaus filius Ricardi de Benethlega recepi istam 
cartam cj'rographatam de Domino L. Abbate etc. in hasc verba : Sciant etc. 
quod ego L. Abbas etc. dedimus etc. Nicholao filio Ricardi de Benethlega pro 
homagio et servitio suo unam bovata terrse cum crofto etc. illam scilicet quae 
fuit S)'monis filii Walteri Tinctoris et unam acram ad Reginaideswalle qu£e 
fuit Ricardi filii Johannis de Benethlega etc. 

Omnibus etc. Johannes filius Radulphi de Stapenhulle salutem etc. Noveritis 
me etc. resignasse etc. illas sex acras terras quas quidem Ricardus molendinarius 
de me aJiquando tenuit in villa de Stapenhulle Domino Laurentio Abbati etc. 
anno Gratias M.cc.XL. septimo. 

Omnibus etc. Willelmus Servelavedi de Derbeia salutem etc. Noverit etc. 
■ Dominum Abbatem de Burtona etc. concessisse etc. michi unum toftum in 
villa Derbeise etc. scilicet quam Walterus filius Willelmi Tinctoris de Esse- 
burne de eisdem tenuit et idem Willelmus prius in itinere suo versus terram 
sanctam assensu Ynge uxoris ejus et Symonis filii eorum etc. resignavit etc. 

Omnibus etc. Walterus filius Willelmi Tinctoris de Esseburne salutem etc. 
Noverit etc. me assensu uxoris meae, Vngse et heredum meorum donasse etc. 
totum illud tenementum etc. quod de eisdem tenui in villa Derbeise quod 
scilicet Willelmus Servelavedi de me tenuit etc. pro hac etc. dicti Abbas et 
conventus dederunt mihi prefatae uxori mese duas marcas argenti in itinere 
nostro versus terram sanctam etc. 

Sciant etc. ego Rogerus de Huncedona dedi etc. ad emendationem coquince 
illorum totam terram illam etc. quam habui super Stoniholm furlong videlicet 
terram quam Willelmus Tinctor aliquando de me tenuit ad terminum etc. 

Folios 72 to 74 

inclusive, are occupied by a long and detailed account of the disputes between 
the monks and Sir Robert de Tok, their neighbour at Ansedelega (Anslow) 
respecting the right of cutting wood and the making of enclosures and common 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 131 

of pasture in Sobenhale (Shobnall.)* The dispute commenced by the foresters 
of the Abbot finding certain men of Ansedelega cutting wood in the wood of 
Sobenhale, and demanding from them sureties (to appear to answer for their 
trespass in the Abbot's Court.) Some of the delinquents laughed at the 
Abbot's men, and others abused them violently (verberaverunt violenter.) 
The Abbot was also informed that a long hedge had been made by Sir Robert 
de Tok and his men of Ansedeleg between the fields of Ansedeleg and the 
Abbot's wood beyond the ancient bounds between the two vills. On the Abbot 
demanding reparation in his Court, an answer was made by Sir Geoffrey de 
Gresley, the Earl's Seneschall, and others, that no reparation could be made 
until the extent of the damage had been discussed and settled. It was then 
shown that great damage had been done by the depasturing of goats and the 
cutting down of timber, for which the Abbot could obtain no redress ; for when 
the goats were impounded, they were replevied by Robert de Tok ; and the 
Abbot at that time labouring under great infirmity, was averse to taking legal 
proceedings. 

It happened also that a cart of the Abbot's from Finderne, laden with timber 
from the wood of Bromley, was stopped by William Bungi, one of Robert de 
Tok's men, in the middle of the vill of Ansedeleg, who demanded toll for it ; 
and on the carter answering that his lord the Abbot was quit of toll throughout 
all England, he laid hands violently on him, tore his clothes, took the horse 
out of the cart, and sent it to Ralph Form, the Earl's forester ; and although 
the horse was released again on the Abbot's demand, yet no reparation was 
ever made for the outrage. 

Robert de Tok likewise without license hunted in the Abbot's lands, where 
the Abbot had the King's grant of free warren ; and when the Abbot had 
caused to be built a mill at Finderne, Robert had denied the Abbot's right to 
do so, and had put him to a great expense by an action at law ; for the Abbot 
knowing that even if he won, that Robert would evade the consequences, had 
caused the mill to be entirely taken down, so that he had been damaged to the 
extent of twelve marks for expenses, and had lost in rent i6s. annually. 

At another time Robert de Tok and his cousin Roger had stopped two men 
and a woman of the vill of Finderne, returning from the vill of Willington with 
a cartload of flour, and had violently accosted them, wounded one of them on 
the head, and had taken the loaded cart and the horse to Potlac (Pollock), 
where he detained them until they were released by the King's sergeant 
(servienti Regis). 

Likewise the miller of the said Robert de Tok took toll of the Abbot's 
multure of Finderne for the mill of Potlac, in violation of the ancient usage. 



* Anslow and Shobnall are just within the confines of Staffordshire, and 
closely adjoining to Findern. — Ed. 



132 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

All which injuries the lord the Abbot is prepared to prove if necessary by the 
oath of his bailiffs and foresters, and other men worthy of credit. 

Folio 73. 

Contains the complaint of Robert de Tok against the Abbot. It states that 
the Abbot and his Convent denied to him and his tenants the use of the Abbot's 
wood and the common of the same as they used to have, and taking his cattle, 
forced him into expensive litigation. 

That the Abbot had forced him into the said litigation for three days in one 
week in his Court at Burton, which had necessitated his coming to Ansedeleg 
with all his household [toidfamilia sua), and to make a stay there, relinquish- 
ing other business, by which he had been greatly injured. 

That the Abbot had defamed him openly before his Court, calling him a 
traitor to his lord, working maliciously against him ; and that one of the 
monks, viz., Henry de Alrewas, had specially defamed him in this way. 

That in consequence of this litigation he had been forced to give up the 
pasturing of goats, and enclosures in the wood of Ansedelega, which he and all 
his predecessors had formerly enjoyed. 

And that owing to the absurd (fatuatn) method of cutting timber adopted 
by the Abbot in the said wood, a cow belonging to one of his men had been 
killed, and an ox had been killed in the same wood it is believed by the Abbot's 
men. 

That a certain monk, Robert de Lega, with a servant of the Abbot's, had 
beaten one of his men of Ansedelega, named Meriet, and taken from him his 
" densaxe. "* 

That the Abbot had erected a mill at Finderne, when he was precluded from 
doing so by the charters of his predecessors, and by which trespass he had been 
put to expensive litigation in the County of Nottingham. 

That a certain servant of the Abbot, named Alan, had withdrawn from his 
suit of mill at Potlac all the men of Finderne, against the tenor of the charters 
of the Abbot's predecessors, and to his damage. 

The Abbot replies seriatim to all these complaints, denying that Robert or 
his predecessors had ever had any right of depasturing goats in the wood of 
Ansedeleg, etc. And that as to the Abbot defaming him by calling him a 
traitor in his Court, it was true, inasmuch as Robert had sworn fealty to him, 
and done homage to him, and had afterwards insidiously worked injury to his 
lord ; and that he had carried on the contest against the supplication of the 
whole county, " ipsum dominum suum ad legem in pleno comitatu ponendo et 
ipsam capiendo contra maximam supplicationem totius Comitatus pro ipso 
attentius deputantis ut personse suse deferet et ab aliis eam caperet qui tantum 

* " Densaxe," that is a toothed axe or saw. — Ed. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 1 33 

eidem domino suo detulit quantum Roberto de Swinnerton cui juramentum 
condonavit." That as regards the killing of the cow and the ox, if he would 
bring his complaint before the Abbot's Court, justice should be done to him, 
and the same for the beating of his man Merieth. 

That as regards the erection of the mill at Finderne, the Abbot had humbled 
himself by asking for permission to complete the mill, on condition that no 
multure should take place there to the injury of the said Robert, and that the 
question of compensation should be left to arbitration ; and the Abbot considers 
that the expenses incurred by him in consequence of Robert's proceedings should 
be refunded to him by the arbitration of good men, etc. 

The above account appears from its form to have been drawn up for the 
decision of an arbitrator, but the result does not appear. 

Folio 75. 

Omnibus etc. Johannes de Ponte de Rocestie salutem. Noveritis me dedisse 
etc. Domino Thomas Abbati de Burtonia etc. totum jus et clamium quod habui 
vel habere potui in homagio et servitio Roberti filii Ricardi de Makwurtha et 
Sibillse de Marketona heredum Roberti Capellani de Marketona etc. pro una 
bovata terrse quam de me tenuit in Magna Ovra etc. 

Folio 77. 

Edwardus ^Dei gratia Vicecomiti Derbiscirje salutem. Precipimus quod si 
Petrus de Huncingdon unum mesuagium et decern et octo acras terrse cum 
pertinentiis in Huncingdon et Henricus Dykun unum mesuagium cum 
pertinentiis in eadom villa et Adam filius Fulcheri quinque acras terrse etc. in 
eadem villa si sint de feodo dilecti nobis in Chrispo Abbatis de Burtona super 
Trentam eidem Abbati reddere et quietum clamare voluerint. Et si Rogerus 
filius Roberti de Thorp de quo dictus Abbas predictam villam tenet per 
servitium duodecim denariorum per annum eosdem xii. d. et homagium quod 
iden Rogerus exigebat a Rogero de Huncingdon feoffatore predicti Abbatis de 
villa predicta remittere et quietum clamare voluerit, tunc ipsum Abbatem 
occasione statuti nostri de terris ad mortuam manum non ponendis non impedias 
vel impediri permittas quantem in te est etc. Teste me ipso apud Acton 
Burnel xiiii. die Decembris anno regni nostri duodecimo. 

Folio 82. 

Quomodo diversa placito fuerunt terminata et primo de Roberto de 
Henovere. 

Osbertus {sic) de Henovere tulit breve de nova disseysina de novo vivario 
Magnae Overe coram Justiciariis Dominis Willelmo de Northburi et Wychardo 
cum (quo quia) non erimus satis muniti contra ipsum pacem fecimus pro xl. s. 



134 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

Johannes da la Cornerc cito postea tulit breve super eodem et coram eisdem 
cum quo pacem fecimus aput Betfort pro i. marca ad opus ipsius et ad opus 
Regis X. s. 

Folio 83. 

[Trafislafwn.] 

Magister Richard de Lavinton, the Rector of the Church of 'I'horp, by papal 
authority, impleaded the Abbot and Convent before judges delegated at Oxford 
respecting the small tythes (super minutis decirais) of our land in Huncindon. 
Afterwards at Esseburne, by the meditation of Magister John de Weston, an 
end was put to the dispute in this way. For the sake of peace we gave the 
said Magister Richard 5 marks, and entered into an obligation to pay him 2 
marks annually on the Feast of the Nativity of St. John so long as he held the 
Church of Thorp. 

Folio 84. 

A dispute having arisen and continued for some time between the Abbot 
John and Henry de Tok, the brother and heir of Sir Peter de Thok, respecting 
his relief and suit of court ; at length, A.D. 1275, on the Day of St. Laurence, 
at Burton, the said Henry, in the presence of Roger de Thok his brother and 
of Ralph de Burgo, conceded that so far as the relief was concerned, the said 
Henry and his heirs should give to the Abbot for their relief of Ansedele and 
Pothlac xl. s., but should nevertheless pay fully the ferm due for the said vills 
at the appointed terms ; and as regarded the suit of court, the said Henry and 
his heirs should be bound to make two appearances annually, and likewise 
whenever the King's writ was in the Court, or for the judgment of prisoners 
and for the reinforcement (afforciamentum) of the Court. And whereas the 
Abbot claimed from him common suit of court, viz., from three weeks to three 
weeks, and claimed also that the whole land of Ansedele was within the 
warren of the said Abbot, and that it was not lawful for him to hunt or take 
hares within it, by the advice of friends it was agreed that the said Henry 
should swear " tactis sacrosanctis" that none of his predecessors had ever done 
common suit to the court of the Abbot excepting his brother Peter, who had 
been unjustly compelled to it, and that he, Henry, and all his predecessors 
could lawfully chase and take all kind of animals (" omnias bestias ") within 
the metes of Ansedele, three times only excepted. Accordingly on the Sun- 
day after the Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, a.d. 1277, in 
the presence of the Lord Abbot Thomas, Andrew the Almoner (" Elemosi- 
narius "), Adam the Hospitaller, John the Sub-Prior and Precentor, N. the 
Chaplain of the Abbot, Thomas the Sacristan, W. Coquinarius, W. Celerarius, 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. I35 

and many others, the said Henry made oath in the form above written. Four 
Chaplains made oath in the same manner before Sir William de Meinil, Ralph 
de Burgo, Roger de Thok, Robert de Munjoye, Engelardus de Cursun, 
Robert de Staunton, Milo de Melton, William junior of Rolveston, William le 
Sergant of Eginton, Elyas Fucher of Osniundeston, Robert de Schobenhale, 
John le Marescal, Robert son of Adam de Waleton, Walter the man ("homo ") 
of the said Henry, John the man (" homo ") of the said Henry, and Robert 
Cocus. 

Folio 85. 

Tertio Kalend Marcii in pleno Hundredo de Wyrkesworthe tento apud 
Esseburne in presentia Domini Thomce de Bray tunc Seneschalli Domini 
Edmundi, venit Rogerus de Thorp et optulit se ad faciendum Domino 
Edmundo fidelitatem pro tenement© suo de Thorp et Huncendon et fecit, et de 
homagio habuit respectum usque ad adventum in partibus istis. 

De placito nioto inter Abbatetn et villanis de Magna Overa. 

This is a long account of the suit between the Abbot and his customary 
tenants of Mickle-Over, who claimed to be free tenants. It states that when 
the Abbot's villains of Magna Ouvra, at the instigation of one Nicholas, son of 
Henry the Provost of Magna Ouvra, whom the Abbot had greatly honoured, 
and to whom he had committed for many years the custody of the manor of 
Bromley, refused to acknowledge themselves as villains, nor would permit a 
distress to be levied against them, the Abbot sued out a writ from the " Curia 
Regia " in this form. 

Here follows a writ of King Edward dated from Clarendon, i8th February, 
8th year of his reign, commanding the Sheriff of Derbyshire to assist the 
Abbot of Burton in distraining his villains of Magna Ouvra. This writ was 
delivered to the Sheriff of Derbyshire on the last day of February in full 
County, and his bailiff was ordered to assist the Abbot on the requisition of 
the latter. 

Folio 86. 

A writ of King Edward, dated Clarendon, loth February, in the 8th year of 
his reign, issued on the complaint of ten of the Abbot's tenants of Mickle-Over, 
commands the Abbot not to exact from his tenants other customs and services 
than were formerly due when Mickle-Over was of the ancient demesne of the 
Crown. 

The narrative goes on to say that by virtue of the first of these two writs, 
the Sheriff's bailiff seized 21 oxen and 18 pigs at Mickle-Over, at the hour of 
Vespers, 4th March, and took them on the morrow to Burton. 

In the meantime the tenants having produced their writ to the Sheriff, and 



136 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

entered into securities to prosecute their suit at Westminster against the Abbot, 
the Sheriff ordered his bailiff to remove the distress. 

On the fourth kalends of March, when G. de Clifton, the Sheriff of Notts, 
Ralph de Burgh, William Bigge, Milo de Melton, and others, were at Finderne 
on the business of the Abbot, all the villains of Mickle-Over came, bringing 
with them Sir William de Meinil, Magister Adam de Armundesham, and 
others, and it was agreed that the villains should cultivate and sow their lands 
pacifically up to Easter. 

Folio 87. 

Malicia ViLLANORUM. (In red letters.) 

Pending this truce and delay which had been granted by the Abbot pro bono 
pads, the villains sued out two more writs against the Abbot, which are given 
at full length. In the first the Sheriff is commanded to cause the Abbot to 
put in pledges to answer the complaint of the tenants that he exacted from 
them customs and services unjustly. The second writ was a writ of trespass, 
by which the Abbot was forced to find sureties to answer the complaint of the 
tenants, that he had come in the night vi et armis and taken their goods and 
chattels from Mickle-Over to the value of £20, and committed other enormities 
to their great damage and against the King's peace. Dated from Dunamen, 
iSth March, in the 8th year of the King's reign. 

The tenants appeared against the Abbot to prosecute their suit at a month 
from Easter, and by their attorney claimed to be of the ancient demesne of the 
Crown, which was denied by the Abbot, and on being asked by the Justices 
how they proposed to verify that they were of ancient demesne, answered they 
would do it by Domesday ("quomodo vellent verificare se esse de antique 
dominico et respondissent per Domusday "). A day was accordingly given to 
them to exhibit Domesday, which was examined by the Justices, by which it 
appeared that Overa was not included amongst the lands of ancient demesne 
in Domesday, but amongst those of the Abbot, but it stated that King Edward 
had held ten carucates of land in Overa, "ad geldam," upon which a discus- 
sion took place for many days before the Justices of the Bench and Barons of 
the Exchequer, until at length, on the 3rd June, judgment was given that the 
men of Overa were villains of the Abbot, and should remain so ("quod 
homines de Overa sicut villain venerunt, ita recederent et remanerent "). 

Folio 88. 

" Judicium datam contra villanos per Dominum Thomam de Weyland 
Willelmum de Brunton et socios suos iii. die Junii. " 

This is the official record of the suit ; it quotes the entry from Domesday at 
full length, and adds, " Et quia per predictum Domusday compertum est quod 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 1 37 

predictum maneriura fuit geldabilis, nee invenitur inter terras dominicas 
Domini Regis consideratum est quod predictus Abbas iret sine die, et predict! 
Robertus et in alii in misericordid pro false clamio." 

This judgment was delivered on the 3rd June, and on the 6th June follow- 
ing the Abbot sent six monks, knights and servants, and took 27 boars, 40 
oxen, 50 cows and heifers, 506 sheep, and 77 pigs, and lodged some of them 
in Staffordshire and some in Derbyshire. 

On the 22nd of June six of the Abbot's villains came to Burton bringing 
with them a King's writ addressed to the Abbot, which stated that it had been 
shown to the King by John son of Herbert and his men of Magna Overa, 
" quod tu occasione cujusdam placiti nuper moti in curia nostra per breve 
nostrum coram Justiciariis nostris de Banco de consuetudinibus et servitiis tibi 
a prefatis hominibus faciendis, quse iidem homines et antecessores sui de 
manerio predicto tibi et predecessoribus tuis quondam Abbatibus de Burthor 
super Trentam temporibus retroactis facere consueverunt aveiia ipsorum 
hominum apud Magna Uvera in Comitatu Derbiese capisti et averia ilia a 
comitatu illo usque in Comitatu Staffordias fugasti et ea adhuc ibidem detines 
contra legem et consuetudinem regni nostri et contra pacem nostram. Et ideo 
tibi precipimus quod averia predicta predictis hominibus sine dilatione 
deliberare facias. Et nisi ad mandatum nostrum hoc feceris a Vicecomite 
nostro predicto StafFordise id fieri precipimus. Et Nichilominus te attachiari 
faciemus et ad respondendum nobis de contemptu et predictis hominibus de 
dampnis quae sustinuerunt occasione transgressionis predictas. Teste me ipso 
apud West. viii. die Junii anno regni nostri octavo." 

On reading this writ, the Abbot determined not to give up the cattle for 
several reasons, of which the principal one was that it had been sued out on a 
false suggestion, making no mention of the judgment in his favour. Another 
reason was that when Ralph de Burgh, the Abbot's Seneschall, had held a 
court at Finderne, and having removed from his office the Provost of Mickle- 
Over, had wished to substitute another in his place, all and singular had 
refused to accept the post because all their lands and cattle were in the Abbot's 
hands, notwithstanding that they were the villains of the Abbot, and had 
nothing but their bodies which did not belong to the Abbot. 

Folio 89. 

As the Abbot would not give up their cattle, the tenants produced another 
writ addressed to the Sheriff of Staffordshire, dated the same day as the last 
(viz., 8th June, in the 8th year of the King's reign), commanding him to 
release the cattle without delay, and in case of resistance to attach those who 
resisted to answer for their contempt at three weeks from Michaelmas "in 
parliamento nostro." 



138 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

On the authority of this writ the Sheriff of Staffordshire sent to Bromley to 
release the cattle, but his bailiff" was informed that all the cattle there belonged 
to the Abbot. Upon this Colin and nine other tenants of Mickle-Over 
appeared before the King's Court, complaining that in contempt of the King, 
and to their great damage, the Abbot had refused to liberate their cattle ; and 
on the 9th July they appeared at Celeburne before the Chancellor and many 
other laymen and clerks who were there with the King, and averred the same 
and many worse things of the Abbot ; in all which they were assisted by a 
certain Clerk Wyther. The A.bbot therefore sent Brother Nicholas de Kinel- 
worth, who after treating of the matter with Sir Ralph de Hengham, the 
Justiciary, appeared before the Chancellor, and arranged that the Abbot should 
abide by the verdict given in Banco until it was superseded by another. Upon 
this the Abbot ejected the aforesaid nine men and the brother of Colin from 
their lands and houses, but permitted the wives and children to remain ; but 
afterwards, in order that they might sue out a writ of novel disseisin, the 
wives were likewise ejected, viz., on the 13th July. After this the men of 
Magna Uvera, having followed the King for several days, brought back with 
them a writ addressed to the Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, commanding him to 
cause the cattle of the following tenants to be replevied, viz. : — 
John, son of Hubert, John, son of John atte Chirchestile, 

William, son of Henry, Robert, son of Geoffrey, 

Henry, son of Brito, Richard Campiun, 

Molle la Wyse, William de Derleye, 

Alice, daughter of Robert, Roger Godwin, 

Thomas le Fevere, Alice, the widow of Nicholas of Uvera, 

Alienora, the widow of Nicholas of Henry le Abbe, 

Uvera, Alienora, widow of Ralph of Uvera, 

Nicholas le Jenene, Henry, son of Alice, 

William, son of Robert, Henry, son of Henry, 

John le Norreys, William, son of William, 

John, son of Henry, William Campiun, 

Nicholas, son of John, William Orger, 

Henry le Forester, Matilda la Vidue, 

Robert Pirekoz, Richard, son of Robert, 

Thomas le Halfweni, William, son of Robert, 

Robert, son of Robert, Nicholas, son of William, 

Peter Baret, William, son of Nicholas, 

Richard de Barue, Nicholas Orger, 

Agnes del Willehul, and John de Barue, 

and which cattle the Abbot of Burton, Brother Thomas de Pakinton, Brother 
Adam de Redemore, Brother Thomas de Makeleye, Roger Brani, Robert de 
Bromle, William de Thurleston, and Adam le Brune, had taken and unjustly 
detained, etc. Dated from Langeleye, 2ist July, 8th year of our reign. 



the burton chartulary. 1 39 

Folio 90. 

On the authority of this writ, G. de Clifton, the Sheriff of Nottinghamshire, 
directed his Bailiff of Wirkesworth to release the cattle, on the tenants giving 
security to prosecute their suit against the Abbot. 

Malicia Symonis de Clifton. (In red letters.) 

On the 25th July, Symon de Clifton, the Bailiff of Wiilcesworth, gave up to 
the tenants seven oxen and tvifenty-nine covins which were at Huncedon, not- 
withstanding the protest of our serviens there that they belonged to the Abbot. 

The Sheriff of Nottinghamshire also wrote in similar terms to the Bailiff of 
Repindon, but when the Bailiff came to Caldewall to replevy the cattle of the 
tenants of Magna Ouvra, on being informed that the cattle there belonged to 
the Abbot, he went away without delivering them up. 

The tenants also brought a writ to the Sheriff of Staffordshire ordering him 
to replevy their cattle, and the above-named Sheriff sent the same mandate to 
the Bailiff of Pirehull, who coming to Bromley was informed that all the cattle 
there belonged to the Abbot : no cattle were therefore given up at that place. 
Upon this the villains of Magna Uvera went with their wives and children 
("cum uxoribus et parvulis") to the King, who was then at Nottingham, and 
laying before him a grievous complaint of robbery and expulsion from their 
houses, " querelam gravissimam de roberia et expulsione domorum detulerunt," 
brought back with them new writs to the Sheriffs to replevy their cattle. 

But on the 7th August a Court was held at Finderne, where many of the 
tenants of Magna Uvera acknowledged themselves to be the Abbot's villains, 
and prayed for the release of their cattle. They were told to present them- 
selves at the next County Court, when an answer would be given them. 

On the 8th August, in the presence of G. de Clifton, the Sheriff of Derby- 
shire, Sir William de Hondesacre, Sir Robert de Warda, Sir Robert de 
Staunton, Sir John Grim, Sir Alured de Suleney, Sir Ralph de Mungoy, Sir 
Henry de Braylesfort, and Sir Henry de Chaundoys, Knights, and many other 
freeholders, Nicholas, son of William (the Provost), and five other tenants, 
came and acknowledged themselves to be natives at the will of their lord 
(" natives ad voluntatem domini "), and pledged themselves not to sue out any 
writ against their lord ; and this was enrolled on the County Roll ("in rotulo 
Comitatiis "). Henry Abbot of Uvera, and eleven other tenants, having 
appeared as plaintiffs against the Abbot, complaining that he and his men had 
come in the night to their houses at Uvera, and had unjustly taken away their 
goods and chattels, the Abbot defended the suit, stating he had taken none of 
their goods, because he had taken his own goods only, because being villains 
they held nothing "extra ventrem." And the said Henry and the other 
tenants by John de Lokinton their speaker ("narratorem suum "), said they 
were free men, and put themselves on the Country {i.e., appealed to a jury). 



140 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

The Bailiff of Morleston was therefore ordered to make inquisition into the 
fact, and return it to the next County Court. 

William de Derleye and six others who had sued the Abbot came and 
acknowledged themselves to be villains at this Court. 

Folio 91. 

William son of Henry and thirteen other tenants who had sued the Abbot 
at the same Court, withdrew their plea ; they and their sureties for the pro- 
secution were therefore "in misericordia." 

On the 9th August the Abbot held a Court at Finderne. William de 
Derley, born at Heanor, came and acknowledged himself to be the Abbot's 
native, holding at the will of the Abbot in villenage two bovates, and giving 
" Stuch" every year and "Marchetum,"* and on account of ancient customs 
two hens at Xnias and 20 eggs at Easter ; and because he came freely 
(" gratis") he retained his lands as he formerly held them ; and he gave for 
his transgression half a mark, and he swore fealty, and that he would come 
and go at the will of the Abbot. 

William son of William atte Chirchestile came and acknowledged himself 
to be the Abbot's native as above, and for his transgression, and for two 
bovates of land which his father had held, and which Nicholas Orgar held, he 
made a fine of 3 marks, and he would do all as the aforesaid William (de 
Derley). 

Thirty other tenants named submit and are re-admitted into their holdings 
in the same way at this Court. 

The land of Alienora, the widow of Nicholas de Brunlaston, was committed 
to Richard fitz Robert, Nicholas Orgar, and Thomas le Halfweni to support 
the said Alienora, and for which they were to pay los. annually. At the same 
Court, Agnes the daughter of Henry Babon came and acknowledged herself to 
be a native of the Abbot, and made fine of 3 marks for 2 bovates of land, and 
gave half a mark for license to marry Henry de Henore, and made oath as the 
others. 

On the Vigil of the Assumption three more of the tenants submitted, 
amongst them Henry son of Nicholas, the ringleader of the malcontents. 

On the 13th September Richard Champiun and William son of Dobbe were 
conducted to Burton and put into the stocks (in compede) from the morning 
till vespers, which they prayed for pardon with great humility, acknowledging 
themselves to be the Abbot's villains. They were released for that night, and 
in the morning on the morrow they voluntarily submitted themselves again to 

* Stitch appears to have been a manorial duty at corn harvest, when the 
best sheaf was claimed by the lord. Marchetum, or Maid's Fee, was a 
customary payment to the lord on the marriage of a tenant's daughter. — Ed. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. I4I 

the stocks, and were released. William gave to the Abbot half of all the corn 
growing on his land for his transgression, and for a fine to have two bovates of 
land. Richard also gave half his growing corn to the Abbot. Two other 
tenants submitted on this day, and Henry the Forester, a native of the Lord 
Edmund (the King's brother), made fine of 20s. for his chattels and for per- 
mission to give up the land he held of the Abbot. 

Folios 94 and 95. 
Processus de francoplegio* de Hiincyndon non inveniendo prima per 
petitionem in Parliainento preterea per inquisitionem et certifica- 
tionem ac demum per judicium omniiun Justiciariorum et 
Baronum de Scaccario prout sequitur. 

This is a long and intricate account of the process respecting the view of 
frankpledge of Huncyndon, Thomas Earl of Lancaster having denied the 
Abbot's right, and distrained his men to appear at the Earl's Hundred Court 
of Wyrkesworth. 

The first instrument is a mandate of King Edward II., dated the 9th April, 
17th year of his reign, assigning Philip de Somerville, Henry de Hamburi, and 
Roger Hillary to make an inquisition upon oath into the matter in the presence 
of the " custos " of his Wapentake of Wyrkesworth. The inquisition was to 

• The best account of Frankpledge I have met with is in Palgrave's " Eng- 
lish Commonwealth ; " but even that learned author makes the mistake of 
confounding the View of Frankpledge with the institution itself. The View of 
Frankpledge, as is shown by the suit in the text respecting Hanson or Hunse- 
don, was the presentment made by a member of the tything of those things 
which pertained to the frankpledge, or collective liability of the members of 
the tything, and this presentment was made by a single inhabitant of the 
township, who was also called its frankpledge, or " francumplegium." Writers 
on the subject have hitherto assumed that all presentments had to be made by 
the Reeve and four men of the township. This may have been the case in 
some localities, and, if so, it would account for the importance attached to 
retaining the view of frankpledge at the Manorial Court, for the obligation to 
send five of the tenants of a manor to every Hundred Court must have been 
intolerable. 

Palgiave also shows that in the later phase of the institution the Decennary 
or Tything was synonymous with the township or manor ; and his account 
also clears up a difficult point in the Plea Rolls, where the defendants in 
some criminal cases are stated not to be in frankpledge, because they ivere free- 
men. The words " liberi homines " in these cases should have been translated 
freeholders, for it appears that persons were exempted from the frankpledge if 
their property was of sufficient amount to be considered as a permanent 
security for their good behaviour. Palgrave also states that for purposes of 
frankpledge villains were always considered freemen, and there are instances 
where they are styled freemen in the Anglo Saxon period. In the grant of the 
40th of all movable property made to the King, 16 H. III., the villains are 
stated to have concurred together with the earls, barons, knights, and freemen, 
i.e., freeholders of the kingdom. — G. W. 



142 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

return whether " utrum predictum manerium in manus predict! Abbatis existens 
aliquo tempore hamelettum predecessorum ipsius Abbatis et homines in eodem 
hameletto residentes fuissent nee ne, et si etc. tunc quo tempore et qualiter et 
quo modo et si iidem residentes qui tunc fuerunt, fuissent liberi tenentes ipsius 
Abbatis an nativi sui, et si liberi tenentes, tunc de quo tenuerunt et per quod 
servitium et qualiter et quo modo et quo tempore hamelettum predictum primo 
devenit ad manus Abbatis loci predicti. Et si iidem homines dum in hame- 
letto predicto residebant hujus* francumplegium invenire solebant nee ne, et si 
sic, tunc qualiter et quo modo et ad quae et qualia presentando et ubi etc." 

[The inquisition was taken at Ashburne on the morrow of the Apostles SS. 
Peter and Paul, 17 E. II., and stated that Roger de Huncyndon, formerly lord 
of the hamlet of Huncyndon, had enfeoffed Laurence, Abbot of Burton, of a 
messuage and eighty acres of land in the said hamlet, which he held in demesne 
in the time of King Henry the grandfather of the present King, to be held by 
him and his successors of Robert de Thorp his lord by the service of 2d. 
annually ; and the same Abbot afterwards acquired from Robert de Thorp the 
rent in question, and the service of seven free tenants of the said hamlet, who 
"attorned " themselves to the said Abbot for the same services ; and all the 
aforesaid tenants rendered to the lord of the Wapentake 2s. 3(/. " ad pale- 
fridum ; " and the said tenants found a frankpledge (" unum francumpleggium") 
to make presentments at the said Wapentake of Wyikesworth in co. Derby 
every three weeks respecting the infractions of the assize of bread and beer and 
effusions of blood, and the raising of hue and cry and wayfs when such 
occurred, and all other matters which pertained to the view of frankpledge. 
Also that all the said tenants were accustomed to plough with one " caruca" 
once a year at Lent for the lord of the Wapentake, who found them food, or 
else they gave i^d., and they had to find a man to sow once a year in the 
autumn, or they gave a farthing. And afterwards the Abbot Thomas, the 
successor of the Abbot Laurence, acquired all the said lands and tenements 
which the said tenants held, to hold in demesne as of fee by the license of 
King Edward the father of the present King, and to be held of the capital 
lords of the fee ; and after the said Abbot Thomas had thus acquired all 
the hamlet, which they now call a manor, he found no frankpledge, be- 
cause there were no tenants resident in the said manor. And they say 
that Thomas, late Earl of Lancaster, had caused the Abbot John to be 
amerced, and also the Abbot William, in the sum of ;,^i6 at various times, 
because they would not find a frankpledge to make presentments at the 
aforesaid Wapentake ("eo quod noluerunt invenire unum francumpleggium 
ad presentandum ad predictum Wapentakum ut supra, ratione manerii sui 
de Huncyndon"), and that the plea between the said Earl and the Abbot was 

* Stc, but should be unum. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 143 

pending in the Court of the King's Justices de Banco at the time of the 
death of the said Earl. 

A verdict was given in the Court of Exchequer at Hilary term, i8 E. II., 
in favour of the Abbot. It states, after detailing the facts as given above, 
" propter quod videtur Thesaurario et Baronibus et aliis prenominatis de 
Consilio Regis quod ex quo dictum hamelettum integre devenit ad manus 
predict! Abbatis in dominico et nulli tenentes fuerunt ibidem residentes 
predictus Comes injuste exigebat a prefatis Johanne et Willelmo Abbalibus 
unum francumpleggium ad presentandum ad visum predictum ubi viri reli- 
giosi non tenentur hujusmodi francumpleggium invenire pro terris quae tenent 
in dominico, et in quibus tenentes non fuerunt residentes," etc. 

Folio 97. 

Pateat etc. nos FraterW. Abbas de Burtona etc. dimisimus etc. Nicholao de 
Greseleye Clerico omnes decimas nostras garbarum villse de Caldewalle pro- 
venientes tam de terris etc. quje Willelmus le Child tenet etc. quam de aliis 
terris etc. pro quadam summa pecunire etc. quam recepimus. Habendas etc. a 
festo Translationis Sancti Thom?e Martyris proximo futuro usque ad terminum 
trium annorum etc. Dat. 14 E. II. 

[N.B. — The above deed has been scored out by transverse lines across it.] 

Folio 98. 

Sciant etc. ego Galfridus de Greseley dominus de Drakelowe concessi etc. 
Domino Johanni de Stafford Abbati de Burtona etc. communam pasturse per 
totam villam de Drakelowe cum omnimodis averiis suis levantibus et cubanti- 
bus tam in villa de Drakelowe quam in villa de Caldewalle omni tempore anni 
exceptis bladis et pratis et in Ruyhull et Rodemore post vesturam asportatam 
etc. Hiis testibus Dominis Roberto de la Warde, Alredo de Soleney, Henrico 
de Appleby, et Johanne Grym, Militibus ; Willelmo, Clerico de Stapinhull, 
Petro de Lucy de eadem, Stephano de Wyneshulle, et aliis. Datum apud 
Meysham die Jovis prox. post festum Sancti Michaelis anno regni Regis 
Edwardi filii Regis Heniici tertio. 

Fuit quidam Waclyn (de) Wynterton . . . qui perquisivit de Radulfo 
de Caldewalle manerium sive mansuram suum de Caldewalle qui dum pre- 
dictus Radulfus . . , per accionem quod fecit cum eo, contulit se ad 
Dominum Robertum de Greyseley promittendo sibi xl. s. ut eum advocaret ; 
cujus opere predictus Radulfus inde expulsus est et predictus Waclyn inde est 
seisitus ; quo facto, predictus Radulfus cepit predictum mansum sive manerium 
de predicto Waclyno ad terminum vitas. Set postmodum quia predictus 
Waclynus non inplevit promissum suum de predictis xl. s. predicto Roberto 



144 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

solvendis, per eundem Robertum occisus est ; cujus jus Johannes Irlond, 
dominus de Herteshorne et Willelmus de Stretton clamant habere. 

[The writing on the rest of this folio is illegible from damp and discolora- 
tion.] 

Folio 99. 

" Inquisitio facta pro quintodecima de maneriis de Overa et de Appelby." 
This is an inquisition taken by Geoffrey de Greseleye, Henry de Braylis- 
ford, and Hugh Tenerey, the collectors of the fifteenth in co. Derby, by writ 
of King Edward, dated from York, 22nd June, in the thirty-first year of his 
reign, to inquire into the liability of the Abbot's lands in the above manors to 
taxation. The jury, viz., Robert de Muntjoye, Thomas le Pouer, Edmund de 
Aston, Roger de Somervyle, Ralph de Gurney, Ralph de Irlande, Adam de 
Linton, Peter le Porter, John son of Robert de Herteshorne, William Davy of 
Drakelowe, William le Palmer, and Thomas de Thurleston, " Clericus," 
stated that the Church of Burton was endowed with Overa and its members of 
Appulby and Winshull excepting four bovates of land in Parva Overa and 
three bovates in Finderne, which were a lay fee, and that all the goods of the 
Abbot and Convent in those manors were ''spiritualia," excepting those which 
came (provenientibus) from the aforesaid seven bovates of land. 

Quod Vicecomes faciat esse ratioiiahles divisas inter terrain ipsius 
Abbatis in Stapenhull et t err am G. de Gresley. 

This is the account of a suit in the county court between the Abbot and 
Geoffrey de Gresley respecting the boundaries of their respective lands of 
Stapenhill and Drakelow, the dispute including the right to three islands and 
a fishery. The Abbot in his claim states that his predecessor Nicholas de 
Abendon the Abbot, was seised of the lands, etc., in dispute in the time of 
King Henry the grandfather of the reigning King. The account ends by 
Geoffrey stating he had appealed to a great assize of the Lord the King, and 
the Abbot denying this fact, which would have withdrawn the suit from the 
County Court, " et ideo per considerationem Comitatus dictum est ipsi Gal- 
frido quod perquirat sibi breve de ' Pone.' "* [No date.] 

Omnibus etc. Johannes de Greseley Chivaler salutem. Sciatis me conces- 
sisse etc. Abbati etc. quod possint adquirere de Laurentio de Ibestoke Clerico 
etc. unum me?uagium, unam carucatam terrs etc. In Caldewall, Lynton et 
Drakelowe, quae sunt de feodo et dominio meo etc. Hiis testibus Hugone de 



* A writ of " Pone " would remove the suit to Westminster. A record of 
proceedings such as this before a Sheriff sitting in full county is extremely rare, 
these courts not being Courts of Record. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 1 45 

Meygnell, Roberto de Gresseleye, Alfredo de Sulvy, Mililibus ; Willelmo de 
Ingwarby, Thoma Abell, et aliis. Datum apud Burton 30 E. III. 

Ceste endenture faite le Dymemench posthem devant la feste Seynt Michell 
I'Archangele I'an du regne le Roy Edward tierz puys le Conquest trentysme 
entre I'Abbe et Convent de Burton sur Trente d'une part et Monz. Johan de 
Gresseleye Chivaler d'autre part testmoigne que come [refers to the Abbot's 
right of common of pasture in the manors of Caldewalle and Drakelowe, 
Sir John Gresley renouncing all claim to make further enclosures without the 
Abbot's permission.] Testmoignes Mons. Hugh de Meygnell, Mons. Aurey 
Sulvy, William de Ingwardby, Henry de Stanydelf, John de Fynderen, et 
autres. 

Folio 107. 

Assisa captr apud Meysham die /ovis proximo post festum Sancti 
Michaelis anno regiti Regis Edwardi ierlio coram Domino 
Radulfo de Hengham, Justiciario. 

Translation. 

An assize, etc., to make recognition if Geoffrey de Greseleya, John Fytun, 
and John le Meyster had unjustly disseised the Abbot of Burton of his com- 
mon of pasture in Drakelowe appurtenant to his free tenement in the same 
vill, viz., in loj acres in two places, and 40 acres in another place, where he 
used to common with all manner of cattle for the whole year, and likewise of 
his common pasture in the open season throughout the open fields {"J>er 
totum catnputn.") The Abbot withdrew his plea, and a convention was made 
by which the Abbot conceded to Geoflfrey and his heirs the loi acres of pasture 
as now enclosed, so that the said Geoffrey and his heirs could cut the grass 
every year, saving the Abbot's right to pasture after the hay had been carried ; 
and the said Geoffrey conceded to the Abbot his right to pasture in the open 
season throughout the " campiim " of Drakelowe. 

Sciant etc. ego Henricus filius et heres Willelmi et MazelinK de Rolvestona 
dedi etc. totum jus et clamium quod habui in xix. acris terris et uno mesuagio 
In Huncedona quje Ricardus filius Petri aliquando tenuit etc. H. T. Willelmo 
de Dygeby, Domino Roberto de Accovere, Ranulfo de Alsop, Willelmo de 
Thurleston, Henrico de Bromele, Willelmo de Stafford, Roberto de Swynesco, 
et aliis. (Et super premissis habemus finalem concordiam in Curia Domini 
Regis levatam in custodia Precentoris existentem. ) 

Universis etc. Rogerus Kokayn salutem etc. Noveritis me relaxasse etc. 
Mazelin:e relictje Willelmi de Rolvestona et. heredibus suis etc. totum jus et 
clamium quod habui etc. in una bovata terra etc. in villa de Huncedona. 
Datum apud Esseburne A.D. 1278. 
13 



146 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

Carta Mazelina; de Esseburne de tola terra et toto tenemento quod habuit in 
Himcedona. 

Omnibus etc. Mazelina dicta Margeria filia Henrici filii Symonis de 
Schepesheved et Cecilice dictK Lovote de Esseburne, salutem. Noverit etc. 
me in ligia viduitate mea dedisse etc. Domino Johanni Abbati etc. totam terram 
etc. quod habui in villa de Huncedona etc. simul cum homagiis, servitiis, 
releviis et eschaetis etc. H. T. Stephano de Irthona, INIatheo de Knyvetone, 
Roberto de Wednesle, Ranulfo de Alsop, Henrico de eadem, Ricardo filio 
Margerice de Thorp, Johanne de Estecote, et aliis. 

Folio 108. 

John Deken of Bursicote had issue Felicia and Robert the Chaplain, and 
he gave Felicia in marriage to .Symon the Carpenter, and he gave with her a 
burgage in Burton in frank marriage, and the said Symon afterwards acquired 
half a burgage from Robert Dixi. and built upon it. Symon had issue by 
Felicia, Ralph, Lettice, and Ralph the Chaplain, and after the death of Felicia 
he married Basilia, who is now living. And the said Ralph who was heir to 
the burgage and a half was not decently maintained (non fuit sustinatus de- 
center), and Robert de Bursicote the Chaplain, the uncle of the child on the 
mother's side, took possession of the said burgage and a half by a conveyance 
(traditionem) of the said Symon for the maintenance and education of Ralph 
(sine carta.) On his death (quo morto) the said Ralph, son and heir of the said 
Symon (the villain of the Abbot), being made a Chaplain, made a fine with the 
Abbot to hold the burgnge for his life. 

After the death of the before-mentioned John Deken, one Ralph de Wytewyk 
married Isabella his widow, and had issue by her one Ralph, and Ralph had 
issue Robert Ronde of Bursicote. 

Folio iio. 

Omnibus etc. Johannes Abbas Monasterii de Burtona etc. Noverit etc. nos 
et successores nostros teneri et obligates esse in perpetuum Decano et capitulo 
Lychfeldiie in centum solidos etc. solvendos in Ecclesia Farochiana de Sallowe 
annuatim Capellano qui in Capella Beatre Marire per Magistrum Radulphum 
de Chaddesdene aliquando Thesaurarium de Lychfeld Ecclesia ibidem constructa 
missam de Beata Maria Virgine et etiam pro aninia ipsius Magistri Radulfl et 
pro animabus Episcoporum Decanorum, et omnium cannnicorum Lychfeldise 
ac omnium tidelium defunctorum in perpetuo celebrabitur ad duos anni 
terminos etc. Datum a.d. 1271, presentibus Magistris Johanne de Weston, 
Ricarcjo de Morleye, Willelmo de Henovere, Rogero Rectore Ecclesise de 
Northbury, Willelmo de Byrleye, et aliis. 

Universis etc. Johannes de Derby, Decanus et Capellanus LychfeldiK etc. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. I47 

[This is an Inspeximus of the Bishop's confirmation of the Chantry founded 
by Ralph de Chaddesdene, from which it appears that Ralph was frater 
germatms of Sir William de Chaddesdene, Knight. The initial of the Bishop's 
name was R.] 

Folio hi. 

Sciant etc. Ricardus de Bentelega filius Johannis de Peccho dedi etc. 
Domino Laurentio Abbati etc. tres partes prati pertinentes ad unam bovatam 
terras in eadem villa (Bentley) scilicet unam partem quam Hugo nutricus meus 
aliquando tenuit subtus villum et duas partes quas habui in dominio etc. 
H. T. Roberto de Thorp, Henrico de Alesop, Thoma de Benethlega, Rogero 
de Huncedon, Hugone de Benethelega, Henrico de Poretona, Henrico filii 
Elyre, Nicholao filio Ricardi, Gilberto de Esseburna, Clerico, Adamo, serviente 
Abbatis Burthonise, Adamo Vinetario, Willelmo de Esseburna, et aliis. 

Omnibus etc. Robertas fills Willelmi de Bentelega etc. Noveritis me 
remississe etc. totum jus etc. in omnibus terris etc. in Huncyndona etc. 
H. T. Matheo de Vilers, tunc Senescallo de Burtona, Willelmo de Sparham, 
Roberto de Charteleye, Radulfo Davy, Galfrido de Kingestona, Henrico 
Hardy, Roberto Tinctore, et aliis. Datum 10 E. H. 

[The back of this folio contains another copy of the Inquisition of 31 E. I., 
respecting the liability of the Abbot's land in Over, Wynshull, etc., to be taxed 
for the fifteenth voted to the King.] 

Folio 112. 

Asstza capta apud Derby pro molendino del Clif, anno W. Abbatis 

iij. 

[This is the official record of an assize of novel disseisin.] 

\Tra7islation^ 

An assize came to make recognition if William, Abbot of Burton, and others 
named, had unjustly disseised William de Tymmor and Elizabeth his wife of 
their free tenement in Egynton, William and Elizabeth complaining that 
the defendants had disseised them of an acre of land. 

The Abbot pleaded by Matthew de Vilers, who appeared for him, that 
William and Elizabeth were in seisin of the land at the date the writ was sued 
out, viz., on the 21st December, in the nth year of the King's reign, and that 
the land in question was formerly in seisin of one Ermentrude de Stafford, the 
predecessor of the said Elizabeth, who is one of the heirs of Ermentrude ; and 
Ermentrude had granted to his predecessor all easements pertaining to the 
Abbot's mill of Stretton, for the purpose of strengthening and mending the 
mill pool of it, and to take earth, etc., at their will for that purpose, and he 
produced the deed of Ermentrude. The jury find in favour of the Abbot. 



148 the burton chartulary. 

Folio 113. 

[*This folio contains the history of the persecution of the Abbot of Burton 
for fraudulently concealing and disposing of the goods and chattels of Thomas 
Earl of Lancaster, who was beheaded and attainted 17 E. II. The account 
(drawn up in the form of a memorandum) states that when John de Stonor, 
Robert de Malmerthorp, and other Justices of the King were at Tuttebury 
making inquiry into the forfeited goods and chattels of Thomas Earl of 
Lancaster, the King's enemy, and of others his accomplices, at the Feast of St. 
Martin, 17 E. II., the Abbot of Burton was maliciously attached to answer 
before them, by the presentment of the Hundred of Pyrehill and the Liberty of 
the Bishop of Chester, for being illegally in possession (per ipsum occupatis) of 
;^400 worth of the said effects. And the Abbot appeared and denied the 
accusation, and put himself on the Country (i.e., appealed to a jury). The jury 
by the malicious contrivance (per maliciosam procur<^ionem) of John de 
Migners was composed of enemies and evil wishers (malivolis) of the Abbot, 
viz., of Sir Hugh de Menille, Sir Philip de Barinton, Sir Thomas de Pipe, 
Knights, and William de Freford, John de Migners, Roger de Aston, William 
de Tomenhorn, Robert Mauveysin, John de Benteleye, John de Perton, 
Geoffrey de Wasteneys, and Robert le Hunte, who falsely found a verdict that 
the Abbot had taken possession of £300 worth of the chattels of the King's 
enemies which had been forfeited, by which verdict the Abbot was attainted 
(attinctus) of the said ;£^300. 

Upon this the Abbot with several of the monks went to the King at Yoxhall, 
and solemnly swore before him that they were not guilty of the transgression 
laid to their charge ; and the King of his own free grace promised them pardon 
for it. In the meantime there came a writ from the King's Exchequer to levy 
the ;^300 from the goods of the monastery, and the Abbot went again to the 
King at Derby, and a day was assigned to him to be in London at the Feast 
of the Purification, 18 E. II., to hear the King's will; and this was then 
declared by Sir Hugh le Despeiicer, junior, and others of the King's Council, 
to this effect, viz., that the Abbot and the monks who were with him, viz.. 
Brothers Robert de Stapenhulle and Robert de Pakinton, should make oath as 
to all they knew respecting the goods of the Earl which had been in the 
possession of the Abbot, and that for the rest they should receive the King's 
pardon ("jurarent ad cognoscendum veritatem de bonis per ipsum Abbatem 
occupatisjt et de residue fieret eis perdonum ") ; and they delivered the follow- 
ing statement upon oath to Magister Robert de Baldok, the King's Chancellor.] 

* Here again is given, on account of its great historical and local interest, 
a part of the Chartulary, that, strictly speaking, pertains only to Staffordshire. 

t It is evident that a part of the treasure had been traced to the possession 
of the monks, and they were suspected therefore of cognizance of the remainder 
which was missing. 



THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 1 49 

Up to this point the account is in Latin ; the deposition of the monks is in 
French, apparently given in the identical words used by the monks ; it is 
therefore copied as in the original. 

L'Abbe de Burton sur Trente e ses moignes jurez dient et convissont per 
lur seermeniz qe denz paniers de cusine et deux coffres de hernays furent 
lessetz en I'Eglise de Burton tut despessetz et debrusetz e la sunt encore qi 
unges al profist de la maison ne \indrent. 

Ensement un torche at ... . furent donez a danuz Symon de Boseworth 
moigne de mesme lai maison pur gentz le roi et un long cofre pur torches 
despecetz et debrisez fust illioet lessez qi nid bieu ne fist ne fet al Abbe ne a 
la maison. Ensement un Barhuyde fust lessez en I'Eglise le quel fust bailez al 
Abbe e demoert enqore en sa garde. 

Ensement il dient per lur seermentz que par la monition I'Abbe en chapitre 
un moigne danuz William de Stoke convissoit q'il avoit achatez d'une femme 
apres le departir de Roi de Burton une pot ewerd'argent et I'Abbe li comaunda 
q'il liverast al oeps le Roi e il ne voloit, mais dist q'il la avail venduz et des- 
penduz les dencrs pur quoi e pur altres trespas il fust emprisonez et I'Abbe 
apres fist pleinte de cele chose al Evesqe de Cestre en sa visitation e le moigne 
convissoit devant I'Evesqe q'il avoit vendu le dit pot pur un marc ou vint solz 
a ceo q'il entendont et I'Evesqe li assoltz et issint demorrent les deners devers 
le moigne. 

Ensement il dient per lur seermentz que apres le departir le Roi de Burton 
I'Abbe fist enquere et serchier des biens des enemis selont ceo qil fust . . . 
per le Roi et fist arester un sac ove naperie al oeps per le Roi et . . . 
convissoit devaunt Sire Johan de Stonore et ces compaignons a Tutteburi et 
furent prisez a diz solz d'une le Roi est serviz del Abbe per la mein le Viscount 
de Stafford. 

Ensement il dient per lur seermentz que une coupe d'argeni en le cas fust 
trovez prez del haut auter et portez al Abbe, et I'Abbe le livera al Roi tauntost 
a sa venue si cum le Roi, Sire Hugh, et Sir Robert de Welles sevent bien. 

Ensement il dient per lur seermentz que unges nule manier des biens des 
enemis en lur mains ne a profist de la maison ne vindient forsque les choses 
surdites mais lur biens de neignes dedens TEglise et dedens checun maison 
del Abbeie prise et emportez et lur mainers destruitz tesmoigne Dieu et tote 
loials gentz. Et Dominus Rex sui gratia dictas ccc. libras dicto Abbati per- 
donavit et literas suas inde fieri fecit sub hac forma paientes. [Here follow the 
letters patent already given.] 

Folios 114 and 115. 

Placita CoroncB coram W. de llerle et sociis suis Justiciariis Itinerantibus in 
Comilatu Derbias anno R. R. Edwardi tertii a Conquestu quarto. 

[This is a repetition of the proceedings of 17 E. II. respecting the view of 



150 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

frankpledge of Huncyndon, the question having again risen owing to a pre- 
sentment of the jury of the wapentake of Wyrkesworth that the Abbot had 
withdrawn it from the Hundred to the prejudice of the King. The record of 
the former decision of the Court of Exchequer is produced by the Abbot.] 

Placitade quo waranto coram W. de Herle et sociis suis Justiciariis Itiner- 
antibus apud Derbi die Lune proximo post festum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli 
anno R. R. Edwardi III. a Conquestu quarto. 

\^Tra7isIationJ\ 

The Abbot of Burton-upon-Trent was summoned to show by what warrant 
he claimed to have free warren in his manors of StapenhuU and Overe and 
their members, and to have sok and sac, and theme and infangenethef, and 
tottiin corrodium, and that all his men should be quit of toll, pontagium, passa- 
gittm, and all other customs. The Abbot produced the Charter of King Henry 
HI. granting all the above franchises to his house ; and the King's attorney, 
William de Denum, then prayed that inquiry might be made by a jury as to 
the use of them since the date of the charter.* 

The jury say that from the time of the charter the Abbot and his prede- 
cessors had made fidl use [bene usi sunt) of free warren in the said manors, and 
of infangenthef in the manor of Overe and its members, but it had often hap- 
pened that a robber taken open handed (ctim mamtopei-te) in the manor of 
.StapenhuU at suit of the peace [fld sectam pads), was indicted in the Hundred 
Repyndon ; and in the same way of infangethef, they say it was not used in 
the manor of StapenhuU, and the Aliljot had no gallows there. It was 
therefore adjudged that the said liberty of infangethef should be taken into the 
King's hands. Afterwards Thomas de Tuttebyry and Robert de Fynderne 
made fine with the King of 20s. for the Abbot to have back the liberty, and 
the Abbot was told to erect a gallows there (ct dictum est ei quod level 
f ureas. ) 

Folio 120. 

This folio contains duplicate copies of the grant of Magister Ralph de 
Chaddesdene for a chantry at Sallowe, the confirmation by the Bishop for the 
same, and the obligation entered into by the .\bbot and monks of Burton to 
carry out the bequest. The Bishop's confii-mation is dated a.d. 1271, and is 
witnessed by Magister Alan Breton Canon of Lichfield, Magister John Kerni, 
Rector of the Church of Sondiacre. Magister John de Cravene, Roger de Dray- 
cote, Clerk, William Teneri of Eyion, Domiuus Roger de Eyton, Chaplain, 
and Magister Hugh de Eyton, Clerk. 

* If fallen into desuetude, the franchises were disallowed. 



THE EURTON CHARTULARY. 15I 

Folio 121, dorso. 

Concordia facta inter Abbatem et Dominos de Rodburne et de Langelega de 
communa pasturoe de Merwinswode. 

Noverint universi quod cum contentiones metre essent inter Dominum 
Thomam Abbatem de Burthona super Trentam et ejusdem loci Conventuin ex 
una parte et Dominos Robertum de Stafibrd, Henricum de Chaundos, 
VVillelmum de Cavereswalle et Henricum de Bralesford et tenentes suos in 
Rodeburne et Langelega super approwementis factis per predictos Dominos 
Robertum, Henricum, Willelmum, et Henricum, in communa pastura piedicti 
Abbatis et Convenius et eorum tenentium in Rodburne et Langelega 
pertinente ad manerium predicti Abbatis de Magna Overa, et unde predictus 
Abbas brevia novae disseisinre versus predictos coram Justiciariis apud 
Derbeyam itinerantibus impetravit anno regni Regis Edward nono ; predicts 
contentiones interventu conimunium amicorum die Sancti Johannis ante 
Portam Latinam anno supradicto coiiquieverunt in hunc niodum, scilicet quod 
predicti Abbas et Conventus pro se et successoribus suis concesserunt pre- 
norainatis Roberto etc. quod omnia oproeveamenta sua et tenentum suorum 
facta et facienda tarn in Rodeburne quam in Langelega firmiter et inconcussa 
absque omni calumpnia vel impedimento predictorum Abbatis et Conventfls et 
tenentium suorum in Magna Overa permaneant etc. et quod licite possini se 
approveare de residue vasli et tenementi sui salvis predictis Abbati et 
tenentibus suis liberum introitum et exitum per medium terrarum etc. tarn 
per vias regias quani s.-miias usitatas et consuetas sine impedimento predic- 
torum Roberti etc. Et pro ista concessione etc. predicti Robertus etc. et 
tenentes eorum concesserunt etc. pro se et heredibus suis in perpetuum 
predictis Abbati et Conventu et eorum successoribus tutum jus et clamium 
quod habuerunt vcl habere potuerunt in communa pastura predictorum Abbatis 
etc. de Magna Overa tam id boscis et vastis quam aliis locis ejusdem manerii 
ubicunque etc. H. T. Dominis Thoma Tochet, Willelmo <Ie Menyl. Egidio 
de iMenyl, Willelmo Wither, Militibus; RadulHi de Burgo, Roberto de Mungn)'e, 
Rogero de Toke, et aliis. 

Folio 123. 

" A tous ceux qu cestez leteres endenteez verrount ou orrount Johan Cokaj-n 
Chief Baron del Escheqer nostre Seigneur le Roy et Hugh Huls Chivaler un 
des Justiccz de Bank nostre dit Seigneur le Roy salutcz en Dieu etc." This is 
the decision of Sir John Cokayne and Sir Hugh Hulse, acting as arbitrators, 
in a dispute between the Abbot of Burton on the one part and Sir Thomes de 
Gresley, Knight, and Philip Oliver, Robert Oliver, and Robert de W'alton 
(queux sount de retenue le dit Monsieur Thomas) on the other part, respecting 
divers lands and tenements in Burton whicli formerly belonged to one Sibilla 



152 THE BURTON CHARTULARY. 

de Allerwas, and which was held by Sir Thomas of the Abbot and Convent for 
a yearly rent of 2s., and which rent the said Thomas had withheld ; also 
respecting the tenure of one Richard Wymer in Drakelowe, who held of the 
Abbot by fealty and the service of Ss. 6d. ; and of John de la Grene, who held 
of the Abbot in Lynton, and regarding likewise an assize of novel disseisin 
which the Abbot had arraigned against Sir Thomas Gresley in the County 
Court of Derbyshire respecting certain lands and tenements in Stapunhull. 

By the award Sir Thomas is to pay the arrears of the rent owing to the 
Abbot, and to engage not to disturb or molest the Abbot and his men in future ; 
and the assize of novel disseisin is to be tried, in Derbyshire, the Abbot and Sir 
Thomas engaging not to appear at the Court with more than twenty-four 
persons in their respective retinues. The award is dated the Wednesday on the 
Vigil of St. John the Baptist, 7 Hen. IV. 

Omnibus Chrispi fidelibus etc. Thomas Gresley Miles et Johannes Gresley 
Miles filius et heres ejusdem Thomas etc. salutem. Noveritis nos etc. 
concessisse Dompno Radulpho Heneley Abbati Monasterii Beatse Marise etc. 
de Burton super Trentam etc. licenciam nostram figendi, cubandi, etc. fistulas 
plumbeas suas aquce ductas suae in Stapunhull subtus et infra fundum nostrum 
et terram nostram in eadem villa de Stapunhull etc. H. T. Johanne Dedhek 
Domino de Newehall, Henrico Holand de Caldewalle, Thoma Calangewode 
de eadem Reginaldo Roundell de Stapenhyll, Henrico de Caldewalle de eadem. 
Datum apud Stapenhyll etc. 15 H. VI. 



NOTE ON THE MEDLEVAL MENSURATION OF LAND. 

A large number of passages from ancient writers relating to this subject have 
been industriously collected together by Sir Henry Ellis in his " Introductions 
to Domesday," Vol. I., page 145, but the reader will rise from a perusal of them 
more bewildered than ever. It is quite clear that the same word had a different 
signification according as it is used as a portion of land under tillage, or as a 
measure of taxation. In some counties also eight virgates went to the hyde in 
place of four ; and a further source of confusion is engendered by the use of the 
same contraction for the words "caruca" and "carucata." The latter word 
is frequently used as synonymous with a hyde of land, and Orderic Vitalis speaks 
of the carucate quam Angli hydain vacant. 

As regards the carucate, virgate, and bovate, the reader will find some very 
curious and interesting information in Seebohm's " English Village Community." 
The hide or carucate he considers to be the holding corresponding with the 
possession of a full plough team of eight oxen. The half hide corresponds with 
the possession of one of the two yokes of four abreast ; the virgate with the 
possession of a pair of oxen, and the half virgate or bovate with the possession 
of a single ox, all having their fixed relation to the full manorial plough of eight 



THE BURTON CHARTULARV. 1 53 

oxen. There is much to support this view in the " £xien/a terrarum " of the 
Abbey of Burton, temp. H. I. ; but the monks do not treat the hide and the 
carucate as synonymous. 

Seebohm is of opinion that the normal virgate was about thirty acres ; but 
virgates of much larger dimensions are frequently mentioned on the Rolls, and 
I should be inclined to fix thirty-six as the normal number of acres fo the 
virgate, viz., two bovates of eighteen acres each. But all that can be said 
positively on the subject is, that a virgate was the normal holding of the 
' ' villanus ; " and this holding included in addition to the land under tillage, 
rights of common on the manorial waste, and of pannage and estover in the 
manorial woods. The villanus in fact was really a well-to-do and usually 
prosperous tenant, with fixity of tenure ; for the obligation of his possession 
was reciprocal ; and though he could not remove from his holding, the lord 
could not dispossess him so long as he performed his accustomed service. 
There is no trace of servitude in his position or status, and Domesday always 
distinguishes the "villani " from the "servi." 

G. W. 

[Finis.] 



IS4 



i3n tfft itttgustuuan ^novp of t!jc ^o\^ 
^vmttg, at Hcpton, ^eriiggl^ivr 



(Second Notice). 



By W. H. St. John Hope, M.A., F.S.A. 




INCE writing my last paper on this subject a year ago, 
the further excavation of the site of the priory church 
lias been carried out by the Rev. W. Furneaux, with 
very interesting results. The whole of the debris which covered 
the area of the transepts and eastern arm has been removed to 
the floor level, and the outbuildings that encumbered the site have 
been cleared away. It was unfortunately thought advisable to 
remove portions of tlie walls uncovered in order to form a carriage 
drive, and it is a matter of equal regret that the plans for the new 
memorial schoolroom include the destruction of the remams of 
the nave south arcade, and the south-west pier of the crossing. 
These might easily be preserved, as part of the history of the 
place, at very small additional cost. 

The plan of the church (Plate VII.), as now laid open, consists 
of a nave and aisles ; central tower ; north and south transepts, 
the former witli an eastern aisle ; and choir and aisles, with a 
large south chapel. The choir extends somewhat beyond the east 
end of the aisles to form a presbytery. 

Though no part of the church, except a fragment of the west 
wall of the north transept, is standing to a greater height than 
three feet, thereby making it difficult to trace the architectural 
history, enough has fortunately been spared to allow the gradual 



u 

I 

O ui 



Q. 
llJ 




■^"sSiT/es^ 




Plate VIII. 



Repton Priory- Sections of Base Moldings. 










?^<b 



II 




W.H. S^ J.H.tnons et del. 



PRIORY OF THE HOLY TRINITY AT REPTON. 155 

growth of the building to be ascertained with some degree of 
certainty. 

The oldest portion of the existing remains seems to be the west 
wall of the north transept, with the jambs of the arch opening into 
the nave north aisle. This is apparently of late Transitional 
date. Of very little later date are the eastern responds of the 
nave arcades. Then follow the rest of the nave — which is, how- 
ever, not all the work of one period ; the south transept ; the south 
chapel ; the tower, choir, and alterations to the east side of the 
north transept. 

With regard to the nave, I have nothing to add to my former 
descri[)tion, except a few remarks on the base moldings. Despite 
the great difference in the plan of the pillars, the sections of the 
moldings do not indicate any corresponding difference in date. 
Beginning with the moldings of the eastermost pair of piers, we 
find them repeated on a somewhat larger scale in the north-west 
respond, which is perfectly different in plan. The south-west 
respond, again, has the same plan as its fellow, but the mold- 
ings are quite unlike, though each exhibits the same roll molding 
below, which is not found on the first pair of piers. A reference 
to the sections on Plate VIII. will make this clear. 

Before leaving the nave, it should be mentioned that, near ihe 
south-west side of the westermost pier of the south arcade, there is 
a piece of solid foundation level with the pavement, as if a font or 
other heavy object had stood there. 

The north transept was about 33 feet long, by about 
21 feet wide. Its north wall has been entirely removed, 
but the position of it may be fixed by its bond with 
the west wall. The latter remains to a height of a few feet, 
which increases suddenly towards the south to the height of the 
springing of the arch opening into the nave aisle, the jamb of 
which is almost complete, including a considerable portion of the 
capital. Of the corresponding jamb only the base-plinth is left. 
The jambs have plain re-entering angles, and are of the Tran- 
sitional period. In the west wall of the north transept was a 
large recess, 13 feet 10 inches wide, and at least 4 feet ten inches 



156 PRIORY OF THE HOI.V TRINITY AT REPTON. 

deep. No use can be assigned for this, unless it held a large 
armarium, or cupboard, for vestments and other ornaments ; or, 
as no traces have been found of the night stairs communicating 
with the dormitory, they may have stood here within an arch. 
The east side opened by an arcade of two arches, the plinths of 
whose pillars remain, into an aisle or chapel. The arcade was 
contemporary with the tower and choir, but nothing is left of the 
aisle itself, even to help us to fix its dimensions, and they are 
shown on the plan quite conjecturally. Just to the east of the 
arcade is the foundation of a wall nearly six feet thick, running 
north and south. From its proximity to the arcade, it must be 
anterior in date, and clearly represents the eastern wall of an older 
transept, but whether it is contemporary witli the west wall, or with 
the foundation of the aisleless nave, there is nothing to show. 

The remains of the south transept are most fragmentary. Part 
of the rubble core of the west wall remains, and that of the south 
wall was found, but has since been removed. On its east side, if 
an aisle ever existed, it was afterwards replaced by a large chapel, 
47 feet 6 inches long, and about 21 feet wide. Of the arcade 
opening into this chapel and into the choir aisle, only one base 
remains (Plate XL) This seems insufficient to carry the weight of 
the transept wall, and we should expect three arches instead of two. 
There is, however, no second base, and all possible traces of it 
have been completely removed. The moldings show this arcade 
to be somewhat later than the nave. 

The south wall of the south chapel was uncovered during the 
excavations, but had been removed before I had an opportunity 
of seeing it. In front of the third buttress was a small semi- 
octagonal base (not shown on plan), but it did not range with 
anything. From its position it must have had some constructional 
use not now evident. When I commenced excavations on the 
site in 1882, I found at the east end of this chapel a piece of solid 
wall, which ranges with the pier of the transept arcade. This has 
since been removed, and the measurements I took at the time of 
its discovery, are the only record of its existence. On referring 
to the plan, it will be seen that it is not in hne with the arcade 



Pl-ATK XI. 



Repton Priory - Plans of B 



ASES 






- J.H mens e*,d*l. 



Pi. Air, IX. 




HASli OF ARCADK DKTWKKN SOUTH CHAJ' 
KEl'TON I'KlOltY. 



;i, ANIJ CHOIR AISLK, 



ENGRAVED BY BEMROSE AND SONS, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY K, KEFNE. 



PRIORY OF THE HOLY TRINITY AT REPTON. 157 

between the chapel and south choir aisle, and the latter must, 
therefore, replace either a former arcade or a solid wall. The first 
bay was probably left solid ; either because it held the sedilia and 
piscina of the choir aisle, or a tomb on the chapel side. Between 
the third and fourth pillars the remains of a tomb were found, 
containing a skeleton, whose legs had been doubled up in a most 
uncomfortable way for want of room. Both the third and fourth 
bases, as well as the western respond, remain in very perfect con- 
dition, but lack their detached shafts. It will be seen from Plate 
IX. that they have a very singular plan, with a triple vaulting 
shaft attached to the north face. 

Passing to the tower, as the next work in pomt of date, we find 
that the bases of all its four piers are now uncovered. They ex- 
hibit the same section throughout, but differ slightly in plan. Of 
the south-west one only the hollow- chamfered plinth remains. 
No additional information can be gleaned respecting tht pulpiium ; 
it is, however, not easy to say how a person turned round when 
he got to the top of the stairs leading to the loft, and there must 
have been a projecting cornice, or some such arrangement, to give 
additional width. The plain face of the pulpitum has a parallel at 
Rochester, and for the same reason, that the more gorgeous roodloft 
stood to the west, though no traces of the second screen remain at 
Repton. This is not, however, negative evidence of the existence 
of the western screen, for at Durham, where we have positive 
documentary proof there was one, no traces whatever can be 
detected on the piers. 

The exact width of the choir has been found to be 26 feet 2 
inches. The canons' stalls were placed against a solid wall, i foot 
thick, extending eastward 31 feet 2 inches. This wall was con- 
temporary with, and part of, the pillars of the arcade, some of 
whose moldings it takes the place of. Though we have no means 
of ascertaining the height of the wall, it probably stopped short 
below the capitals of the pillars, and the moldings of the latter 
would appear complete above the coping of the wall. Nothing is 
left to show the number and arrangement of the stalls, but there 
is room for thirteen a side, and for four returned stalls on either 



158 PRIORY OF THE HOLY TRINITY AT REPTON. 

side the choir door, making a total of thirty-four. The arrange- 
ment of the arcades dividing off the choir aisles is somewhat 
eccentric ; the more so, because both sides are contemporary, and 
tlie plans and sections of the pillars identical. On the north side 
only one base remains, and on the south, three ; but these show 
that the north arches were half as wide again as the south, so that, 
as the perpent-wall terminated at a pillar, there were two arches 
behind the north stalls, and three behind the south. There is, 
unfortunately, no positive evidence how the arcades continued 
eastward. Two additional arches would make a regular arcade 
on the south of five bays, and this was probably the case ; but an 
additional north arch will not make the two arcades of equal 
length, unless it be of slightly wider span than the other two. 

For an explanation of this unsymnietrical setting out, we must 
look to the order in which the parts of the church were erected. 
It has already been stated that the south chapel, and the arcade 
separating it from the choir aisle, are anterior to the choir. 
Further, the additional shafts on the north side of the south 
chapel pillars, prove that the choir aisle was, to say the least, meant 
to be vaulted. Now to enable the vaulting cells to be most easily con- 
structed, it was necessary that a pillar should be opposite a pillar. 
A reference to the ground plan will show that this was done at Rep- 
ton ; hence the five bays of the south arcade, and the narrow arch 
next the tower. For the same reason, the south arcade cannot 
well have exceeded in height the arches of the south chapel. On 
the north side, however, the greater width of the arches, and the 
absence of any controlling influence, would allow them to be 
carried up much higher than those opposite, and therefore, over 
the lower arches of the south arcade, there must have been either 
a double clerestory, like we see in the presbytery at Ely, or, like 
Bridlington, the south clerestory windows considerably exceeded 
the north ones in length. 

Of the east end of this part of the church only the rough core 
was found, at a distance of 69 feet from the pulpitum. It pro- 
jected a bay beyond the aisles. The south wall was of earlier date 
than the south aisle wall, for the latter ends in such a way as to 



PRIORY OF THE HOLY TRINITY AT REPTON. 1 59 

clearly show it was built up with a straight joint against an older 
wall, which, moreover, had a plinth along it. The cast of this 
plinth runs through the aisle wall, and seems to show that, though 
the western part of this portion of the church had been rebuilt in 
later times, the east arm was originally aisleless. Owing to the 
earlier and later works not being in line, the junction must have 
been somewhat awkward. 

The east end of tlie presbytery has been entirely removed since 
the excavations, and the ground lowered, but nothing was found 
to indicate the site of the high altar. Exactly at the point of inter- 
section of two lines drawn tlirough the east walls of the aisles and 
down the centre of the clioir, is a block of stone, about two feet 
cube, roughly shaped, widi a socket on the top, 7 inches deep and 
■jh inches square. What it was for does not appear, and it must 
have been either below the pavement or flush with it. Possibly it 
was a socket for some object, or it may have been for a heart- 
burial. The iiigh altar, according to the inventory, had four little 
candlesticks of latten, and a reredos containing five great images, 
and a table of alabaster with little images. 

The north choir aisle has been so entirely demolished, that only 
its east and part of the north walls are left. It seems to have 
been of greater width than the south aisle; perhaps 12 feet 6 
inches. No detail remains to help us to fix its date. The 
junction of choir aisle and transept aisle is shown conjecturally on 
plan. 

In spite of the fulness of the 153S inventory, it is not easy to 
point out which parts of the church are indicated. The visitors 
seem to have made their list in the following order — presbytery, 
choir, south choir aisle, south chapel, south transept, nave, north 
transept, and north choir aisle ; thence to the cloister and sur- 
rounding buildings. 

By this theory the south choir aisle was St. John's chapel. 
There are the holes for a " partition of wode " in the arch at the 
west end. The south chapel, there is every reason to assume, was 
the chapel of our Lady. Its altar had an alabaster reredos, and a 
(painted) wooden frontal. The grate of iron belonged to a tomb. 



l6o PRIORY OF THE HOLY TRINITY AT REPTON. 

and the "partition of tymber" filled the arch or arches between 
the chapel and the transept, as the pier shows. The south tran- 
sept seems to have been the chapel of St. Nicholas. It contained 
apparently two altars — one had images of SS. John and Sythe, 
and an alabaster reredos set in the wooden screen behind ; the other 
a Rood and an image of St. Nicholas, with a reredos of alabaster. 

In the body of the church, that is, the nave, were seven " peces 
of tymber, a " lytell oulde house of tymber," "the xij Apostells," 
and an " image of o' lady in o' lady of petys chapell." We have also 
to account for three other altars. One of these was dedicated to 
St. Thomas. It had a gilt wooden reredos, and was apparently 
enclosed in a small chapel, for the inventory mentions a " partition 
of tymber seled ouer in seint Thom's Chapell." All we know 
about the two remaining altars are, that one had a wooden reredos 
and a screen, the other a small reredos of alabaster. 

How many altars the nave and its aisles contained is not 
apparent from the entries quoted above. There was a principal 
altar in the nave, but its dedication is unknown. There was also 
an altar against the second south pier, perhaps that of our Lady 
of Pity, or St. Thomas. Two or three altars could stand in the 
north transept aisle and north choir aisle. 

I have purposely omitted all reference to the north transept, as 
it is possible that here stood the shrine and altar of St. Gulhlac. 
Some sumptuous heads of canopies, of the best fourteenth century 
work, adorned with painting, were uncovered in this transept and 
the choir aisle adjacent. They seem to have belonged to some 
shrine or similar work. The fact of the demolition of all the 
shrines in the kingdom before the suppression of the religious 
houses took place, will account for the absence of all mention of 
St. Guthlac in the inventory. 

In the floor of the nave, just before the tower, was uncovered 
an incised slab, bearing a rudely executed cross fleury on steps, 
and the marginal inscription : — (Plate XII.) 

[ -f ©rate ipro ] anima magisiri eirmunbi button qaonbam £an[omti 

^uius crtlcsic] qui obiit jaimarij anno hxi \mztd° 

tui' m jijiic' [ bfus. %mt\\ ] 



PLATE XII. 



.■J' ?"■ 




INCISED SLAB OF EDWARD DUTTON. REPTON PRIORY CHURCH. 



Plate X. 




I FOOT 
CAPITAL, EASE, AND SECTION OF CENTRE PILLAR FROM CHAPTER HOUSE, REPTON PRIORY. 



PRIORY OF THE HOLY TRINITY AT REPTON. l6l 

This memorial has been removed from its site for preserva- 
tion. 

No additional light has been thrown on the conventual build- 
ings, as the excavations did not extend to them. It has, however, 
been found that the width of the chapter-house was 26 feet. 
There has also been discovered the capital, base, and part of the 
shaft of a remarkable pillar, having the section of a pointed oval, 
which may have been the centre pillar of the chapter-house door- 
way. It is shown on Plate X. At a short distance from the 
north end of the dormitory, part of a building has been uncovered, 
which evidently belonged to the ttecessariu?n. It was 26 feet long, 
but as it has not been fully excavated, it may be wider than shown 
on plan. 

On the exterior of the north wall of the fratry, at the points 
shown on the plan by dotted lines, there is a kind of incipient 
l^rojection, which seems to indicate the position of the reading 
pulpit. 

The sections shown on Plate VIII. are reduced by photo- 
graphy from drawings taken with the cymagraph. Plates VII., X., 
and XL are similarly reduced from my own measured drawings. 
Plate XII. is from a drawing by Mr. George Bailey, and Plate IX. 
from a photograph by Mr. Keene of Derby. 



14 



l62 



i^tcortrs of ttjc ISorougi^ of <2E]^cstetfteltr.* 




HE thanks of all archaeologists, especially of this county, 
are due to Mr. Alderman Gee, Mayor of Chesterfield, 
for the spirit and enterprise that he has shown in caus- 
ing the publication, at his own expense, of all that remains of the 
records of the ancient Borough of Chesterfield. Publication is the 
chief conservative source that we possess in the preservation of our 
old muniments. When it is known that an intelligent public have 
before them printed lists or transcripts of archives, the consciences 
of Chapter Clerks, Town Clerks, and other responsible ofiicials, 
will be considerably quickened. 

It is most melancholy to note the shameless carelessness that has 
characterised the custody of the Chesterfield archives during the 
past one hundred years. In 1789, that celebrated local antiquary, 
Dr. Pegge, drew up a schedule of the evidences, charters, etc., 
that were then in the Chesterfield Corporation chest. This list 
is bound up with Dr. Pegge's MS. Derbyshire Collections, which 
he bequeathed to the College of Arms. It is printed in full in 
this volume. Mr. John Cutts, for so many years Town Clerk of 
Chesterfield, soon after his appointment, did a most practical and 
serviceable work in printing a list of "all charters, deeds, books, 
books of account, and all documents and effects belonging to the 
Corporation of Chesterfield." This list was printed in 1857. 
Since that date nothing has been lost. Would that Dr. Pegge had 



* "Records of the Borough of Chesterfield ; " being a series of extracts 
from the Archives of the Corporation of Chesterfield, collected by G. Pym 
Yeatman, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. Chesterfield : Wilfred 
Edmunds. 



RECORDS OF THE BOROUGH OF CHESTERFIELD. 1 63 

printed his list in the " Gentleman's Magazine," to which he was 
so frequent a contributor. Had this been done, the disgraceful 
loss or purloining of public property would in all probability not 
have occurred. As it is, nearly fifty of the seventy scheduled 
items of Dr. Pegge's list had disappeared when Mr. Cutts drew up 
his list in 1857 ; some of the greatest interest and value. Dr. 
Pegge's schedule also affords evidence of the comparatively recent 
loss of " the Black Book," wherein were copies of all the ancient 
charters, evidences as to customs, etc., and which was extant in 
his days. Possibly it may be in my power to give some faint clue 
that iniay lead to the recovery of some of the missing archives. 
In the autumn of 1866, when in conversation with the late Mr. 
Waller, of Chesterfield, in his house in the Market Place, on the 
subject of modern trades' unions and their connection with 
medieval guilds, Mr. Waller remarked, " I have," or, (" I can show 
you ") my memory does not serve me as to which expression was 
used) " some medieval rolls that I can't make out, but they refer 
to guilds at Chesterfield and Dronfield." This was to be done 
when we both had more leisure. In 1868, when at the College of 
Arms, I copied out Dr. Pegge's list of the Chesterfield archives, 
and was struck with the mention of the Guild Rolls of Dronfield 
and Chesterfield. I wrote to Mr. Waller on the subject ; he re- 
plied that very likely they were those lie had named, and renewed 
his promise of showing them to me. Unfortunately, through 
mutual misunderstanding and dilatoriness, my inspection of them 
never took place. Perhaps communications with the represen- 
tatives of the late Mr. Waller might lead to the recovery of these 
and other missing archives. 

Chesterfield, however, still preserves a remarkable and original 
series of Royal Charters, as well as other valuable and interesting 
L documents. Mr. Gee's scholarly munificence has caused the 
M whole of these documents to be printed in extenso, with various 
B. fac-similes of the more interesting ones, as well as drawings of 
K seals, and the result is a beautifully printed and handsome volume 
^^ of about 200 pages. The work of transcribing, translating, and 
^^m editing these archives was entrusted to the capable pen of Mr. 

I 



164 RECORDS OF THE BOROUGH OF CHESTERFIELD. 

Pym Yeatman, and most ably has he done his task. The Intro- 
duction is helpful and original, its only fault being its brevity. 

I have only two or three criticisms to offer. The first Charter is 
damaged in parts, and lacks the king's name. But it is beyond 
doubt a charter of King John, which might as well have been 
stated. I do not agree with the translation, in all its particulars, 
of Lord Wake's Charter (temp. Edwd. I.) to the burgesses. For 
instance, I take it that braciacor, p. 34, is the baker, and pistor 
the miller. At all events braciacor cannot be a " brewer," but 
perhaps both terms are for different varieties of bakers. Coreas, 
page 35, is not " wax," but hides ; it reads coreas vel pelles, that is, 
hides or skins. Pane braiaco should be translated barley bread, 
and not " malted bread." I take it that tinctor should be ren- 
dered " dyer," and not " painter." 

Every Derbyshire man of letters, and therefore every member 
of our Society, ought to have this volume. The following is a 
copy of its Table of Contents, in addition to the Introduction. 

J. Charles Cox, Editor. 

I. — Charter of King * * * to William Brewer. 
II. — Charter of King Henry II. to the Burgesses of Nottingham. 
III. — Charter of John, Earl of Mortain, to the Burgesses of Notting- 
ham. 
IV. — Charter of King John to Burgesses of Nottingham. 
V, — Charter of King John to the Burgesses of Derby. 
VI. — Charter of King John to Richard, son of William Brewer. 
VII. — Charter of King John to Wm. Brewer, the younger. 
VIII. — Concord between Wm. Brewer, the younger, and the Burgesses 
of Chesterfield. 
IX. — Charter of King Henry HI. to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
X. — Charter of John, Lord Wake, to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XI. — Charter of King Edward IV. to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XII. — Certificate of King Edward IV. that Chesterfield was a Borough 

of ancient demesne to the Crown. 
XIII.— Charter of King Henry VII. to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XIV. — Charter of King Henry VIII. to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XV. — Charter of King Edward VI. to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XVI. — 1st Charter of Queen Elizabeth to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XVII. — 2nd Charter of Queen Elizabeth — certificate that Chesterfield 
was a Borough of Ancient Demesne of the Crown. 



I 



RECORDS OF THE BOROUGH OF CHESTERFIELD. 165 

XVIII. — 3rd Charter 01 Queen Elizabeth to the Borough of Chesterfield. 
XIX. — Charter of King Charles II. to the Borough of Chesterfield. 

XX. — Gryssop's Composition respecting the Customs of Chesterfield. 
XXI. — The Composition of the 6th Oct., 8th Elizabeth, respecting the 

Customs of Chesterfield. 
XXII. — The 4th Charter of Queen Elizabeth inspecting the Compo- 
sitions. 
XXIII. — The Composition with the Earl of Shrewsbury of the 4th 
January, loth Elizabeth. 
XXIIIa. — 23 Nov., Henry VI., Pardon under the Great Seal to the Guild 
of the Holy Cross. 
XXIV\ — 5 Hen, IV., Lease of the Manor of Chesterfield from Joan, 

Countess of Kent. 
XXV. — Wm. II. The King's Charter to St. Mary's, Lincoln, respect- 
ing the Church of Chesterfield. 
XXVI.— s. d. Charter of Wm. fil Ranulf, of Chesterfield, to Robert fil 

Edward de Chesterfield. 
XXVII. — Charter of Robert fil Susannah de Rousely to Walter Clark, of 
Chesterfield. 
XXVril.— Charter of Robert de Peck, of Chesterfield, to Peter fil Hugh, of 
Brimington. 
XXIX. — Charter of John Fitz Isaac, of Chesterfield, to Beauchief Abbey. 
XXX. — Charter of Alan fil Gunild, of Chesterfield, to Beauchief Abbey. 
XXXI. — Will of William Fitz-Norman, of Taddington. 
XXXII. — Commemoration at Beauchief Abbey of Chesterfield Worthies. 
XXXIII. — Charter ofWm. Briges, of Chesterfield, to Beauchief Abbey. 
XXXIV. — Charter of Peter del Hirst and Maud, his wife, to Beauchief 

Abbey. 
XXXV. — Charter of Richard Bonus, of Chesterfield, to Beauchief Abbey. 
XXXVI. — Charter of Robert Wiggley to Sir John Ryggeway, of Chester- 
field. 
XXXVII. — Charter of Hugo fil Hugo, of Dockmanton, to John Bond, of 
Chesterfield. 
XXXVIII. — Charter of Hugo Brito, of Walton, to the Dean of Lincoln. 
XXXIX.— Charter of Henry fil Roger Bate, of Newbold, to Roger fil 
Henry de Newbold. 
XL. — Charter of Ro'oert Hayston, of Chesterfield, to Richard fil 

Bond, of Chesterfield. 
XLI. — Charter of Ralf Brito del Hertwjx, to Jocelyn de Haremere. 
XLII. — 25 Hy. III., Charter of Sarra, widow of Ralf, the Clerk, to 
Adam Venell, of Chesterfield, 
XLIII. — s. d. Charter of John de Sutton, of Nottingham, and Matilda 
Bond, to Richard de Aston, 



1 66 RECORDS OF THE BOROUGH OF CHESTERFIELD. 

XLIV.— s. d. Charter of Peter Tinctor, of Chesterfield, to Peter fil 
Hugh de Docktnanton. 
XLV. — s. d. Charter of John Arcwryt, of Chesterfield, to the Guild 

of the Blessed Mary of Chesterfield. 
XLVI. — s. d. Charter of John fil John Bond de Chesterfield, to Margerie, 

his sister. 
XLVII. — 21 Ed. I., Charter of John de Calale to Roger de Mannesfield. 
XLVIII. — s. d. Charter of Adam fil Hugo de Lincoln. 
XLIX. — s. d. Charter of Hugh fil Hugh de Dockmanton to John Bond, 
of Chesterfield. 
L. — 26 Ed. I. Charter of Emma, widow of Adam de Beat, of Ches- 
terfield, to Stephen, her brother. 
LI.— 30 Ed. L Charter of William fil William Pistor, of Chester- 
field, to Roger fil Galfred de Walton. 
LH.— II Ed. IL Charter of Roger de Mablethorpe to Gilbert, his 

brother. 
LHL— 14 Eu. H. Charter of Isabella, fil John fil Roger fil Hore, to 

John fil Ranulf fil Reginald de Holywelgate. 
LIV.— 16 Ed. II. Charter of John fil William fil Edde de Chester- 
field to Richard le Archer. 
LV.— i6Ed. II. Charter of John fil Richard Bond, of Chesterfield, 

to Roger de Mannesfield. 
LVL— 14 Ed. IIL Charter of Richard Albeyne, of Chesterfield. 
LVIL— 15 Ed. III. Charter of Nicholas Fox to Adam Horn. 
LVIIL— 18 Ed. III. Charter of William Hyas, of Chesterfield, to John 
fil Roger fil Ranulf de Halywell. 
LIX. — 20 Ed. III. Charter of Richard Folijambe to Henry de Hamp- 
ton, of Chesterfield. 
LX. — 34 Ed. III. Charter of John de Wytington to William Aleyn, 

of Chesterfield. 
LXI.— 46 Ed. III. Charter of John Bond. 
LXIL— 46 Ed. III. The King's Charter to Richard de Chesterfield. 
LXIIa.— 49 Ed. III. Charter of John Foljambe to William Hack- 
holder. 
LXIIL— 4 Ric. HI. The King's Charter to Ricliard de Chesterfield. 
LXIV.— 16 Ric. II. The King's Charter to William de Horbury. 
LXV. — 14 Ric. 11. Charter of William del Lowe to Roger del Hard- 

wyk and Johanna his wife. 
LXVI. — 17 Ric. II. Charter of Thomas de Nevil to John de Mannes- 
field de Chesterfield. 
LXVII. — 19 Ric. II. Charter of John fil John de Horsley to John 
Rankell. 



RECORDS OF THE BOROUGH OF CHESTERFIELD. 167 

LXVIII. — 10 Apl., 1481. Charter of William de Calale, of Normanton, 
to John de Barley. 
LXIX.— Hy. VI. Charter of Henry Gothe to Richard Cook de Ches- 
terfield. 
LXX.— 23 Hy. VI. Charter of Ralf, Lord Cromwell, and others, to 
John Wilson. 
LXXI. — 31 Hy. V. Charter of Thomas, son of John Foljambe, to Henry, 

his brother. 
LXXIL— 3 Ed. IV. Charter of William fil John Shaw to Richard Asche. 
LXXIII.— 16 Ed. IV. Charter of John Hethcote, of Chesterfield, to 

William Whithel. 
LXXIV.— Hy. VII. Receipt Robert Barley to Henry Foljambe. 
LXXV.— 6 Hy. VII. Charter of John Asche de Chesterfield to Henry 

Foljambe. 
LXXVI.— 19 Hy. VII. Charter of Thomas Harvey, of Chesterfield, to 
Gilbert Foljambe. 
LXXVII. — 3 Hy. IV. Charter of Alice, widow of Ralph Papplewick, to 

William Frenyngham. 
LXXVIII.— 32 Hy. VIII. The King's Charter to the Guild of the Blessed 
Mary. 
LXXIX. — 23 Sept., 1562. Power of Attorney from George, Earl of 

Shrewsbury. 
LXXX. — I Aug., 1621. Faculty for Seats in Church for the Mayor and 
Aldermen and their wives. 
LXXXI. — 3 Nov., 1658. Lease of the Town Hall from Lord Mansfield 

(Commonwealth. ) 
LXXXII. — 14 Chas. II. Expulsion of the Mayor and Aldermen (Restora- 
tion.) 
LXXXIII. — 3 May, 1675. License from the Duke of Newcastle to build a 

Market House. 
Dr. Pegge's List of Corporation Records, 1789. 
Mr. Cutts' List of Corporation Records, 1857. 
List of Mayors, Bailiffs, Aldermen, etc. 
List of Town Clerks. 
Burgess Roll, No. I. 
Burgess Roll, No. 2. 

1 Ed. HI. List of Inhabitants Assessed to the Subsidy. 
43 Eliz. List of Inhabitants Assessed to the Subsidy. 

2 Hy. IV. to Hy. V. Hundred Roll of Scarsdale of this date. 
Papers relating to the Appointments to the office of Town Clerk. 



ilfmmisfcncts of ^Itr ^Ucstrcc. 



By George Bailey. 




LLESTREE, at the Norman Survey, formed part of the 
Manor ot Markeaton, to which Mackworth was joined. 
It belonged to the Earl of Chester, but it afterwards 
came into possession of the Touchets, ancient Norman knights, 
whose name is found in the Roll of Battle Abbey. In the forty- 
fourth year of the reign of Edward III., Sir John Touchet fell 
before Rochelle, fighting against the Spaniards. He had pre- 
viously married Joane, eldest daughter and heiress of Sir James 
de Audley, of Heleigh, co. Stafford, by whom he had a son, 
John, who was summoned to Parliament on the 12th December, 
1405, as Lord Audley. Her father, Sir James de Audley, K.G., 
was one of the heroes of Poictiers, and it is related of him* that 
for his valour at the battle of Poictiers, Edward, called the Black 
Prince, granted him ;^4oo per annum. "He with his fower 
Esquires fought so longe in the fronte of the battle that he was 
very sore wonded, and having performed many noble feats of 
arms, was carried by his fower squires out of the field." Prince 
Edward, at the end of the battle, enquired after him, and, on 
being told he was sorely wounded, requested that if possible he 
might be brought to him. Accordingly, Sir James was carried to 
tlie Prince's tent by eight servants. The Prince took him in his 
arms and embraced him, and kissed him, saying, " I repute you 
(and so do all others) and declare you to be the best doer in 



"Topographer," vol. i. p. 268. 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 169 

armes. And the better to furnish and encourage you to the warrs, 
I retayne you ever to be my knight, with five hundred markes of 
yearly revenew, out of my inheritance." They then carried him 
back to his tent, whereupon he called his four esquires, and, in 
presence of witnesses, spake thus, " thes four gentlemen have ever 
served me truly and especially this day, and the honor I have 
obtained is by their valiantnesse, and therefore am I bound to 
reward them. Therefore doe all you testifie, that when my lord 
the prince hath given me 500 markes of yearely revenues, I 
resigne into their hands the sayd gyft, to them and their heyeres 
for ever, as surely as yt was given me, and doe disinheryt myself 
of the same." This coming to the ears of the Prince, he highly 
commended Sir James, and gave him 600 marks for himself. The 
battle of Poictiers was fought in 20th Edward III., and de 
Mackworth was with Audley as one of his four esquires.* We 
think it very probable that de Adlardestreu was another of them, 
though we cannot find any actual record of it ; the name is 
mentioned in deeds of the 13th century,+ and members of the family 
of Allestry remained in the neighbourhood as late as 16S2, when 
Thomas was incumbent of St. Peter's. They appear to have 
taken their name from the two berewites, as we find the hamlets 
named in Doomsday Book, but they were not held by the 
Touchets, Mackworths, or Allestrys at the time of that survey, 
though they may have been held by them soon after ; for Lysons 
states the Touchets had the manor in 1 251, and also that Thomas, 
son of Lord Touchet, sold it, about 15 16, to John Munday, who 
was Lord Mayor of London in 1522, and who died in 1538 
possessed of Mackworth. Markeaton, Allestree, and of land at 
Findern and Chester. It continued in the same family above 200 
years. Allestree was then sold to Bache Thornhill, of Stanton in 
the Peak, who began to build the Hall, and made a park. Mr. 
Thornhill, however, never finished the Hall, and it acquired the 
reputation of being haunted, which it was, by owls. In this state 
the Hall remained until it was purchased by I. C. Girardot, who 

* Pilkington's "Derbyshire." vol. ii. p. iii. 
t Lysons' "Derbyshire," p. 153. 



170 REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 

completed it in about 1805. He appears to have acquired his 
wealth in India, and it was the custom to call such persons 
Nabobs. He kept up great state during his residence at Allestree, 
driving a coach and four, with a black footman, and two spotted 
dogs to follow the carriage, as was the custom in those days. 
This gentleman was Sheriff of the county in 1818. Ceasing to 
reside at the Hall, he let it to Mr. Evans, the father of the 
present owner, who eventually bought, and greatly improved, the 
estate, planting the park, and causing a fishpond to be made in it, 
thus adding much to its beauty. There are now probably few 
parks of its size having so much variety and agreeable seclusion, 
while at the same time, from various points, commanding exten- 
sive prospects over the beautiful valley of the Derwent. Having 
said thus much of the lords of the soil, let us note a few 
particulars with regard to the old village and parisli of Allestree 
that have now disappeared. 

Very elegant things were some of the Allestree spinning wheels, 
and beautiful and durable were the sheets, and the table linen, to 
say nothing of the woollen fabrics made for hangings for beds, 
and also for counterpanes. 

At Allestree, too, they had a flax-yard ; flax was grown and 
prepared for use on the spot. The poorer people too would send 
out their children to gather the wool torn from the sheeps' backs in 
their travels from field to field, and a surprising amount could thus 
be collected, and stockings made from the yarn. 

Allestree also had its Cornhill-end, a place for the sale of corn, 
for the people had to buy their own corn and have it ground at 
the mill. There is still a croft called the Butter Cellar, supposed 
to have been a place where it was sold when the plague was at 
Derby, rendering it unsafe to go there with it. Tliese things we 
gather from field and place names still used, as well as from 
local traditions. There was the Inn, too, used in the coaching 
days, and still standing opposite the park gates, though now 
used as cottages. 

In the coaching days the road between Derby and Dufifield 
was not by any means such as we see it to-day. It was just 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 171 

about as bad a bit of road as one can imagine, steep hills, banks, 
and bushes were then characteristic of the road — dreary and 
uncanny, a place for footpads. Eighty years ago it was a wild, 
desolate looking place ; we can judge of what it must have been 
by noticing how the steep hills have .been lowered, and the valleys 
raised. Those old coach horses would need a rest at the New 
Inn, at AUestree, after dragging the lumbering vehicle over those 
steep hills. It is wonderfully improved since then. 

A rat and mole catcher was also a necessary adjunct to the 
village in those days, quite a person of distinction, wearing a 
badge, gaily painted, and having an air of mystery about him. 
How did he do it ? His modus operandi was a secret ; but if he 
was regularly paid, both moles and rats would disappear. Cease 
to pay, and there would soon be another swarm. 

Those were quiet, peaceful days, then villagers' requirements 
were but few, and they were amply supplied ; but this Arcadian 
state of simplicity did not long continue. The Arkwrights, the 
Evans, and the Strutts had started cotton spinning by machinery, 
then the spinning wheel gave place to the cotton-winding wheel. 
Silk and calico were also woven by looms, and a change came 
over quiet Derbyshire villages sucli as AUestree. The more 
ambitious yeomanry, and better class of cottagers, entered into 
the spirit of competition. Better employment and higher wages 
could be found elsewhere. AUestree, to a great extent, was 
forsaken. Soon the cottages and farms went to decay. For some 
time they battled with adverse fortune, in picturesque but inevi- 
table ruin, but one by one they have disappeared, and quaint and 
dreamy old AUestree is no more. One such old place we well 
remember — a half-timber farm-house, with a huge wooden barn 
attached, like a Noah's Ark for size, and apparently as old, all 
patched and mended, until which was the original could scarcely 
be told. In the yard stood an old yew tree, and there was an old 
draw-well hard by, into whicli some farmer of olden time had 
fallen and been drowned. The villagers told strange tales of how 
his ghost would come and perform various freaks in the midnight 
hours, unloosing the horses in the stables, and causing a general 



172 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



stampede ; but now the old place and its ghost are gone, and only 
the old yew tree remains — a solitary evidence of what has been— 
standing in a field about a hundred yards north of the church. 
Some old whale's bones, forming an arch, still remain in the 
blacksmith's garden, by the turnpike road side, not far from the 
New Inn ; but an old pair of stocks, that stood under the church- 
yard fence, have long since been removed ; they were near the 
Red Cow, and not without reason, for its uproarious visitors found 
in them a quiet, but not desired, haven, when too much disturbed 
in their understandings to navigate themselves home, so the 
beadle found a rest for them there until they could. 

The Manor House has entirely disappeared ; we can find no 
remains of it incorporated in the very commonplace farmhouse that 

of .« 




REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



173 




Stands on its site. We believe the old mulberry tree, of which we 
give a sketch, is all that is left to tell the tale, and, as may be seen, 
it is on the last verge of decay. There are not far from it a few 
old stones in the wall of the enclosure that may once have formed 
part of the walls of the house, and two rudely sculptured stones 
(that might have a better place) may have 
been part of the ornamentation of it. 
Rev. J. C. Cox thinks they came from the 
church at some previous restoration of that 
fabric ; there appear grounds for either 
hypotheses, but both may be wrong. We 
have thought it advisable to present a 
sketch of these stones in case anyone 
should be able to furnish any further 
particulars of this old home of the 
Adlardestreus. There are a few fine old 
elm trees, ancestral looking, standing in 
the croft near the mulberry stump. An old tree, or a few flowers 
are often the sole mementoes of departed greatness ; we re- 
call the beautiful story of 
Findern's Flowers related to 
us years ago by our late 
friend, the author of the 
" History of Repton." 
There are a few otlier old trees at AUestree. That most worthy 
of note is the yew tree in the churchyard ;* it must be of very 
great age, and though much battered by time and storms, is still a 
beautiful and venerable thing, green and healthy, and its branches 
far spreading, sheltering lovingly the sleepers beneath its shade. 
The bole is a perfect study for colour and strength^ though it is 
quite hollow. Long years ago little children used to play in the 
hollow of its stem ; but somehow the hole appears to have par- 
tially closed, because it was not the large hole some yard or so 
from the ground by which tliey entered, but by a hole on the 
ground level. That hole is now too small to admit a child of five 




* It measures at the height of 2 ft. 7 in. from the soil, 13 ft. 6 in. in girth. 



174 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



or six years of age. This is curious, and shows what an amount 
of vitality there is still in the tree. Looking at this splendid and 
picturesque yew recently, we were much struck by its extreme 
beauty of form when viewed from the church porch, and we are 
glad to see that its value is appreciated, for it is treated with much 
attention and loving care to preserve it from damage, either from 
the winds or the rude hands of the thoughtless. There is also 
a very fine wych elm in the park, not far from tlie gates ; we 
happen to know who planted it, and its age is now about one 
hundred years. Being so near the road, it has unfortunately had 
to have some of its branches lopped, in a measure destroying its 
symmetry, but it is a fine tree nevertheless. There are also a 
number of fine beech trees in a field above the Hall, on the 
road to Quarndon. 




Though in most villages very few objects of antiquity remain, 
one could generally point to the Parish Church, until within the 
last thirty years, when a craze for what is called "restoration" set 
in ; since then, in many instances, restoration has succeeded in 
removing every ancient thing, so that hardly a stone of these old 
fabrics remains untouched. We are not left quite in this state at 
Allestree ; mucli of the old fabric remains, but we wish in these 
remarks to place on record its appearance, as far as we can do so, 
by means of sketches made before any alteration took place, for they 
may have interest in the future. We have here a view of the Church 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



175 



taken in 1852, from the east end, from which it will be seen 
that at that time it consisted of a nave and chancel, and a north 
aisle and vestry. The old tower had then plain pinnacles at the 
corners ; they were removed at the restoration, and not replaced ; 
it was said they were ugly, probably they were not handsome, but 
then any nose is better than none at all, and they certainly took 
away the ugly square packing-case appearance the old tower has 
been afflicted with ever since. Seen from a distance they gave a 
pleasant break to this lumpiness, and there can be no two opinions 
that it looks much uglier without them. Our next sketch shows the 







view of the Church from the south-east ; it was taken from the vicar's 
garden, and also shows the yew tree, and the position in the wall 
of a well designed stone pillar. At that time there was a cleres- 
tory of three windows, and one large window below ; the windows 
of the cliancel, of which there were two, had been filled up to 
give wall space for some mural tablets in memory of some mem- 
bers of the Mundy family. There was also an embattled parapet ; 
this had been done at some former restoration, the roof at the 
same time being lowered ; see the marks of the former roof on 
the tower. Our third drawing gives a sketch of the porch 
seen under the yew tree ; it will be observed that to the west of 
the porch there is a projecting buttress from the tower with a row 
of corbels ; these probably show the orginal height of the wall 
before the clerestory was made, and when the roof was higli 



176 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



pitched ; a portion of the buttress and one of the corbels still 
remains. 

The most interesting portion of the Church is the south en- 
trance (See Plate I., the Frontispiece). The drawing from which 
it has been copied was made in the year 1865, before any 
alterations had been made ; soon afterwards, the nave, north aisle, 
and a great part of the chancel were taken down, and the Church 
was enlarged, an aisle being added on the south side, which ren- 
deretl it necessary to take down the ancient doorway ; and 
although great care was taken to mark the stones, so that in re- 
building they might occupy their original positions, that, however, 
did not happen to several of the stones in the jambs, which, 




either by accident or design, have been somewhat altered, and 
one or two have either been replaced by new ones, or else so 
much re-chiselled as to have quite a different appearance to what 
they had when this drawing was made. It is necessary to say this, 
otherwise on comparing the etching with the stones it will seem to 
be incorrect. The curious triangular beaded ornaments have 
been placed in pairs, instead of alternating with one of the skulls 



I 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 177 

or heads of oxen or other animals, as was originally the case ; the 
beaded ornament is not of common occurrence in these doorways, 
so far as we know, but the lieads or skulls are ; of these there are 
examples on tlie jambs of the south door of Kedleston Church, 
and otlier examples may be found in tlie remains of Romanesque 
architecture scattered over the country, and they appear to us to 
indicate that the Romano-British, Saxon, and Norman architects 
imitated what they had seen done by the Roman architects during 
their occupation of both countries. 

The Romano-British imbibed much of the manners and the 
tastes of their Roman masters, both in dress and the various acces- 
sories of a high state of civilisation, one of the most important 
of which was architecture ; numerous examples of temples, and 
doubtless Christian churches remained; for there seems no doubt 
at all that to the Romans we are indebted in the first instance for 
the introduction of Christianity. During the execrable reign of 
Nero, many left Rome, and some would, doubtless, find refuge in 
this country, which had been since the third year of Claudius, 
A.D. 43, a part of the Roman empire ; it was only about thirty 
years after the Romans had left Britain, a.d. 449 — ^577, that the 
Saxons— or whoever the people were — came and occupied, and 
are reported to have driven out the Britons and destroyed 
Christianity. We do not think this has been proved ; we think, if 
some of the rudely sculptured stones around us had a voice they 
would tell a different tale. May not these heads be rude imita- 
tions of tlie skulls of animals slain in sacrifice, with which the 
Romans were so fond of ornamenting their temples and altars, 
placing them as they did in the square Metopes between the 
triglyphs of the friezes. It is not a little singular that the 
corbel head and zigzag ornament of the 12th century may be 
found on the consoles of Diocletian's palace of Spalatro,* proving 
clearly that both the Anglo-Saxons and the Anglo-Normans 
copied the Roman edifices remaining either in England or on 
the Continent. The long occupation by the Romans, of 400 
years, could not fail to exercise a great influence of an artistic 

' Eccleston's Introduction, p. 53. 
15 



178 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



kind on the minds of the people ; there is evidence enough of 
this in the splendid illuminated MSS. preserved at Chatsworth,* 
and in other great libraries of this country. 

The crypt at Repton is almost entirely classic in treatment, 
nearly every abacus and capital, and most of the ornamentation 
of arches, as in this at Allestree (see the three rough sketches 
taken from fragments at Allestree, which are portions of the 
outer circle of the doorway), remind one of this style. The 
south doorway at Kedleston, and the one in the cloister at South- 
well, where there is a skull almost identical with a Roman 
Metope in its treatment, also owe their 
tp^^^^a fc^^i^ ^f^ a^ l design to classic influence ; so that though 
we cannot claim for this doorway a Saxon 
origin, yet it appears from the rudeness 
of its sculptures to be of an early date in 
Anglo-Norman times. True, this church 
is not mentioned in the Domesday 
Survey ; but it was then in existence just 
as much as Mackworth and Kedleston 
were, and is, probably, older than either 
of them. The beak-heads round the 
second circle have at first sight the 
appearance of being rude attempts to 
represent skulls of sheep, some of them 
being horned, they are certainly not intended to represent heads of 
birds ; they may be demons, for in early MSS., and some early 
remains of wall paintings, these gem'i are represented with long noses 
much like beaks ; there is an example on one of the piers at Mel- 
bourne. Whatever they may be, it is certain that in later times they 
became much more decorative and ornamental in their treatment, 
as is the case at Iffley, in Oxfordshire, ii6o,t where they are very 
elaborately ornamented. There are other instances in which this 
ornamental character is gone, and the beaks are little more than 




* Benedictional of CEthelwoW, etc. 
+ " Ricliinan," pp. 130-2. 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 1 79 

triangular blocks of stone. The Anglo-Saxons have been credited 
with a large amount of thick-headedness and incapacity, but they 
could not have been so stupid, else how did they paint those 
beautiful MSS. ? It would puzzle some of their clever detractors 
to execute any thing at all like them ; and some of our aesthetic 
artists have borrowed not a little from tliem directly or indirectly. 

Though we cannot prove that this old doorway is their work, we 
can say it is very early work, even if we put it as of the time of 
Edward the Confessor, 1050; he did, there is no doubt, exercise 
a great influence in his time, though, perhaps, not so much as he 
is credited with. Monkish historians were not immaculate, they 
could write a man up or write him down to suit their purpose. 
Here we will leave the matter, just, however, calling the 
reader's attention to a curious and interesting article on " The 
Numerical Principles of Gothic Art," by Mr. Clapton Rolfe, in 
the "Antiquary," Vol. X., pp. 147 and 209. Much has been 
written on apocalyptic symbolism, in which certain numbers play 
an important part. These numbers are traced in the architecture 
of the early Christian builders ; — the numbers i, 3, 5, and 7. 
Looking at our etching, we see three courses of voussvoirs ; the 
innermost has the chevron ornament, triangles, and dot, for the 
Trinity in Unity ; next, the row of beak-heads, five without 
horns, for the five-fold passion of Christ ; then seven with horns, 
for the seven-fold graces of the Holy Spirit ; then a repetition of 
the Sacrificial number five. Then the Church at AUestree had but 
one aisle, and in that aisle three arches, but whether this is all 
mere coincidence or accident, we cannot say ; but it looks very 
much as though these numerical principles exist in the ex- 
ample before us ; and Mr. Rolfe says — " So persistently did 
Churchmen work upon these lines in the ground plans of their 
buildings, that every Basilicon Church erected at Rome during the 
first thousand years of the Christian era, was either a 07ie, thee, or 
five aisled building." 

We must now return to the vicar's garden, to look at the pillar. 
When it was erected there was no garden or house, but a field, 
having a gravel path leading to the church. The front of the 



i8o 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE, 



pillar was toward the field. It bore a date 1678, and some letters, 
but they were so indistinct that nothing could be made out of 
them. AVhether it stands in its original 
position we do not know, but most likely 
it does, as it would be placed with its 
inscription towards the churchyard if this 
had not been tlie case. Possibly there may 
have been a sun-dial fixed upon it, but no 
traces of it remain ; it may be a relic of the 
Manor House, and removed to this place. 
This, however, is but conjecture. So far as 
we can ascertain, there is no record of its 
purpose; the ball at the top might be re- 
placed with advantage. We will now retrace 
our steps, and enter the church. 

A sketch of the interior of tlie old church, 
looking east, is given on the next page ; on the 
north side, one of the pillars is shown, and the 
third arch ; also the cover of the font is seen. 
Looking through the chancel arch, which 
springs from bold corbel heads, now destroyed, 
we see the head of the arch of the Founder's 
Tomb on the left, and a small clmpel to the 
east of it. Now if we turn round and look back, there is another arch 
resting on corbel heads, similar to those of the chancel, opening 
into the tower. These heads have also been taken out, and some 
brackets, not nearly as good, replace them. In other respects 
this part of the church is pretty much as it was. This recess used 
to be the singing loft ; it had a platform or pew projecting into the 
nave, where the band used to be. They had a double bass, a 
cornet, a violin, and a clarionet, besides some male and female 
singers. Grand music they played, and were good singers accord- 
ing to their lights ; indeed, they were far too clever for the 
generality of the unsophisticated worshippers, who often expressed 
a wish that they would make a less noise, and let other people be 
heard. It seems to have been a notion that the louder the voices 




.S..S-' 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. l8l 

the better the singing. The pulpit was the orthodox three-decker ; 
the parish clerk, a very old man, had to leave his desk when the 
parson gave out the hymns, as his duty also was to play tlie 




with the other musicians in 

venerable institution, but sometimes went to sleep, and said 



double bass. Poor 
old Josey ! He 
wore a snuff- 
coloured top-coat, 
small clothes, and gaiters, and 
away he would shuffle down 
the north aisle, to his place 
the singing loft. He was a 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



" Eg-n-men " in the wrong place. Very unattractive, antiquated 
people we should think them now, though none the less hearty 
and sincere than we are in this more priggish or polished age — 
whichever be the correct term. At any rate, there was more solid 
oak and less veneer then than now. But all is changed, every 
thing is spick and span like a new pin. Poor old Josey with his 
bass viol, the old Squire and his fat dog, the village Schoolmistress 
with her huge cap and borders, and all the worshippers in the 
ancient fane are gone : there they lie under the green turf outside, 
gone to join a greater and nobler assem- 
bly ! We have already noticed the cover 
of the font, and now give a sketch of both 
font and cover. We are sorry to say it 
has been taken away ; it was not grand 
enough, so a much more valuable article 
was bought, but it had no history — the 
other had. Many generations had been 
brought to it for baptism, and it had 
acquired a value no money could pur- 
chase ; it had the much greater mystic 
halo which time and old associations 
alone can lend. However, it is gone, 
and there is an end of it. 
During the time the church was roofless and dismantled, we 
went to make some sketches of some old writing on the walls 
at the east end, and, while doing so, were startled by the 
sudden appearance of a singular individual who appeared to be 
left in charge of the place. He began to discourse with great 
loquacity on the various curious features of the ruins. Pointing 
to the arched recess in the chancel, which was then a door- 
way into the vestry, he said, " That's the Founder's Tomb, an' I 
have taken up his bones ; his head wer there, and his feet wer 
there " — from which it appeared the Founder had been buried the 
wrong way about — " an here's one o' his tayth ; " at the same time 
he produced the molar from the deptli of his capacious waistcoat 
pocket. By this time it had grown dark, and we left him, and 




REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 183 

saw him no more. We have preserved the copies of the 

writing on the walls. Tliat on the south side of the wiiniow 

was the most perfect, and here is a copy 

J''Clilti^tlt '• of it. It appears to have been taken 

J either from the Rheims version, 1582, 

or the authorised of 161 1, and is from 

ttlJ'^,- jHP,r3l= I Cor. xi. V. 29. The former version 

•^■^TlllhliTlfef 111 reads, " For he that eateth and drinketh 

^'- unworthily, eateth and drinketh judgment 

n.U)'! ,0* to himself, not discerning the body of our 

lTlTllr»J' Tlfti' hit L°^^-" ^^^ latter only differs in having 



^•ati^hj' 



^«fiC 



"damnation" and "the Lord's body." 
We cannot decide which version it is 
from, but Mr. H. H. Bemrose suggests that 
2,0*1* it ™^y be a translation, and not a copy of 

an English version, in which opinion the 
Rev. J. C. Cox agrees. There were a few letters on the other 
side, and a scroll on the tower, all too indistinct and imperfect to 
be of use. The borders round the texts in the chancel were 
architectural in design, and Elizabethan or Jacobean in style (for 
drawings of these, see vol. i. Derbyshire Fac-simile Society}. The 
inscriptions were written in one or other of those reigns — most 
likely the latter, as Elizabeth did not favour the Rheims version ; 
James, being a shuffler, might. These texts were no doubt put 
up after the church had undergone restoration, others being 
obliterated in order that these might be put in their place. Frag- 
ments of the older ones could be seen underneath. Those we 
have copied were entirely in black, the former ornaments had 
been in red. 

In conclusion, we cannot do better than quote Mr. Ruskin." 
He says, " When we build, let us think that we build for ever. 
Let it not be for present delight, nor for present use alone ; let 
it be such work as our descendants will thank us for, and let us 
think, as we lay stone on stone, that a time is to come when those 

* " .Seven Lamps," pp. 171-2. 



1 84 



REMINISCENCES OF OLD ALLESTREE. 



Stones will be held sacred because our hands have touched them, 
and that men will say, as they look upon the labour and wrought 
substance of them, ' See ! this our fathers did for us.' For, 
indeed, the greatest glory of a building is not in its stones, nor 
in its gold ; its glory is in its age." If we take these words to 
heart, we shall, each in his sphere, be found preservers of all 
historic landmarks of past times. 




I AND 2, FROM WIRKSWORTH ; 3, KEDLESTON. 



Plate XIII. 





















i8s 



0n a supposctr Enscrtption upon ti^e jFont 
at amtlne. 




By the Rev. G. F. Browne, B.D. 



|HE existence of a church (St. Chad's) at Wilne dates 
very far back ; its parochial rights were transferred to 
Sawley as early as the year 822. The font is 
apparently the only relic of great antiquity to be found in the 
church. Mr. Cox, in his interesting and valuable work, T/ie 
Churches of Derbyshire, Vol. IV., p 399, called special attention 
to a supposed inscription round the base of the font, which 
the artist imagined to be in runes. In the Journal of the 
Archaological Association for 1879, P- 224, Mr. Cox's engraving is 
reproduced, and the font is described as having " unconventional 
patterns of lacertine foliage, round the base of which is a mutilated 
inscription in a character which has been compared with the 
Runic and the Palmyrene." This relic, it is added, "deserves the 
attention of palteographers, as well as antiquarians and archjeo- 
logists." The reason assigned for its possible Palmyrene origin 
is stated to be the practical identity of two of its characters with a 
Palmyrene inscription at South Shields. 

The font is shown on Plate XIII., fig. i, where my outlined rub- 
bing is reproduced by photography. It will be seen that some de- 
tails are left unfinished, though in most cases it would have been 
easy to restore them. A magnifying glass may be applied to 
the plate with good effect. It is very probable that further 
study of the font would clear up some of the doubts, and if it were 



l86 SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 

possible to turn it the right way up the whole thing might be 
determined. It is a laborious business working at it upside down, 
hanging over it in the attempt to see the most decayed parts in 
their natural position. My illustration inverts the font. 

This valuable relic is evidently a portion of a very remarkable 
pillar or column, which had a tier of six panels containing dragons 
and birds, admirably designed and executed, and now all 
complete ; above them was another tier of six human figures, the 
whole probably representing the triumph of Christianity over the 
old religion. The girth is 82 inches at top and 77 at bottom; 
height about 23 inches. The figures may have been the 
Evangelists, St. Chad, and our Lord. The column has at some 
early time been broken off between the ankles and the knees of 
the figures, and then turned upside down and hollowed to form a 
font. It will be seen that in some cases the bottom of the panel 
is arched, as well as the top, so that to a casual observer the effect 
of the sculpture as now inverted is that of a somewhat bewildering 
mass of detail in panels with round heads. But for this, it would 
long ago have been seen that the sculpture is upside down. 
Those who converted it into a font may have purposely availed 
themselves of this feature, cutting away the human figures, which 
would have looked ridiculous standing on their heads. The 
twelve bold characters of the inscription are the inverted feet and 
ankles of the six figures. In one case the two feet and ankles and 
the hem of the garment resemble the i and 1 combined in the 
name of the Palmyrene BaRate whose monument to his wife and 
freed-woman Regina the Catuallaunian was found at South Shields 
in 1878. Hence the "inscription" has been supposed to be 
possibly Palmyrene. There seems less reason for the other 
supposition, that it was in runes. The details of the sculpture are 
very curious, notably the bold incisions in the columns carrying 
tlie arches of the panels, giving very much the effect of the deep 
grooving of the pillars at Durham. The arches themselves are 
similarly grooved. This method of treatment is so far as I know 
without parallel on early stones, and its bearing on the " Norman " 
grooving deserves consideration. At the head, the columns 



SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 187 

break into irregular crosses with numerous arms proceeding 
from a centre, some diamond-shaped and other foliaginous. The 
human figures have in every case stood over the heads of the 
dragons or birds in the panels below, not over the crosses. 
Another " Oriental " inscription, supposed to be in cursive Arabic, 
was sent to me some months ago. It occurs on a Scoto-Irish 
reliquary, and is placed above a hand which is stretched over a 
representation of the Crucifixion. It was sent to me represented 
as contained within a panel. After Arabic scholars had disowned 
it, I explained it as the fire of the Spirit, the hand representing the 
Father, but with the remark that but for the panel I should have 
taken it as a cloud from which the hand proceeded. There is, I 
now understand, no panel, and the cloud theory has been accepted. 
I found some lime after a representation of a cloud in the 
Caedmon Codex which very greatly resembles it. 

It is difficult to say what the original purpose of the pillar may 
have been. There is a representation in the catacombs of the 
four Evangelists, each with a cylindrical pillar before him reaching 
about as high as his waist. The pillars have a flat top, and the 
top has a cover which works on a single hinge, like the lid of a 
watch. The covers are represented as lying back on the hinge, 
and the pillars are being used as tables, presumably altars for the 
consecration of the eucharistic elements, the covers indicating the 
care taken to protect the surface on which the consecration took 
place. We know that early missionary bishops in our own country 
carried with them portable altars, in the form of small square 
plaques on which they consecrated, and it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that local piety provided, in addition to the preaching 
cross, some permanent table or altar, reserved for the purpose of 
supporting these little altars when the itinerant bishop or presbyter 
visited the place. An Italian portable altar of red jasper, of the 
15th century, may be seen at the South Kensington Museum 
(8986. — '63) ; it is in a maple-wood frame, the slab of jasper being 
about 8 inches by 5. In Archbishop Ecgberht's Pontifical, we find 
that in consecrating a church the proceedings with respect to the 
altar were as follows. First the altar was blessed and consecrated 



l88 SUPPOSED KNbLKlPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 

by prayer, in which the altar was spoken of as the place for 
spiritual sacrifices, where prayers were to be made, and oblations 
were to be offered ; but there is a marked absence of any statement 
or implication that on this altar itself as a surface the divine 
mysteries were to be celebrated. Then follows the blessing of 
the " table," described as a stone prepared for the sacraments of 
life, on which the victim of the Son was to be placed and the 
mysteries of the sacred Body were to be consecrated, " a stone to 
be fitted on to the altar." This " table " we may take as corres- 
ponding to the little plaque which the itinerant celebrant brough 
with him where there was no church, while the locality provided 
the " altar " on which the " table " was to be placed. Ecgberht's 
Pontifical specially emphasises the fact that the prayers of the 
people were prayed at the " altar," and this may serve to suggest 
that wliere there was no church the "altar" provided by the 
locality was the praying-place of the district when no missionary 
was present, and that this was its ordinary use. We may be sure 
that all the energy of the Christian art of the district would be 
devoted to the beautification of the permanent " altar." The 
stone altar which survived the burning of King Edwin's vill at 
Campodunum, and was preserved in Bede's time at the Abbot 
ThriduulPs monastery in Elmete Wood, was presumably a hand- 
some sculptured stone, wortliy of so mucli care and such special 
mention. Subjects so favourite and telling as the victory of 
Christianity over the powers of evil, and the submission of the 
works of nature, would be among the first to present themselves 
to the mind of the designer. The lower tier of the Wilne pillar 
is an admirable pictorial rendering of the triumphant song, 
" Praise the Lord, ye . . . worms and feathered fowls." 
There are no " dragons," in the sense of sea monsters, and there 
are no " beasts and all cattle." 

It will be seen that from the bottom of this lower tier to the 
band or base on the upper side of which the six pairs of feet stand, 
is about i8 inches, the actual height of the figures in the panels 
being 12 or 13 inches. The men's feet are two inches long, some 
of them rather more than that, and taking the man to be six times 



SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 1 89 

as high as his foot is long, we shall have a tier of human subjects 
of the same lieight as the bird and dragon subjects below. The 
two tiers may thus be fairly supposed to have occupied the same 
length on the pillar, as is the case on the pillar at Masham 
described below, and this will give three feet as the approximate 
height, a very convenient height for the purpose of an " altar " of 
the kind referred to. The diameter of the top of the " altar " 
may be calculated from the known dimensions of the existing 
portion of the pillar as having been from 23 to 24 inches. 

However this may be, there are sculptured pillars of cylindrical 
form which can not have been altars. They have not been suffi- 
ciently considered by archaeologists, if indeed they can be said 
to have been considered at all. The remarkable group of slightly 
tapering cylindrical pillars, collected from roadsides in Cheshire, 
and now placed in the public park at Macclesfield, deserve careful 
attention. They are apparently not inscribed columns, though their 
resemblance to the pillar of Eliseg at Valle Crucis Abbey is very 
striking, and cannot conceivably be accidental. The cylindrical 
surface is plain, but near the top they are bevelled off in triangles 
with curved bases, filled with interlacing bands and with well designed 
trefoils ; in one case there is a remarkably bold example of the key 
pattern. Their function may have been to mark boundaries or 
distances. The very fine but sadly decayed example in the 
churchyard at Wolverhampton is a great puzzle. It stands 12 feet 
high on a pedestal of stones covered with ivy, which forms a very 
unsafe support for the ladder of the investigator. Sixty-four inches 
from the bottom a raised belt of rope is cut on the pillar, from 
which raised bands descend forming five triangles, in each of 
which is a large animal or a bird, about a foot high. The animal 
which has perished least is a nondescript. Immediately above 
the rope band is a remarkable tier of subjects, 19 inches wide, the 
girth of the pillar here being about 86 inches. By means of bars 
crossing one another at about 45°, the belt is divided into five 
diamond-shaped areas, in each of which a large quadruped is 
sculptured, the small triangles above and below the intersection of 
the bars also containing a bird or a beast each. Thus there are in 



190 SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 

all 15 figures in this belt, five large and ten small. A large boss 
is placed at the intersection of the bars, and their ends are lost 
under a conventional leaf ; these details look late. A portion of 
this belt, very roughly represented, is shewn on Plate XIII, fig. 2. 
Next above comes a belt of acanthus leaves, 7 inches wide. Above 
that again a belt 19 inches wide filled with spiral scrolls, alternately 
branching off to left and right. Whether the scrolls carry animals 
in them or only leaves or fruit, cannot now be determined with 
certainty ; many years ago birds could be discovered in the scrolls 
and roses. Then another belt 1 7 inches wide with animals much 
decayed, and above that another 12 inches wide with scrolls like- 
wise much decayed. At the top is a heavy cap, on the bevelled 
surface of which there are signs of interlacing work. The whole 
column tapers gently upwards, and some 8^ feet from the ground 
the girth is about the same as that of the bottom of the Wilne 
pillar, which may of course have been part of a great column of 
this character. The absence of the Christian figures or busts 
which usually stand above the animals and birds and worms on 
English sculptured stones is a feature which calls for remark. It 
points, perhaps, to the erection of this magnificent column either 
at a period when the original meaning of sculptured stones had 
been forgotten, or by people who lightly regarded the Christian 
faith, and copied the non-Christian part of the sculptured pillars 
they saw in the neighbourhood. So far as I could see, the ani- 
mals are not hampered and fettered as in other cases, but the 
quadruped whose front half is cut off at the right of figure 2 has, 
I think, his off fore leg raised in submission. It is necessary to 
say that my observations and measurements and rubbings were 
made in a drizzling rain, and though the Rector had kindly made 
full provision of ladders, and the sacristan gave me every assist- 
ance, the circumstances were not in favour of a solution of the 
intricacies of the patterns, now in a bafHing state of decay. Three 
or four hours, too, are a very inadequate time to spend on such a 
monument as this, even in the best of weather. A second visit 
would no doubt enable me to correct some errors, and to solve 
some problems left open in the figure. For example, the animal 



SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 191 

in the centre compartment is, I think, regarding his own tail, signs 
of which remain near his muzzle ; and it is possible that he has a 
bird's head. The two awkward jaws of his right-hand neighbour 
may be one side of an oval loop formed by his tail, an arrange- 
ment which exists in the case of the animal whose fore half is 
shown on the left side. The jaws are too awkward for anything 
on this or any of the English sculptured stones of any importance, 
where the skill and knowledge shown are very great. Even the 
frame of mind of a bird is shown in a graplnc manner, as may be 
seen on the Wilne Font, where the buoyant spirits of the pair of 
birds which are being allowed to feed are shewn as clearly as the 
gloomy despondency of the pair whose beaks are sealed. 

At the risk of appearing fanciful, I must point out the curious 
resemblances between details of this belt of subjects and the 
Bayeux tapestry. To begin with a coincidence no doubt acci- 
dental, they are of the same width, a little more than nineteen 
inches. The tapestry has an upper border and a lower, and it is 
to the details of these that the resemblance is striking. The 
borders are divided into spaces by means of lines of colour, in- 
clined to one another in such a way, that if they were continued 
upwards and downwards alternately, they would form isoceles 
triangles. In tlie larger portions of these triangles which form the 
border there are animals and birds, one in each as a rule, while 
the smaller spaces, being the parts of the triangles near the vertex, 
have merely a small trefoil leaf, or a small cross, there being no 
room for a beast or bird. The birds are in many cases in curious 
attitudes, and their wings are curiously disposed. There is a bird 
above the word castellum in the legend . . . ut foderetur 
castellum at Hestetiga very surprisingly like the bird in the lower 
triangle the left of fig. 2, the unusual contour of neck and 
the sharp angle in the outline of the wing being specially notice- 
able ; it is a very curious coincidence that the triangle in which 
the Wolverhampton bird is has the same base and nearly the 
same dimensions as that on the tapestry. The bird in the upper 
triangle to the left hand in fig. 2, of which it is literally difficult 
to make head or tail, is very like a bird under the scene where 



192 SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 

William's men are cutting down trees to build the invading ships, 
the bird on the tapestry being engaged in eating something which 
springs in branches from the border line which marks out the 
triangle. It seems not unlikely that the Wolverhampton bird is 
similarly engaged ; and if I have correctly outlined his tail — it was 
done before I had noticed the Bayeux resemblances — it repro- 
duces a marked feature of the Bayeux birds. The quadrupeds at 
Wolverhampton, in the large diamond spaces, have no resemblance 
to anything at Bayeux. They, like the historical belt of the 
tapestry, are the main theme ; the birds in the triangles above and 
below correspond to the upper and lower border at Bayeux. In 
a higher tier at AVolverhampton, where the triangles are smaller, 
a piece of simple ornament takes the place of the bird, as in the 
smaller spaces on the tapestry. 

To point out a resemblance is much more easy than to suggest 
any reason for it. The Bayeux tapestry was not unique. At the 
time when the Church of Wolverhampton was being founded by 
tlie widow of a great lord of the Midlands, the valiant deeds of 
Britnoth were being wrought on a curtain for the Church of Ely 
by the widow of the great Ealdorman of the East Saxons, who was 
killed A.D. 991. In 1013, the description of the pictorial sails and 
the ornaments of Swegen's ships reads like a summary of the 
Bayeux borders — birds and dragons and lions and bulls and 
dolphins. All our knowledge goes to show that the use of these 
figures was no invention of that age ; and so far as they are con- 
cerned, the Wolverhampton birds and beasts are as likely to date 
from the times when the famous Lady of the Mercians expelled 
the Danes, and Tettenhall witnessed their great slaughter, as from 
the time when the Bayeux tapestry was wrought or later. But, as 
I have remarked, there are some details which seem late, perhaps 
only because other early examples have all perished. 

An even more striking example of a cylindrical pillar is 
found in the churchyard at Masham. Of this remarkable monu- 
ment three complete tiers and at least half of a fourth remain. It 
is quite worthy to be compared with the Wilne pillar, but unfortu- 
nately its state of preservation is not nearly so good. The lowest 



SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 1 93 

tier consists of seven panels, six of them containing single quadru- 
peds, the seventh a pair of quadrupeds. These animals are beau- 
tifully designed and executed, their bodies deer-shaped, in some 
cases almost resembling the body of a giraffe, legs long, necks very 
long and curved so as to follow the form of the Romanesque arch 
which forms the head of each panel. These proudly arched necks 
had been supposed to be maned, but after careful examination I 
found that the appearance of a mane was due to the fact that they 
were all constrained by halters looped five or six times round the 
neck, and eventually bringing the muzzle close in to the chest. In 
each case one of the forelegs is raised, as with the " worms " at 
Wilne, this foreleg, as also the remaining legs, being hampered and 
fettered by bands. These bands appear — but at the critical point 
the surface has been destroyed — to spring out of the ground, and 
there are several indications that they represent the stems of grow- 
ing plants or creepers. Photo-lithographs from rubbings of one of 
these quadrupeds and the neck of another, in which those parts 
which are fairly clear are filled in, will be found on Plate XIII, fig. 
3, 4. These are the " beasts and all cattle " which are missing at 
Wilne ; at Masham there are no " worms and feathered fowls." 
Each of the single arched panels is about a foot wide, and the tier 
is about 22 inches high. In the arched panels of the two-and-a-half 
tiers above are the figures of men ; in one is seen our Lord in the 
attitude of benediction, in another Samson, with a Romanesque 
gate of Gaza hung on his left shoulder and reaching nearly to 
his feet, " bar and all," as the Old Testament is careful to tells us. 
(Plate XIII., fig. 5). The girth is 80 inches at bottom, 76 at top • 
height 80 inches. Almost all of the subjects have gone so far to 
decay that imagination has to play a large part in their identi- 
fication. Any one of the tiers would have made a beautiful font, 
if it had occurred to the early ecclesiastical lords of the vast parish 
of Masham to use for that purpose a part of a monument which 
must many centuries ago have been famous in all the vale of 
Yore. 

It is difficult to look at some of the early siiulce (holy water 

16 



194 SUPPOSED INSCRIPTION UPON THE FONT AT WILNE. 

vessels) without noticing the resemblance they bear to these cir- 
cular columns. There is a tenth century situla in the treasury of 
the Duomo at Milan, cylindrical, but contracting downwards, with 
a Romanesque arcade and a Scripture subject in each arch, the 
rim at the bottom carrying a well designed key pattern. A cylin- 
drical German situla of the eleventh century has two tiers of Scripture 
subjects, running continuously round with no arcade. These 
interesting vessels are only seven or eight inches high by about 
five inches across, but they look strangely like a piece of a great 
column in miniature. The same may be said of the pyxes, some 
of which are much earlier than the dates mentioned. They are 
exceedingly like circular fonts in miniature, or portions of cylin- 
drical columns. This is particularly the case with an Italian pyx 
of the fifth or sixth century at the Vatican, representing the 
miracles of our Lord, while the very early pyx in the treasury of 
the Cathedral of Sens has a lion hunt, in which a shield, a fallen 
man, and a lion's head with the paws on a branch, might have 
served as a copy for a sculptured fragment at Jarrow. 



I 



195 



^ (^alcntrav of if^t ifintB for ti^c C^ouutg of 
^tvi)^ from tfjctr commcnctment in t^t rcigu 
of l^icljartf JI« 



Bv W. H. Hart, F.S.A. 



INTRODUCTION. 




MONG the various classes of Public Records which 
have been preserved during the last seven hundred 
years, and handed down to us at the present 
time, there is none more valuable for topographical and genea- 
logical purposes than the Fines (Final Concords) of lands ; a 
Calendar of which, for the county of Derby, is here commenced. 

As these documents may not be familiar to the general reader, 
a short description of their nature and origin may not be con- 
sidered out of place. 

Cruise,* in his learned work on the subject, speaks thus of their 
history : " When landed property first became the subject of 
alienation, it was found necessary to adopt some authentic mode 
of transfer, which might secure the possession, and evince the 
title of the purchaser. 

" By the ancient common law, a charter of feoffment was, in 
general, the only written instrument whereby lands were trans- 
ferred or conveyed ; but although this assurance derived great 
authenticity from the number of witnesses by whom it was 
usually attested, and the solemn and public manner in which 
livery of seisin was usually given ; yet still it may be supposed 
that inconveniences would frequently arise, either from the loss 

* An essay on "The Nature and Operation of Fines and Recoveries," by 
William Cruise, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-law, 1794. 



196 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

of the charter itself, or from the difficulty of proving it after a 
lapse of years. These circumstances probably induced men to 
look out for some other species of assurance which should be 
more solemn, more lasting, and more easy to be proved than a 
charter of feoffment. 

" Experience must soon have discovered that no title could be 
so secure and notorious, as that which had been questioned by an 
adverse party, and ratified by the determination of a Court of 
Justice : and the ingenuity of mankind soon found out a method 
of deriving the same advantages from a fictitious process. 

"To effect this purpose the following plan was adopted: a 
suit was commenced concerning the lands intended to be con- 
veyed, and when the writ was sued out, and the parties appeared 
in Court, a composition of the suit was entered into with the 
consent of the Judges, whereby the lands in question were 
acknowledged to be the right of one of the contending parties. 

"This agreement, being reduced into writing, was inrolled 
among the Records of the Court, where it was preserved by the 
public ofificer ; by which means it was not so liable to be lost or 
defaced as a charter of feoffment, and being a record, would at 
all times prove itself. It had also another advantage, that, 
being substituted in the place of the sentence, which would 
have been given in case the suit had not been compounded, it 
was held to be of the same nature, and of equal force with the 
judgment of a Court of Justice." 

Of fines there were four different kinds : — 
I St. Sur conuzance de droit come ceo, etc. 
2nd. Sur co7iiizance de droit tantum. 
3rd. Sur concessit. 
4th. Sjir done grant et render. 

The first was the best and surest kind of fine ; for the Deforciant 
(viz., the grantor), in order to avoid the formality of an actual 
feoffment, with livery of seisin, acknowledges in court a former 
feoffment or gift in possession to have been made by him to the 
Plaintiff (viz., the grantee). This fine gave the plaintiff immediate 
possession of the land. 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. I97 

The second kind was upon acknowledgment of this right only, 
without the circumstance of a preceding gift by the deforciant. 
This form was generally used to pass a reversionary interest. 

The third kind is where the deforciant, in order to make an end 
of disputes, though he acknowledges no precedent right or gift, 
grants to the plaintiff an estate de novo, by way of supposed com- 
position, which may be either an estate in fee, in tail, for life, or 
even for years. 

The fourth kind is a double fine, comprehending Nos. i and 3. 
It is used in order to create particular hmitations of estates. In 
this fine the plaintiff, after the right is acknowledged to be in him, 
renders or grants back to the deforciant some other estate in the 
lands. 

From this, it appears that the form of the fine should show 
what interest the conveying party had in the lands ; a point some- 
times of considerable importance. 

Formerly, fines were resorted to when, apparently, there was not 
the slightest necessity to have recourse to this kind of assurance ; 
but, as time went on, this was discontinued, and the long and 
elaborate settlements and other provisions which are often found 
in early fines ceased, all such provisions being made by separate 
indentures, leading or declaring the uses of the fine ; a much 
more convenient and less cumbersome method ; for in this case 
the fine would resolve itself into the simplest form, and there 
would be no necessity to inrol, as of Record, the indenture of 
settlement, or whatever else it might be. In recent times, fines 
fell into the common form described as No. i, " Sur co/mzance de 
droit come ces, etc.," and they were used, I think I may say almost 
exclusively, for the purpose of barring estates tail, or conveying 
the estates of married women. The use of this method of assur- 
ance continued until the year 1834, when Fines and Recoveries 
were entirely abolished, and a simpler method was introduced. 
But that the general reader may not perplex himself with the 
minute distinctions before referred to, not always clear even to the 
well read jurist, it has been thought best, in the following calendar, 
not to overload the pages with unnecessary verbiage, but rather to 



198 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

give, in brief and technical, but still easily intelligible form, the 
exact purport of each fine. In some publications much space has 
been wasted in this respect ; for instance, the names of the Justices 
are of no use, except in those very rare instances where the date 
of the fine is lost or not given ; and the abstract of a fine in its 
pure terms is repulsive in form, and may perhaps be more 
puzzling to the ordinary reader than the document itself in its 
entirety. 

I have here endeavoured, at some pains, to avoid these faults ; 
I have studied to give the exact effect of every fine in language 
which shall be technical, yet clear and brief, but without sacri- 
ficing any point of importance. For instance, the term hi fee, 
which I have adopted, is sufficiently intelligible, besides being 
technically accurate ; what object can there be in saying his heirs 
for ever, when the other phrase is sufficient ? Look at the space 
taken up unnecessarily ; four words instead of two, and then this 
is no trifle, let us suppose a calendar of 10,000 fines, the use of 
the short form in fee instead of his heirs for ever, would obviously 
save 20,000 words, equivalent to about fifty pages of these Trans- 
actions ; and so throughout. 

Life is too short, and time is too valuable. to be frittered away 
over mere word crowding and tautology, however necessary it 
might have been as a legal form, and still may be, perhaps, in a 
qualified way ; we want the kernel at once without having to roam 
through an apparently trackless forest ; and to wear ourselves out 
in operose and useless work, such as a diffuse and lengthy calendar 
of these fines would be, while the inexorable stream of time is fast 
running its course, would be an unnecessary and profitless task. 

But '■•Jam satis est . . . verbum non amplius addam." 

W. H. H. 

CALENDAR. 

1 196 Westminster. Feast of St. Cecilia, Virgin, 8 Ric. I. 
Nov. 22. Between John, son of William de Kelm, Plaintiff, and Michael 
de Ednesofre, Tenant. 
Release by Plaintiffs, in consideration of a silver mark, to Tenant, 
in fee, of ij acre of land at Haliwell in Cestrefeld ; at the yearly 
rent of 4d. for all service. 



I 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY UF DERBY. 199 

II97 
Jan. 26. Westminster. Friday next after the Conversion of S. Paul, 8 
Ric. I. 
Between the Hospitallers of Jerusalem, Plaintiffs, and Robert de 
Bakepuz, Tenant, by John his son, his attorney. 
Release by Plaintift to Tenant, in fee, of the advowson of the 
church of Barewe (Barrow-upon-Trent) ; and release, in consider- 
ation thereof, by Tenant to Plaintiffs, by the assent of Hugh, 
Bishop of Coventry, then present, of loos. yearly thereout. In case 
of the church being vacant, the lOOs. to be received out of the 
goods thereof while it remains in the hands of the Bishop. 
Oct. 21. Westminster. Tuesday next after the Feast of S. Luke the Evan- 
gelist, 9 Ric. I. 
Between Amabel, of Pakinton,* Plaintiff, and Alan de Sumerville. 
Tenatit. 
Grant by Tenant, in consideration of a silver mark and a cloak, 
to Plaintiff, of 4 virgates of land in Pakinton for Ufe, w ith reversion 
to Tenant in fee, at the yearly rent of Sd. for all service, except 
foreign service [a portion defaced] to the Countess of Rependon ; 
also of 2 tofts, to give to whom she will. 
1 201 . . . [octaves of S. John the Baptist] 3 John. 
July I. Between John, Bishop of Norwich, t Plaintiff, and Richard Fitz 
[defaced] Tenant. 
Grant by Plaintiff and Tenant to W^illiam Fitz Robert, in fee, of 
3 oxgangs of land in Sendiacre, at the yearly rent of 5 sh. for all 
service, except foreign service ; and grant, in consideration thereof, 
by Plaintiff and William Fitz Robert to tenant of the autumn corn 
sown by him thereon ; Tenant receiving the homage of William in 
the same court. 
July I. Same date. 

Between John, Bishop of Norwich, Plaintiff, and Robert de 
Burun, Tenant. 
Grant by Plaintiff and Tenant to William Fitz Robert, in fee, of 
2 [defaced] in Sendiacre, at the yearly rent of 2 lbs. of cummin 
yearly for all service, except foreign service ; and grant, in con- 
sideration thereof, by Plaintiff and William Fitz Robert to Tenant 
of the autumn corn sown by him thereon ; Tenant receiving the 
homage of William in the same court. 

* A small part of Packington parish (Leicestershire) is within the county of 
Derby. — Ed. 

t John of Oxford, Bishop of Norwich, held the Lichfield prebend of 
Sandiacre. — Ed. 



200 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

1202 Notlingham. Thursday next after the Feast of S. Botulph, 4 John. 
June 20. Between Richard Fitz Muriel, Plaintiff, and Cicely, widow of 
Warin, Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor,* by Plaintiff, in consider- 
ation of half a silver mark, to Tenant, in fee, of an oxgang of land 
in Stanleg, at the yearly rent of sixpence for all service, except 
foreign service. 

June 21. Nottingham. Friday next after the Feast of S. Botulph, 4 John. 
Between Alan Fitz Jordan, Plaintiff, and Gilbert de Lindesia and 
Emma his wife, and Richard and Agnes his wife, Tenants. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 2 silver marks, to Tenants, in fee, of 2 virgates of land 
and one messuage in Eston (Aston-on-Trent) ; and grant, in con- 
sideration thereof, by Tenants to Plaintiff, in fee, of one messuage 
in Eston, lying between the 2 messuages belonging to William 
Malmesert. 

1202 Same date. 
June 21. Between Alan Fitz Roger, Plaintiff, and Alan Fitz Jordan and 
Mary his wife, Tenants. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in consider- 
ation, of a silver mark, to Tenants, in fee, of half a plough land in 
Serdelaw (Shardlow). 

June 22. Nottingham. Saturday next after the Feast of S. [Botulph], 4 
John. 
Between William Fitz Hugh, Plaintiff, and Walter de . . tebi 
and Brumerg of Derby and Agnes, widow, Tenants. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 3 IS. 8d. sterling, to Tenants, in fee, of 3 tofts and 4 
acres of land in Derby. 

June 2A Same date. 

Between Richard Parmenter and Emma, his wife, and Matilda, her 
sister. Plaintiffs, and William Fitz Lewin, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs, in con- 
sideration of 2\ marks sterling, to Tenants, in fee, of a messuage 
in Derby. 



* The assize of mort d'ancestor {assisa mortis antecessoris) was a Writ directed 
to the Sheriff, for the recovery of possession of things immoveable, whereof 
anyone's ancestors were seised. — Ed. 



I 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 20I 

June 22. Same date. 

Between Edwin Fitz Aghemund and Agnes his wife, Plaintiffs, 
and Raghenald Fitz Thore, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs, in con- 
sideration of a silver mark to Tenant, in fee, of a messuage in 
Derby. 

June 23. Nottingham. Sunday next after the Feast of S. Botulph, 4 John. 
Between Hawis Fitz Walkelin and Letice his sister. Plaintiffs, and 
Ingeram de Waldewich and Quenild his wife. Tenants. 
Agreement, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, that Plaintiffs and 
their heirs are to hold a messuage in Derby for the life of Quenild, 
at the yearly rent of 8d. for all service, with reversion, in fee, quit 
of the same rent after Quenild's death. 

June 23. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Matilda, daughter of William, Plaintiff, and Alan de 
Tikenhall, Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenant, in consideration 
of los. sterling, to Plaintiff, in fee, of 2 virgates of land in Tiken- 
hall, at the yearly rent of 34d., and by the free service of following 
the wapentake of Rapindon every year at his own cost for all 
service, except foreign service. 

June 23. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between John the Cordwainer and Alice his wife, Plaintiffs, and 
the Prior of Rapindon, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs, in con- 
sideration of a silver mark, to Tenant, in perpetuity, of 2 oxgangs 
of land in Tikenhall. 

June 25. Nottingham. Tuesday next after the Nativity of S. John the 
Baptist, 4 John. 
Between Roger Fitz William, Plaintiff, and the Abbot of Burton, 
Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 20s. to Tenant, in perpetuity, of 4 oxgangs of land in 
Over. 

June 25. Nottingham. Same date. n 

Between Alan, brother of Simon Palmer, Plaintiff, and Herbert 
the Carter and Isabella his wife. Tenants. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of los. to Tenants, in fee, of a messuage in Cestrefeld. 



202 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

June 28. Nottingham. Friday next after the Nativity of S. John the 
Baptist, 4 John. 
Between Nicholas Suyenell, Plaintiff, and Simon de Knyb', Tenant, 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 5?. to Tenant, in fee, of 2 virgates of land in 
Bretteby. 

July I. Nottingham. Monday next after the Feast of the Apostles Peter 
and Paul, 4 John. 
Between William Fitz Rolland, Plaintiff, and John Dainotour and 
Matilda his wife, and Hugh de Stiveton and Sarah his wife, 
Tenants. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of a silver mark to Tenants in fee, of 2 oxgangs of land 
in Scirebroc (Shirebrook). 

July 5. Nottingham. Friday next after the Feast of the Apostles Peter 

and Paul, 4 John. 
Between Alina, daughter of Robert, Plaintiff, by Matthew her son, 

her attorney, and Adam de Staunton, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, to Tenant, 
in fee, of 52 acres of land, the fourth part of an oxgang of land, the 
fourth part of 2 mills, and a fourth part of a messuage in Staunton 
(.Stanton-in-the-Peak) ; and grant, in consideration thereof by 
Tenant to Plaintiff, in fee, of 2 acres of meadow in the same vill, 
lying next the ford of Haddon towards the west, and the fourth part 
of the aforesaid 2 mills ; to hold of Tenant and his heirs by the 
service pertaining to his fee which he hulds in the same vill, by the 
service of the eighth part of one knight's fee for all service. 

July 5. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Robert de Alveleg', Plaintiff, and Peter de Deseth and 
Alice his wife, Teftants. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, to Tenants, 
in fee, of 36 acres of land in Stevenethornehaie (? Ashover parish), 
at the rearly rent of 2s. 6d. ; at the Annunciation i5d. and at 
Michaelmas I5d. for all service; and release, in consideration 
thereof, by Tenants to Plaintiff, in fee, of 36 acres of land in 
Leheg' and in Riecroft, and of his mill-pond upon their land at 
Bedebroc. 

July 6. Nottingham. The octave day of the Apostles Peter and Paul, 
4 John. 
Between William de Streton, Plaintiff, and Sewale Fitz Henry, 
Tcnatit. 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 203 

Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of a silver mark to Tenant, in fee, of an oxgang of land 
in Barleburge. 

1203 Westminster. Within 15 days of Easter, 4 John. 
Apr. 6-20. Between Peter Fitz Ralph, and Alice his wife, Plaintiffs, by William 
de Dustune their attorney, and Hugh de Akovre, Tenant. 
Grant, by Plaintiffs to Tenant, in fee, of 16 oxgangs of land in 
Calrlelawe ; to hold of Plaintiffs, and of the heirs of Alice ; render- 
ing yearly a sparrow-hawk, or 2s. , at the Feast of S. James for all 
service ; saving to the King the services and customs due from that 
land to the manor of Wirkewrde (? Wirksworth), which Plaintift 
Hugh and his heirs will discharge towards the King for Plaintift 
Alice and her heirs. 

1204. Nottingliam. Within the octaves of the Purification, 5 John. 
Feb. 29. Between Gerbert de Stok' and Avicia his wife. Plaintiff's, and 
Maurice de Andely and Isabel his wife, by the same Maurice 
her attorney. Tenants. 
Release on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs, in considera- 
tion of a silver mark, to Tenants, and to the heirs of Tenant Isabel, 
of 4 acres of land in Stok'. 

April 215— May 23. Westminster. Within one month of Easter, 5 John. 

Between William Fitz Robert, Plaintiff, and John Fitz William, 
Te)iatit. 
Release, on a recognizance of great assize,* by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 10 silver marks, to Tenant, in fee, of 4 carucates of 
land in Norbir' and in Rounton. 

Sept. 29 — Oct. 13. S. Bride's, London. Within 15 days of S. Michael, 
6 John. 
Between William, Abbot of Burton, Plaintiff, and Nicholas de 
Wilinton, Tenant. 
Grant by Plaintiff, in consideration of us., to Tenant, in fee, of 
12 oxgangs, and 6 acres of land, and a mill in Finderne, and a mill 
in Potlac, by the free service of 43s. 6d. yearly, viz., at Michaelmas 
23s. 6d., and at the feast of S. Martin 20s., for all service and 
exaction, in lieu of the services and customs hitherto exacted by 
Plaintiff from Tenant. 

* ' ' The law of Fees is grounded upon two Rights ; one of Possession, the other 
of Property. And as the Grand Assize serveth for the right of Property, so the 
Petit Assize serveth for the right of Possession." — Cowell's " Interpreter." — 
Ed. 



204 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

1208. 
April 25 — May 30. Westminster. Within 5 weeks of Easter, 9 John. 

Between Nicholas de Limesie, Plaintiff, and Jordan de Toke, 
Tenant. 
Grant by Plaintiff to Tenant in fee, by the free service of render- 
ing 50s. a year at Hulton,* at the Annunciation of B. V. M. 25s., 
and at the Feast of S. Martin 25s. for all service, save foreign 
service. 

Sept. 2. Nottingham. The morrow of S. Giles, Abbot, 10 John. 

Between Alice de Sumerville and Richard de Curzun, son and 

warranty of the same Alice for her dower, Plaintiffs, and 

Thomas de Curzun, Tenant. 
Grant and acknowledgment by Tenant to Plaintiff Alice, for 
her life, of the vill of Keteleston claimed by her as her dower out 
of the free tenement of Robert de Curzun her late husband, and 
whereof Tenant did call Plaintiff Richard to warranty, with 
remainder to Tenant in fee, by the service of one knight, and grant, 
in consideration thereof by Plaintiff Richard to Tenant or his heirs 
during the life of Plaintiff Alice, by the service of one knight's fee, 
of ;^9 ,j 7 ,, 6 rents of land in Twiford, Steineston, Croxhale and 
Edelinghale, with reversion to grantor in fee; viz., in Twiford and 
in Steineston [defaced], and gd., viz., whatever Tenant had in the 
same vills beyond the service of William Fitz William which doth 
remain to Plaintiff Richard ; and beyond [defaced] of Edelingehale 
for 50s. rents, and in the vill of Croxhale the homage and service 
of Robert Fitz Robert of [defaced] iS acres of land which he doth 
hold in the same vill, viz., 3s. a year, and foreign service ; and the 
homage and service of William de Curzun [defaced] virgates, and 
15 acres of land which he doth hold in the same vill, viz., I2d. a 
year, and foreign service ; and the homage and service of Robert 
[defaced] for one virgate of land which he doth hold in the same 
vill, viz., 3s. a year, and foreign service ; and the homage and 
service of Robert Hare for half a virgate [of land] which he doth 
hold in the .same vill, viz., 2s. a year, and foreign service ; and the 
homage and service of Roger Fitz William for one virgate of land 
which he doth hold in the same vill, viz., 2s. a year, and foreign 
service ; and the homage and service of Eudo the butler for one 
virgate of land which he doth hold in the same vill, viz., 3s. a year, 
and foreign service ; and the homage and service of Geoffrey de 
Edelingehale for 9 acres of land which he doth hold in Edelingehale 
viz., 2s. 9d. a year, for all service. This Fine was made in the 

* Hilton, a township in the parish of Marston-on-Dove. — Er). 



J 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 205 

presence and with the assent of the aforesaid Robert Fitz Robert, 
William de Curzun, Robert [defaced], Robert Hare, Roger Fitz 
William, Eudo the butler, and Geoffrey de Edelingehale, who did 
acknowledge their services.* 

1208. Derby. Saturday next after the Feast of S. Martin, 10 John. 
November 15. Between Stephen Fitz Henry, Plaintiff, and Richard, Prior 
of Reppedone, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in considera- 
tion of los. , to Tenant, in perpetuity, of 2 oxgangs of land in 
Tikenhal. 

November 15. Derby. Same date. 

Between Cristiana, daughter of Robert, Plaintiff, and Alan de 
Sumerville, Tetiant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in considera- 
tion of 2 marks, to Tenant, in fee, of 5 virgates of land, and the 
third part of 2 virgates of land in Wivelesle (Willesley) and 
Pakinton claimed by Plaintiff as her reasonable portion of her 
sister's inheritance. 

November 15. Derby. Same date. 

Between Henry de Herthull and Hawisia his wife. Plaintiffs, and 
Henry de Hotot, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs to Tenant, 
in fee, of an oxgang of land, and the fourth part of a mill in 
Hyolegrave.t 
November 16. [Derby.] Sunday next after the Feast ot S. Martin, 10 John. 
Between Robert de Al...el, Plaintiff, and Hugh de Findern, 
Tenant. 
Release, on a recognizance of great assize, by Plaintiff, in 

* Robert de Curzon, by his wife Alice, had three sons, Richard, Thomas, 
and Robert. From Richard, the eldest son, descended the Curzons of 
Croxall, Edingale, and Twyford. Robert, the third son, became a celebrated 
Cardinal. From Thomas, the second son, descended the Curzons of Kedleston, 
the manor being left him by his father. But Thomas died young, leaving an 
infant son, Thomas, to the guardianship of his uncle Richard. Alice, widow of 
Robert de Curzon, meanwhile married a Somerville, and on her grandson 
coming of age claimed Kedleston as part of her dower. Thereupon arose an 
intricate and interesting, though unnatural, lawsuit of some years' duration. 
Plea Rolls, John 7-9. — Ussher's " History of Croxall Parish," pp. 4, 5 ; Cox's 
" Churches of Derbyshire," vol. iii. pp. 172, 3. — Ed. 

t Harthill, a small township of the Parish of Bakewell (where there used to 
be an ancient chapel, and the large manor house of the Harthill family), adjoins 
the Parish of Youlgreave. The Harthills held much land in the Parish of 
Youlgreave up to 1390, when it passed by marriage to the Cokaynes, with 
whom it remained for two centuries, when it was purchased by Sir John 
Manners. — Ed. 



206 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

consideration of 3 silver marks, lo Tenant, and to Nicholas de 
Wilinton, vouched by him to warranty, in fee, of 4 oxgangs of land 
m Findern ; also grant and release by said Nicholas to Plaintiff, in 
fee, of 2^ acres of meadow, and 2 acres of land in Findern ; viz., 
one acre of meadow in Heppelemende next the meadow of Richard 
the Clerk, and I J acre of meadow in [defaced], and ^ acre of land 
in Heppelemende, and J acre of land in Hurimandole, next the 
land of William de Hovere. 

November 16. Derby. Same date. 

Between Richard Fitz Robert, Plaintiff, and Robert Mauniluerd 
and Matilda his wife. Tenants. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenants to Plaintiff, 
in fee of \\ acre of land, part of 3J acres of land, in Athelardestre,* 
lying next the land of Plaintiff; the other 2 acres to remain to 
Tenants and to the heirs of Tenant Matilda in fee, quit of Plaintiff. 

November 16. Derby. Same date. 

Between Henry de Verdone, and Hawisia his wife, and Robert de 

Sugkenhull, and Petronilla his wife, and Dionisia, their sister, 

Plaintiffs, and William de Gresle, Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor (at the request of Plaintiffs 
Henry and Hawisia and Dionisia, who do release their right), by 
Tenant to Plaintiffs Robert and Petronilla, and to the heirs of 
Petronilla in fee, of a moiety of 5 acres of wood in Suartlincot 
(Swadlincote) ; viz., that which doth extend from Leverichgrave 
to Blackepit, and from Blackepit to Brockholes ; by the free 
service of rendering a sparrow hawk yearly at the Feast of S. 
James, for all service. The other moiety to remain to Tenant, in 
fee, quit of Plaintiffs Robert and Petronilla and their heirs. 

November 16. Derby. Same date. 

Between Henry de Penesion, Plaintiff, and Master Richard, 
Parson of Du brig (Dovebridge), Tenant. 
Release by Plaintiff, in consideration of a mark, to Tenant, and 
to the Church of Dubrig in perpetuity, of an acre of land in Brocton 
(Church Brougliton), and acknowledgment that the same is frankal 
of the same church. 

November 17. Derby. Monday next before the Feast of S. Edmund, 
10 John. 
Between Simon Fitz Roger, Plaintiff, and Felicia de Hurst, 
Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor by Plaintiff, in considera- 

* Allestree ; spelt Adelardestreu in Domesday Survey. — Ed. 



I 



I 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 207 

tion of half a mark, to Tenant, in fee, of 12 acres of land in 
Caldelawe. 
November 19. Derby. Wednesday next before the Feast of S. Edmund, 
10 John. 
Between Serlo de Begelei, flainliff, and Robert Brito, Tenant. 

Grant, on a recognizance of great assize, by Plaintiff and Tenant 
to the Church of S. Thomas the Martyr of Beuchef, and the canons 
there, in frankalmoign,* of 60 acres of land in Waletone. 

November 22. Derby. Feast of S. Edmund, 10 John. 

Between Robert de Alvel, Plaintiff, and Nicholas de Wilruc', 
summoned to warrant him his charter [Tenant^ 
Grant, by Tenant to Plaintiff, in fee, of 2 oxgangs of land in 
Finderne by the free service of 2S. a year, viz., I2d. at the Nativity 
of S. John the Baptist, and I2d. at the Feast of S. Martin, for all 
service. 

Novemtter 28. Derby. Friday next after the Feast of S. Edmund, 10 John. 
Between Lucian de Seille, and Agatha his wife, Plaintiffs, and 
Bertram de Caldun, and Alice his wife, Tenants ; concerning 
a wood in Hertishorn. 
Grant by Tenants to Plaintiffs, and to the heirs of Plaintiff 
Agatha, in fee, quit of the heirs of Tenant Alice, of a moiety of 
Danewallehai, viz., that moiety which doth lie towards Danewall ; 
and all the wood which is without Danewallhai is to remain 
common to both Plaintiffs and Tenants, and their men, for ever, 
except Porchaia, which doth remain common to Plaintiffs and 
Tenants only, for ever ; and release, in consideration thereof, by 
Plaintiffs, for themselves and the heirs of Plaintiff Agatha, to 
• Tenants, and to the heirs of Tenant Alice, in fee, of 4 brills 
(brillis), viz., in Hetle, in Brocle, in Sutle, and in Lutlele. 

November 30. Derby. Sunday next after the Feast of S. Edmund, 10 John. 
Between William Burgunun, Plaintiff, and Richard Fitz Robert 
Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenant, in considera- 
tion of 4s. to Plaintiff, in fee, of 2 oxgangs of land in Draycot, by 
the free service of 2s. 6d. a year; viz., at Easter I5d., and at 
Michaelmas isd., for all service, save foreign service; for which 
Plaintiff did perform his homage to Tenant ; and also acquittance 
from 2s. a year towards the Chief Lord. 

* Frankalmoign is a title to land bestowed upon those who do special service 
to God, in pure and perpetual alms, that is without any demand for any kind 
of terrestrial service. — Ed. 



2o8 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

December 2. Leicester. Tuesday next after the Feast of S. Andrew, 10 John, 
Between Nicholas de Wilintone, Plaintiff, and Philip de Draycote, 
Tenant. 

Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 5 marks, to Tenant, in fee, of 8 oxgangs of land in 
Wilne. 

1209 Lichfield. Before the King himself and Justices, May 5, 10 John. 
May 5. Between Thomas de Curecun (Curzon) on the one part, and Richard 
de Curecun, and Alice his mother, on the other part. 

Release, by Thomas de Curecun, to Richard de Curecun, in fee, 
of ;^9 7s. 6d. rents of land in Twiforde, and in Steinestone (Stenson), 
and in Croxhalle, and in Edlinghale (Edingale), which did remain 
to the said Thomas by a fine made between them in the same Court, 
in exchange of the vill of Ketelestone which the said Thomas did 
grant to Alice in dower, and whereof the said Thomas did complain 
that the said Richard and Alice did not observe that fine with him ; 
and grant, in consideration therof, and of nine marks by Richard to 
Thomas, in fee, of the vill of Ketelestone by the service of one 
knight's fee for all service ; and also release by Alice of her dower 
therein, in consideration whereof Richard doth grant to her all the 
land which he had in Twiforde, and in Steinestone, except the 
service of William Fitz William, which doth remain to Richard ; 
also the mill of Edelighale and 2\ virgates of land in Croxhale 
which she formerly had, and three acres of the demesne of Richard, 
viz., one acre under Broille, and one acre under Haie, and one acre 
in Crosfurlange ; to hold in dower ; performing for the land in 
Twiforde, and in Steinestone, and the mill of Edelighale, the ser- 
vice of the third part of one knight's fee, and for the 7.\ virgates, 
and 3 acres of land in Croxhale 5s. a year ; viz. , at the Rogations 
2od., at Michaelmas 2od., and at the Purification 2od., for all 
service. 

1208, May 15. Derby. [Defaced] 10 John. 

1209, May 6. Between Henry Fitz [defaced], Plaintiff, and Nicholas de 

Willintone, Tenant. 

Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in con- 
sideration of 2 marks, to Tenant, in fee, of an oxgang of land in 
Finderne and another oxgang of land held by John Fitz Geoffrey 
in Wilintone. 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 209 

1209, Evesham.* July 14, 11 John. Before the King himself. 

July 14. Between Robert, Prior of the Hospital of Jerusalem in England, 
Plaintiff, by brother Robert de Way, his attorney, and Hubert 
Fitz Ralph, by Robert de Eincurt, his attorney, [Tenant]. 
Grant, on a plea of warranty of charter, by Tenant, to Plaintiff, 
in frankalmoign, of a knight's fee in Danby de Wauz, Co. Leic, 
and release by Plaintiff to Tenant of the service pertaining to the 
same fee, and grant and warranty by Tenant to Plaintiff in frank- 
almoign, quit of all secular service and exaction, in consideration of 
such release, of the holding of Payn Fitz Swain, in Riele, together 
with the same Payn and all his sequel, viz., one oxgang of land 
held by Geoffrey Fitz Herward in the same vill, with the toft and 
croft, and garden to the same belonging ; and in augmentation of 
that oxgang 4 acres held by the same Geoffrey in Sudstubbinges, 
and a toft lying next the aforesaid toft towards the north, and i\ 
acre of land abutting upon the aforesaid garden towards the south, 
and 5 acres of land next Glappewellegrif, and 2 acres in Strethelbric, 
and 4 acres at Dalewange, and 3 acres at the head of Dalewange, 
and 3 acres at Poldlandesiche, and half an oxgang with a toft ad- 
jacent held by Roger Fitz Robert in the same vill. And this Fine 
was made in the presence, and with the consent of, the aforesaid 
Payn. Grant also by Tenant to Plaintiff, in frankalmoign, of 8 
acres of land in Snaidhinges held by Roger Fitz Steinulf, as per- 
taining to the holding of Payn in Riele. 

1210. [Place and portion of date defaced.] 12 John. Before the King 
May 27. himself. 

Between Robert [defaced], Plaintiff, and Hubert Fitz Ralph, 
Tenant. 
Certain lands, the locality of which does not appear, to remain to 
Tenant in fee, as well in demesnes as in services, quit of Plaintiff. 
The service of Emma de Wakbrig, for 60 acres of land held by her 
in Watecrofte (Wheatcroft), and in Done, and in Lefsihay ; and 
10 acres of land held by William de Suckthorne ; and 14 acres of 
land held by Henry son of the same William ; and 14 acres of land 
held by Richard Fitz David ; and six acres of land held by Robert 
de Buterlee ; and a moiety of the service of Ranulph de Wake- 

* The "Itinerary of King John," compiled by the late learned Deputy 
Keeper of Public Records, Sir Thomas Duffus Hardy, from the Chancery 
Rolls, and printed in the " Rotuli Litterarum Patentium," as an appendix to 
the Introduction, gives Hanley Castle, in Worcestershire, only, as the place 
where the King was on July 14 in this year, and not Evesham ; therefore the 
Fine before us affords a valuable addition to the Itinerary. 
17 



2IO CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

bruge for 40 acres of land held by him in Wakebruge,* viz., ^Ib. of 
pepper. And the other moiety to remain to Plaintiff, as well in 
demesnes as in services ; viz., the service of William de Alneto for 
40 acres of land held by him in Watecroft, viz., I2d. ; and the 
service of Henry de Camera for 12 acres of land held by him in the 
same vill, viz., 1 2d. ; and the service of Henry de Wakebrig for 7 
acres of land held by him in Lefsihay, viz. , I lb. of cummin ; and 
the moiety of the service of Ranulph de Wakebruge, for 40 acres 
of land held by him in Wakebrige, viz. , Jib. of pepper ; and 20 
acres of land held by Robert de Watecroft ; and seven acres of land 
held by Robert de Buterdone ; and 14 acres of land held by the 
widow Agnes ; and 12 acres of land held by Robert de Buterlee. To 
hold to Plaintiff in fee, by the free service of 40d. a year ; one 
moiety at the Annunciation of B. V. M., and the other moiety at 
Michaelmas ; and performing also one ploughing, and one reason- 
able harrowing (scuram) every year, their food being provided by 
Tenant, for all service and exaction, save foreign service, as much 
as doth pertain to the aforesaid 20 acres of land held by Robert de 
Watecroft ; and to the 7 acres held by William de Buterdone ; 
and to the 14 acres of land held by the widow Agnes ; and to the 
2 acres of land held by Robert de Buterlee. This Fine was made 
in the presence of the aforesaid William de Alneto, Emma de 
Wakebrugg [defaced], Henry de Wakebruge, and Ranulph de 
Wakebrige, who did acknowledge that they owed the aforesaid 
services, t 

1212. York. Within 15 days of S. Hilary, 13 John. Before the King 
January 13-20. himself. 

Between Philip de Ulecote and Joan his wife. Plaintiffs, and Ralph 

de Muniay and Avicia his mother, by the said Ralph her 

attorney, Tenants. 

Release by Plaintiffs to Tenants in fee of the third part of the vill 

of Gilderlege, and of Winster, claimed as Plaintiff Joan's dower on 

her marriage with Sewal de Muniay, her former husband ; and 

grant, in consideration thereof, and of 15 silver marks, by Tenants 

to Plaintiffs, for Plaintiff Joan's life, as dower, of 4 acres of land in 

Kinetone lying in a field called Winesdone between the arable lands 

of William de Grendone. 

* Wakebridge, in the Parish of Crich. — Ed. 

t There are so many lacunce in this Fine that it is impossible to give a better 
version than the one above. The date cannot be fixed nearer than the Feast 
of the Ascension of Our Lord, 12 John; and it maybe the Feast itself, its 
morrow, or a week, or fifteen days after. 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 211 

1219. Nottingham.* The morrow of the Invention of the Holy Cross, 
May 4, 3 Henry III. 

Between Henry de Codington, Plaintiff, and Robert Fitz Fulcher, 
Deforciant, 

Grant by deforciant, on a plea of warranty of charter, to Plaintiff, 
in fee, in consideration of 14s. id. of one carucate of land, of the 
fee of Richard de Curzon in Codintone ; and of two oxgangs, of 
the fee of Melebum in the same vill ; and of one oxgang in 
Osmundeston ; rendering yearly 12s. 8|d. for all service ; viz., for 
the carucate of the fee of Richard de Curezun 4s. Sid. at the Feast 
of S. Martin, and 4s. 8d. at the Ascension of Our Lord, and for the 
2 oxgangs of the fee of Melebum 20d. at the Feast of S. Michael, 
and at the [Purification] of B. V. M. 2od. In consideration whereof 
Plaintiff did release to Deforciant and his heirs all damage and loss 
which he alleged he suffered, for that Deforciant did not acquit him 
of the services pertaining to the chief lords of that land as he ought 
to have done. 

May 4. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between John Fitz Stephen, Plaintiff, and Simon de S. Maur and 
Cecilia his wife. 

Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in 
consideration of 20s., to Tenants and to the heirs of Tenant Cecilia 
in fee, of 3 oxgangs of land in Ekentone, and one oxgang in 
Herdewic. 

May 4. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Eda, daughter of Dunestane, and Goda her sister, 
Plaintiffs, and Geofirey Fitz Nicholas,t Tenant. 

Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs, in 
consideration of a silver mark, to Tenant in fee, of 4 oxgangs of 
land in Burt'.J 



* All the Fines here calendared previously to this are printed at length in 
the Pedes Finium, published by the Record Commission, under the editorship 
of the Rev. Joseph Hunter, vol. ii. p. 16, but from this point, namely, the 
commencement of the reign of King Henry III., the Derbyshire Fines have 
never been committed to print. They remain in MS. in the Public Record 
OfKce. 

t In the original Fine an imperfect word occurs here after Nicholas, but it is 
not required by the sense. 

X Probably Barton Blount, where the family of Fitz Nicholas held land in 
the thirteenth century. — Ed. 



212 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

May 4. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Goda, daughter of William, Plaintiff, and Bertram de 
Verdun, Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor by Tenant to Plaintiff, in 
fee, of a virgate of land in Engelby, by the free service of 4s. a 
year, viz., at the Purification of B. V. i6d., and at Hockday" i6d., 
and at Michaelmas i6d. for all service, saving foreign service, 
whereof Plaintiffs ancestors did not use to render to Tenant's 
ancestors but 26^d. a year for all service. 

May 4. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Ralph Fitz Ralph, Plaintiff, and Ralph de Caldewell, 
Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenant to Plaintiff, in 
fee, of 2 out of 3 virgates of land in Caldewelle, viz., those which 
Tenant doth hold in demesne, except 2 selions which do lie along- 
side of Tenant's garden, and except a curtilage which doth lie 
before Tenant's door, by the free service of I2d. a year, viz., at the 
Nativity of S. John the Baptist 6d., and at the Feast of S. Martin 
6d., for all service, saving foreign service ; and release, in considera- 
tion thereof, by Plaintiff to Tenant, in fee, of the third virgate of 
land, viz., that which Matilda de Caldewelle, Tenant's mother did 
liold, and all his right in the 2 selions and curtilage. 

May 4. Mottingham. Same date. 

Between Avicia, daughter of Rolland, Plaintiff, and Roger Fitz 
Joyce, Tenant. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in considera- 
tion of los. sterling, to Tenant in fee, of a messuage in Asseburne. 

1219. Nottingham. The morrow of the Ascension of Our Lord, 3 
May 17. Henry III. 

Between Ralph Fitz Arnisius, Plaintiff, and Hubert Fitz Ralph, 
by Herbert Torcard his attorney [ Tenani\. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenant to Plaintiff, in 
fee, of 2 out of i,\ oxgangs of land in Ailwaldistone, and Ambalda- 
tone, and Alewaldistone.f viz., those 2 held by Gilbert Gule in 
Alewaldistone, by the free service of i4 a year at Michaelmas for 
all service except foreign service ; in consideration whereof 
Plaintiff did release to Tenant, in fee, all right in the other 2^ 
oxgangs of land. 

* Hocktide was an ancient Saxon anniversary held a fortnight after Easter, 
the origin of which is lost in obscurity. — Ed. 

t That is — Elvaston, Ambaston (in Elvaston Parish), and Alvaston. — Ed. 



» 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERRY. 213 

May 17. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Ralph Fitz Arnisius, Plaintiff, and Geoffrey de Saussul- 
mare and Matilda his wife, Tenants. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenant to Plaintiff, in 
fee, of 24 out of 6 oxgangs of land in Ailwaldestone, and Ambaldes- 
tone, and Alewaldestone, viz., in Ailwaldestone 2 oxgangs held by 
[defaced] Fitz Norman, and half an oxgang in Ambaldestone, held 
by Roger Fitz Ragenald, by the free service of 6d. a year [for all 
service, save foreign service] ; in consideration whereof Plaintiff did 
release to Tenants, and to Tenant Matilda and her heirs in fee, all 
right in the other 4 oxgangs of land which do remain of the afore- 
said 6J oxgangs. 

.May 17. Nottingham. Same date. 

Between Ralph Fitz Arnisius, Plaintiff, and Geoffrey de Musters 
and Avicia his wife. Tenants. 
Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in considera- 
tion of 2 silver marks, to Tenants, and to the heirs of Tenant 
Avicia in fee, of an oxgang of land in Ambaldestone. 

June 25. Lincoln. The morrow of the Nativity of S. John the Baptist, 3 
Henry III. 
Between Richard de Spondone and Alianor his wife, by Geoffrey 
de Westmeles their attorney, Plaintiffs, and Philip Esserop, 
Tenant. 
Grant, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiffs to Tenant, 
in fee, of a moiety of 2 oxgangs of land in Estone(Aston-on-Trent), 
viz., in a field by Chelardeston (Chellaston) 3^ acres towards the 
south ; and in a field by Thurlanstone (Thulston) i\ acres towards 
the south ; and in a field by Doroky 3^ acres towards the south ; 
and a moiety of the whole toft and croft pertaining to the aforesaid 
land towards the south ; and in the common field 2\ perches of 
land towards the south ; to hold of Plaintiffs and the heirs of Alianor 
by the free service of 2s. a year, viz., at Michaelmas I2d., and at 
Easter I2d. for all service. 
1220. 
June 24 — July 15. Westminster. Within 3 weeks from the Nativity of S. 
John the Baptist, 4 Henry III. 
Between Robert Fitz Peter of Bremintone (Briminton), Plaintiff, 
and Alfred, Parson of Witintene* Church, Deforciant. 
Release by Plaintiff, in consideration of 30 silver marks, to 
Deforciant, and to his Church of Witentene, in perpetuity, of 2 

* Whittington, near Chesterfield. — Ed. 



214 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

oxgangs of land in Taptone ; and acknowledgment that the same 
is frankalmoign pertaining to the same church. This Fine was 
made in the presence and with the assent of William Bruwer, chief 
lord of the same fees. 

1220. Westminster. Within the octaves of the Holy Trinity, 4 Henry III. 
May 24-31. Between Nicholas de Wilingtone, Plaintiff, and John Prior of 
Rapendone, Deforciant. 

Release, on an assize of last presentation, by Plaintiff, to 
Deforciant, and to the Church of the Holy Trinity of Rapendone, 
in perpetuity, of the advowson of Wilingtone Church.* In 
consideration whereof Deforciant did receive Plaintiff and his heirs 
into all their prayers which shall henceforth take place in Rapen- 
done Church, for ever. 

1222. Westminster. Within the octaves of S. Hilary, 6 Henry HI. 
Jan. 13-20. Between Helewisa daughter of Robert Torcard, by Havvisa 
daughter of Robert her attorney. Plaintiff, and Richard Abbot 
of Wellebek, by brother Matthew his Canon, his attorney, 
Tenant. 

Release by Plaintiff, in consideration of 8 silver marks, to 
Tenant, and to the Church of S. James, Welebec, in perpetuity, of 
6 oxgangs of land, and 2 parts of I oxgang, in Ducmantone. And 
moreover Tenant granted that he would find Plaintiff reasonable 
food and clothing as long as she lived, whether she chose to dwell 
with Hawisa her sister at Ducmantone, or with Richard Prudhome 
and Mabel his wife at Clune. 

Feb. 2-9. Westminster. Within the octaves of the Purification of B. V. M., 
6 Henry IH. 
Between Simon Fitz Edric, Plaintiff, and Stephen, Prior of S . 
James's, Derby ; Henry Gery ; Omer the Saddler ; Hugh the 
Saddler ; Robert Werem and Marietta his wife ; and Thomas 
Fitz Simon, Tenants. 

Release by Plaintiff, in consideration of 3 silver marks, to 
Tenants, of 7 messuages in Derby. 

Thomas son of Simon Palmer and his brothers do assert their 
claim. 



* The date of the original gift of the Rectory of Willington to Repton Priory 
has hitherto been erroneously given. There is an error both in the 
"Monasticon" and in the "Topographer and Genealogist." This error I 
have followed in the " Churches of Derbyshire." — Ed. 



I 






CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 215 

April 3-18. Westminster. Within 15 days from Easter, 6 Henry III. 

Between Ralph Fitz Nicholas, Plaintiffs and Geoffrey Cunquest, 
Nicholaa his wife, Deforciants. 

Grant, on a plea of warranty of charter by Deforciants, in con- 
sideration of 40s. to Plaintiff, in fee, of the manor of Langleg' ; to 
hold of Tenants and of the heirs of Nicholaa ; at the yearly rent of 
6 marks, viz., at the Annunciation of B.V.M. 3 marks, and at the 
Feast of S. James 3 marks, for all service, save foreign service, 
with power of distress in case of nonpayment. 

1223 Nottingham. The morrow of the close of Easter, 9 Henry HI. 
April 7. Between Richard de Ednes[our], Plaintiff, and Thomas de Ed- 
nesour, Tenant. 

Release, on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Tenant, to Plaintiff, 
in fee, of 6 oxgangs of land in Pillalegh ; * also of 6 other oxgangs 
there, with the villeins and all their sequels ; viz., one oxgang of 
land held by Goodwines Fitz Everard [defaced] oxgang of land 
held by Simon Fitz Ralph ; and one oxgang of land held by Matilda 
the widow ; and two oxgangs of land held by Alice the widow ; 
and one oxgang of land held by Robert Fitz Fulcher. In consider- 
ation whereof Plaintiff granted to Tenant, in fee, one silver mark 
yearly to be received of Robert of Little Langsdune and his heirs 
at the Feast of the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul, out of the tene- 
ments which the same Robert doth hold of Plaintiff in Langsdune 
and Brihtrichesfeld, rendering therefor yearly 2d. at the aforesaid 
feast for all service ; with power of distress in case of nonpayment 
by the same Robert. Moreover, Plaintiff granted to Tenant, in 
fee, 7j oxgangs of land in Chelemeredune, which were of the 
marriage dowry of Avicia his wife ; viz., one oxgang of land which 
Richard de Cudale held ; and half an oxgang of land held by 
William brother of Matthew ; and half an oxgang of land held by 
Richard Fitz Orm ; and one oxgang of land held by Robert le 
White ; and one oxgang of land held by Richard Fitz Whelstan ; 
and half an oxgang of land held by Ralph le White ; and half an 
oxgang of land held by Henry le Paumer ; and half an oxgang of 
land held by Peter Fitz Richard ; and one oxgang of .land held by 
Nicholas Fitz Richard ; and half an oxgang of land held by Richard 
de Lindesia ; and half an oxgang of land held by John de Halushir' ; 
and all the service of Jordan Fitz Stephen and of his heirs out of 

* Pilsley, in Edensor parish.— Ed. 



2l6 CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 

half an oxgang of land held of Plaintiff in the same vill of the afore- 
said marriage dowry ; to be holden of Plaintiff and Avicia and her 
heirs ; together with the villeins and all their sequels ; rendering 
2d. yearly. This Fine was made in the presence, and with the 
consent of the aforesaid Avicia ; also in the presence of Richard de 
Sandiacre her brother, and with his warranty ; and also in the pre- 
sence of the aforesaid Robert, and of Jordan, who did acknowledge 
that they owed the aforesaid services. 

1225 Nottingham. The morrow of the close of Easter, 9 Henry III. 
April 7. Between Walter Malet, by Alan Malet his attorney, Plaintiff, and 
Richard Sandiacre, Deforciant. 
Release on an assize of mort d'ancestor, by Plaintiff, in considera- 
tion of eight silver marks to Deforciant, in fee, of ten score and 
seven acres of land in Horsleg', whereupon William, son of Peter of 
Sandiacre in the same court did vouch to warranty Deforciant 
against Plaintiff, who came and did warrant him ; and whereupon 
William le Macun, Gilbert de Castro, Thomas de Wudehus, Roger 
le Parker, Lewin de Cotesgrave, Gilbert Fitz Henry, Henry Fitz 
Gilbert, Robert le Clerc, Hugh Fitz Ailrul', Arnold le [defaced], 
Ralph de Rippeleg', Geoffrey Fitz Payn, Gilbert son of Emma, 
Geoffrey de Horsleg', Henry le Minur, Nicholas Fitz Herbert, 
Robeit Fitz Gamell', Ralph son of Beatrice, Andrew le Carboner, 
and Gilbert Fitz Robert, did vouch to warranty the same William, 
son of Peter, against Plaintiff, who came and did warrant them ; 
viz., of 20 acres of land held by the aforesaid William le Macun ; 
and of 20 acres of land held by the aforesaid Gilbert de Castro ; and 
of 12 acres of land held by the aforesaid Thomas [de Wudehus] ; 
and of 15 acres of land held by the aforesaid Roger le Parker ; and 
of fifteen acres of land held by the aforesaid Lewin de Cotesgrave ; 
and of 20 acres of land held by the aforesaid Gilbert Fitz Henry ; 
and of 12 acres of land held by the aforesaid Henry Fitz Gilbert ; 
and of 12 acres of land held by the aforesaid Robert le Clerc ; and 
of 9 acres of land held by the aforesaid Hugh Fitz Ailrul' ; and of 
7 acres of land held by the aforesaid Arnold le [defaced] ; and of 8 
acres of land held by the aforesaid Ralph de Rippeleg' ; and of 8 
acres of land held by the aforesaid Geoffrey Fitz Payn ; and of 6 
acres of land held by the aforesaid Gilbert son of Emma ; and of 6 
acres of land held by the aforesaid Geoffrey de Horsleg' ; and of 8 
acres of land held by the aforesaid Henry le Minur ; and of 6 acres 
of land held by the aforesaid Nicholas Fitz Herbert ; and of 7 acres 
of land held by the aforesaid Robert Fitz Gamell' ; and of 6 acres 



CALENDAR OF THE FINES FOR THE COUNTY OF DERBY. 21 7 

of land held by the aforesaid Ralph son of Beatrice ; and of 6 acres 
of land held by the aforesaid Andrew ; and of 4 acres of land held 
by the aforesaid Gilbert Fitz Robert. Release, also by Plaintiff to 
Deforciant, and to William son of Peter, in fee, of 10 acres of land . 
held by Geoffrey de Alfretone in the same vill, and in lo acres of 
land held by Robert Fitz Ulkell in the same vill ; and in 8 acres of 
land held by Andrew de [defaced] in the same vill. 

Sept. 30. Nottingham. The morrow of S. Michael, 9 Henry III. 

Between Fulcher de Ireton, Plaintiff, and the Abbot of Rovecestre 
and Richard de Ednesovere, Deforciants. 
Release, on an assize of last presentation, by Plaintiff, to the 
Abbot and church of Rovecestre in perpetuity, of the advowson of 
the church of Ednesovere;* in consideration whereof the Abbot 
received Plaintiff from thenceforth into all their prayers in their 
Abbey at Rovecestre. This fine was made in the presence, and 
with the consent of the said Richard de Ednesovere. 

( To be continued yiext year). 



* See the undated Charter of this gift in Dugdale's " Monasticon," vol. ii., 
p. 268. I erroneously concluded ("Churches of Derbyshire," vol. ii., p. 178) 
that this gift of Edensor was temp. King John. — Ed. 



<3n an ^ncitnt (BoXa ^Uxq, founlr at 
Normantou=i)2=l3evt>2. 



By Arthur Cox, M.A. 




HE ancient gold ring, of which an illustration (Plate 
XIV.) is here given, was found at Normanton, in the 
autumn of 1883. 

The property known as Sinfin Lane Farm has been in one 
family since early in 1700; and it is only in the last generation 
that the name of Tabberer has died out for lack of male issue, 
and the farm has passed to the present owner, Mr. VVm. Gray, 
whose mother was a Tabberer. 

It is to the courtesy of Mr. Gray, and to his readiness to lend 
me the ring and furnish all the information in his power, that I 
am indebted for the opportunity of giving these notes. 

In September, 1883, Mr. Gray was proposing to enlarge some 
out-buildings in the field at the back of his house ; in removing 
the soil, at a depth of about eighteen inches below the surface, 
the workman's pick struck and turned up this ring, thus bringing 
to light a most valuable and interesting relic of the past. 

The ring lay perfectly loose in the soil ; there were no old 
stones, nor foundations of any kind ; no pottery, metal, nor bones 
near where it was found ; in fact there would seem to be abso- 
lutely no explanation of the presence of the ring in that particular 
spot. The only discernable peculiarity of the " find " was, that 
the soil in which the ring lay, for about a square yard round, was 



pr.ATE xrv 





ANCIENT COLD RING FOUND ON A FARM AT 
NORMANTON BY DERBY. 




SEAL AS TAKEN FROM THE RING. 



^ 



ANCIENT GOLD RING, FOUND AT NORMANTON-BV-DERBY. 2I9 

of dark coloured earth, whereas the soil of the field beyond is 
common yellow clay. ^ 

The ring itself is of the purest gold, the workmanship very 
rude, the design— a roughly twisted cable widening into a flat 
round signet. The contrast, however, between the careless general 
design, and the engraving of tlie signet, is most marked. Nothing 
could be more exquisitely finished than the sharp details of the 
engraving, which is cut in the solid gold. The work is as fresh 
and clean as though executed yesterday. The device represents 
S. Michael, with shield and spear, trampling and transfixing the 
dragon ; the minutest detail of features, feathers, or scales, being 
carved with a wondrous care and skill. 

Tlianks to the valuable information supplied by the work upon 
" Finger-ring Lore," by Mr. William Jones, F.S.A., to whom I 
have also had the advantage of submitting a wax impression of 
the ring ; there is no hesitation in pronouncing it to be a religious 
or ecclesiastical ring, belonging to mediaeval times. At first sight, 
the rudely executed design of the shank would almost sug- 
gest an earlier period for its production,* but comparison with 
other rings, and the unanimous opinion of several other good 
authorities who have been consulted, all lead to the same con- 
clusion, — namely, that this ring was probably made early in the 
fourteenth century. It is a good specimen of the work of a good 
period, for, to quote from " Finger-ring Lore " — "It was in the 
middle ages, after a period of comparative mediocrity, that the 
greatest degree of perfection in goldsmiths' work, especially in rings, 
began to display itself." 

After seeing the wax impression of our ring, Mr. Jones was in- 
clined to pronounce the subject of the engraving to be S. George 
and the dragon, on the ground that the shield is that of S. George. 
Without presuming to dispute the opinion of so high an authority, 
I think I may venture to point out that the shield of S. Michael is 
often represented as bearing the cross usually attributed specially to 

* Rock crystal was in use among the Romans for carving solid finger-rings, 
whose shanks were moulded into a twisted cable. 



2 20 ANCIENT GOLD RING, FOUND AT NORMANTON-BY-DERBY. 

S. George. Indeed, according to Husenbeth, the best authority 
on Saints' Emblems, each bears a similar shaped red cross on a 
white ground ; and surely the very obvious wings displayed on the 
signet must belong to the Archangel rather than to the earthly 
warrior. 

How a ring made for ecclesiastical use in the reign, probably, 
of Edward III., came to be lost in a field at Normanton-by-Derby, 
it is useless to speculate ; the fact remains that such a ring has 
been found there, and we may congratulate ourselves, and all lovers 
of archaeology, that the discovery was made. 

The ring weighs 7 dwt. 8 gs., and measures 3 inches round the 
outside, and | inch across the hoop ; it would fit the index 
finger, or the third finger of an average sized man's hand. 



By Rev. J. Charles Cox. Illustrated by George Bailey. 




>ENRY DE FERRERS founded the Priory of 
Tutbury about the year 1080 ; the manor and 
church of Norbury, in the county of Derby, 
forming part of the endowment.t But in the 
year 1125, the Priory gave Norbury in fee- 
farm to William Fitzherbert, at a yearly rental 
of looj.J From this date the Fitzherberts held 
the Norbury manor as tenants of Tutbury 
Priory up to the year 1444, when Nicholas 
Fitzherbert, and Ralph, his son and heir, gave to Thomas Gedney, 
Prior of Tutbury, all their lands at Osmaston, together with other 
lands at Foston and Church Broughton, in exchange for the 
reserved rent of loos., and for all other services due to the Prior 
out of the manor of Norbury .§ 

By letters patent, dated September 4th, 1252, Sir William Fitz- 
herbert. fourth lord of Norbury, obtained a grant of free warren 
over his manor of Norbury. At the Quo Warranto pleadings at 



* This initial letter is an ancient hinge, from the doorway of the Oak 
Parlour of the Manor House. 

+ Dugdale's " Monasticon," vol. i. p. 354. 
X Tutbury Chartulary, chart. 88. 
§ Ibid, chart 39. 



2 22 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

Derby, in 1330, Sir John Fitzherbert, sixth lord of Norbury, 
established before a jury this resisted right of free warren that had 
been granted to his grandfather.* Sir William Fitzherbert, seventh 
lord of Norbury, paid half a mark in 1377 for procuring a con- 
firmation charter of this free warren.t 

Sir Henry Fitzherbert, fifth lord of Norbury, who came into 
his inheritance in 1267, married the daughter of Ralph Chaddes- 
den. He was living in 13 10, but the exact date of his death is 
not known. His stone effigy, in chain armour, occupies the 
centre of the chancel of Norbury church.* Towards the end of 
his life he rebuilt the Manor House in stone on a large scale, con- 
sisting of two courts. Previous to this, it had probably been 
throughout a timbered or half-timbered dwelling. The court of 
the original Manor House was sufficiently spacious to permit of the 
high-road from Yeaveley to Ellaston passing through the centre. 
This road from the Preceptory of the Knights Hospitallers at 
Yeaveley, crossing the Dove just below the Manor House of Nor- 
bury, by a ferry and also by a foot and packhorse bridge, and lead- 
ing to several Staffordshire Abbeys of importance, would be one of 
considerable traffic for a country district, and we are not surprised 
to find that Sir Henry Fitzherbert sought to close or divert the 
road before beginning the enlargement of his house. An Inqui- 
sition was held in 1301 to decide on the expediency of permitting 
the closing of this road, and the jury reported favourably ;X but it 
was not till four years later that he obtained the royal license to 
effect this, on payment of forty shillings, and on condition of mak- 
ing another road through his own lands equally commodious for 
travellers.§ The road that he then made was probably the one 
now used, which turns off to the west just in front of the Manor 
House, and closely skirts it. 

Of this Manor House, as built by Sir Henry, the Great 



* Quo Warranto Rolls ; Derby 4 Edw. III., wherein the previous grant- 
36 Henry III. is recorded. 

t Charter Rolls, 51 Edw. III., rot. 25. 
t Chanc. Inq.,29 Edw. I., No. 68. 
§ Charter Rolls, 33 Edw. I., rot. 15. 



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^wunt* Igkn 1384. 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 223 

Hall, and chief or state rooms above, still remain, though only 
used as stabling or store rooms. There is but very little 
domestic work left in England of so early a date. There are 
sufficient remains of the old buildings, and traces of the founda- 
tions to establish the fact, that Norbury Hall of Edward I.'s 
reign consisted of two large courts, the outer one being the 
larger, with the buildings round its three sides chiefly used for farm 
purposes, for stabUng, and for the lodging of retainers. The main 
block of the present buildings (Plate XV.), of which we shall 
presently speak, formed the south side of this outer court, and 
through it was a communication into the inner or domestic court. 
On the east side of this inner court was the Great Hall, with the 
principal apartments over it, as shown on the ground plan, and of 
which the west elevation is also given from a photograph by Mr. 
Keene (Plate XVI.). This building is generally described as 
" the chapel," a title to which it has not even a single preten- 
sion. It was originally divided (as it now remains) into two 
stories, the floor division corresponding with the outer moulding 
or string-course. The two blocked-up upper windows are ob- 
viously original. There are sufficient traces in the interior 
masonry to show that the lower story, or hall, had no doorway to 
its west front of any size, but was originally lighted on that side 
by three square-headed windows, equi-distant between the 
buttresses. The chief entrance was at that time at the south end 
of the Hall, and immediately above this was the entrance door- 
way to the state rooms. Both of these interesting door-ways are 
shown on Plate XVII. I'he large chimney of the Hall was on 
the east side. The present west door-way of the Hall is of good 
Perpendicular design, and may, without doubt, be assigned to Sir 
Nicholas Fitzherbert, tenth lord of Norbury, who was so ex- 
tensive a re-builder of the church. He died in 1473. The arms 
on the shields over the door-way are too defaced to be in any way 
decyphered. Strange to say, the door, as we believe, is actually 
older than the door-way. The door has been moved here from 
some inner door-way; no outer door would have been pierced 



224 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 




with circular openings, such as the two in this door, with no 
provision for their being closed. We take it that this is wood- 
work of Sir Henry's time. 
This reduced sketch of one 
of these circular openings, 
shows that it is of Decorated 
design. 

Looking at Plate XVI., we 
see the close propinquity of 
I the church, for two of the 
tower pinnacles show over the 
ridge of the roof. There are 
traces, both on the church, and 
) at the north end of the Hall 
building, of a probable con- 
nection that at one time existed 
between this block of the Manor House and the parish church. 
It was very likely a bridged connection, giving private access 
to the south-west chapel of the church; if so, this work would 
be done about 1500 by John Fitzherbert, twelfth lord of Nor- 
bury, and grandson of Sir Nicholas, who completed the Per- 
pendicular alterations of the church, including the south-west 
chapel.* 

Sir Nicholas appears to have made extensive alterations in his 
ancestral home. To his date belong the well-moulded beams of 
the flat roofs of the rooms of both stories communicating with the 
south end of the Great Hall building. These beams are shown 
on Plate XVII. cutting off the upper part of the hood-mould to the 
doorway to the hall, and the subjoined sketch of a beautifully 
foliated square boss is in the roof of the room leading into the 
upper state rooms, over the chamber marked "Brewhouse" on the 
ground plan. 



* For full account of Norbury Church and its monuments, see Churches of 
Derbyshire, vol. iii. pp. 219-246. 



PLATE XVI. 




I, '~J 





NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 



225 



On the east 
side of what 
was the large 
outer court of 
the Manor 
House, on the 
right hand as 
you approach 
the present 
house, is a 
long barn, the 
lower story of 
which is used, 
as perhaps 
was originally 
the case, for a 
cow-house. It 

might be passed almost unnoticed from that side, having been 
refaced. But from the east it shows at once signs of antiquity. 
The upper part is half-timbered, and built on massive beams 
slightly projecting over the masonry. The ends of the three 
principal beams are somewhat roughly carved ; one bears a quatre- 
foil, another a grotesque head, and the third is represented in this 
sketch. 





226 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHF.Rr.ERTS. 

It has been conjectured that the old part of this barn dates from 
the time of Sir Nicholas Fitzherbert, in the second half of the 
fifteenth century. But, after careful thought and study of the 
comparatively little that is known with precision of domestic 
architecture, we have come to tlie conclusion that parts of this 
old barn, as well as the Great Hall, go back to the end of the 
reign of Edward I. 

John Fitzherbert, twelfth lord of Norbury, died on the vigil 
of St. James, 1531, and is buried in the south-west chapel of the 
nave of Norbury church, which chapel, as well as other parts of 
the church, he had built. He does not appear to have interfered 
with the fabric of the Manor House, otherwise than in the probable 
connection between the house and the church, to which allusion 
has already been made. An Inventory of Heir-looms, attached to 
his Will, gives a valuable insight as to the furnishing of a country 
gentleman's house of that date. 

There is a cepy of the long and remarkable will of John Fitz- 
herbert entered in the Episcopal Registers of Lichfield under the 
year of his death.* As it is unique in its provisions, and note- 
worthy throughout, the major part of it is reproduced literatim, 
as well as the Inventory. There are only one or two notes given 
as to the different members of the family mentioned therein, as a 
reference to the accompanying pedigree (reverse of Plate XIX.) 
will fully explain the different relationships. 

He begins his Will, dated September 22nd, 15 17, after leaving 
his body to be buried in the parish church of Norbury "under the 
newe made arche benethe the Steple or els where God shall 
othgrwyse dispose it," with a variety of small ecclesiastical 
bequests, which probably procured his testament the place that it 
occupies in the Diocesan Records. He leaves thirteen pounds 
of wax to be used in as many tapers " abowte my herse," two 
tapers to burn night and day upon the herse till the seventh day 
was past. 

Every man, woman, and child at the burying to have a farthing 

* " Lichfield Episcopal Registers," vol. xiv., ff. 106 — in. For an abstract 
of this will I am indebted to my friend, Mr. H. Palmer Welchman. 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHliRBERTS. 227 

white loaf and a penny of silver. On the seventh day after, both 
priests and clergy to have on the same manner, and the poor folk 
as before. 

To the Cathedral Churches of Our Lady at Coventry, and of 
St. Chad, at Lichfield, i2d. each. To Darley Abbey, for requiem, 
lod. To Blackfriars Derby, Burton Abbey, Convent of Tutbury, 
Croxden, Deulacres, Repton, Ulverscroft, Lichfield Friars, 
Stafford Friars (both orders), lod. each for a trentall of masses. 

To the Eremites, or Austin friars of Newark, and to every 
house of that order in England, and to every Charterhouse {i.e., 
Carthusian Monastery) lod. for same. To the Abbot of Rocester 
1 2d., and to every chantry there 4d. To the ringers of bells there 
8d. To the Prior of Colwich i2(l. To every chantry there 4d. 
To the ringers there 6d. 

After providing for the payment of just debts, the testator pro- 
ceeds with his bequests. 

To Norbury Church 20 marks to buy a cope of velvet, and a 
vestment branched of one colour. 

To making the stone bridge at Rocester, if made of mason 
work, 40s. ; to be bestowed in getting up the sandstone out of the 
water, and laid upon the ground to give men courage to perform 
the remainder. 

To every servant their full wages, and (except priests) to have 
" 6 ewe shepe hoggs if I decesse before Christmas, such as then 
be shorne, at their own choice ; the longest service to have first 
choice, and so on by order ; and if I decesse after they be shorne, 
and before Christmas, then to have the same sixe shepe called 
theaves." 

The said priests 13s. 4d. to say dirige each evening, and a mass 
on the morrow. 

To his daughter Elizabeth, a little goblet of silver and gilt, with 
a cover, and his black beads ; a feather bed, bolster, pair of sheets, 
2 blankets, a coverlet, a covering of verdure,* " the worst mattress 
of five the best a bolster," a pair of sheets, 2 blankets, 2 coverlets) 
I of white, another of color, the best beneath the hall. 

* Verdure, an old term for tapestry. 



2 28 NOREURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

To the Prior of Ulverscroft 2 other beds. 

To Elizabeth, 2 young oxen, 2 young kine, a two-year-old 
bullock, 2 more aged, 2 two-year-old heifers, and 60 young ewes 
or theaves. 

Twenty shillings to redeem poor debtors of Nottinghamshire 
and Staffordshire. 

Baidon Park, taken for 12 years from Marquis of Dorset (one 
year gone), to be held by executors for his stock; these to be 
sold at end of lease, and disposed as most profitable for the three 
souls of his executors. 

All servants to be kept on at Norbury for 40 days at usual 
wage. 

All manors, tenements, reversions, and services in the counties 
of Derby, Leicester, and Stafford, as follows : — 

Manors of Norbury, Roftington, Seddesalle, Foston and Snel- 
ston, with the advowson of Norbury, to be recovered by John 
Fitzherbert, clerk,* Humphrey Fitzherbert, Thomas Combreford, 
and Thomas Purefoy, and also parcels of the above to be re- 
covered against Henry, William, and Anthony Fitzherbert, his 
brothers. Recovery to be made of manors, etc., in Upton and 
Stoke, in county of Leicester, for purposes hereafter declared. 
All his Staffordshire manors in the lordships of Cheadle and 
Dilhorne to go to his daughter Elizabeth and her heirs. 

" And for defaut of such issue male of my body lawfully 
begotten then I will for divers causes and considerations, 
and specially for that that Anne Welles wieff of John Welles of 
the Hoar Crosse is not my daughter as I perfeghtly know will 
take it upon the perill of my soulle at the dredfuU day of 
Juegment and wold not that wrongful! begoten heires nor those 
that be not of my blode shulde inherit my manors nor any parcell 
thereof, I will that in as muche as the Manor of Norbury and 
Roffington hath continued in my name this cccc. yeres and more 
or there about and wold that it so shold doo and continue if it 

• This John F. was of the Somershall branch of the family. He was ap- 
pointed to the vicarage of Dovebridge in 1520, and rector of Norbury in 1535. 
He held both preferments till his death in 155 1. 



NOREURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 229 

pleased God. Therefore I will that all the said manors with 
thadvowson of Norbury and all lands, etc., in Norbury, Rofifing- 
ton, Calton, Snelston, and Prestwood, and 13^ acres and rode of 
land in Cubley lieing next to the nether corner of my park on the 
south side, etc., wholly to remain under and come to my brother 
Anthony Fitzherbert, Sergeant at the law, then to Henry, then to 
Humfrey Fitzherbert of Uphall in co. Hertford, then to heirs male 
of daughter Elizabeth Draycott wife to Philip Draycott son and 
heir of John Draycott, Knight. 

" To this intent that if she have heyr male unmaried at the 
tyme of my decesse. Then the said c li shalbe bestowed and 
imployed to the gettyng of a gentlewoman Inheritable to Lands 
and to be maryed to hyr son and heyr or to such lynyall heir 
male of her body as at that tyme shall fortune to be unmaryed 
and yff she or her heir male have after heyr female then to by or 
gett an heyr male to hyr and to mary them toged' after the 
lawe of holy church. And if soo be the sayd lynyall heyr male 
or heyr gen'all be maried at such tyme as the said remainder 
may fortune to fall Then I will that the sayd somme of c li 
remayne in the hands of the sayde feoffees and recoverers for the 
tyme being or be layd in to some Abbey or put in to some oder 
such keping to the same Intent by the advyse of my recoverers 
and feoffees or the mor pte of them that the next heyr male or 
heyr female of her body unmaryed may have and will geyte such 
a maryage wher wyth her lands may be amended and encresed 
and when such a mariage ys got and had then the said c li to be 
payed for the same per me J. F. 

" The other c li. to be bestowed and Imployed to the use of the 
heyr male unmaried of my brod' Henry Fitzherbert to thys 
intent that he ys a gentleman aud a younger brod'' and I wold that 
the name shold contynewe in worship according to our degree. 
That with the sayd c li ther myght a gentlewoman Inheritable to 
land be bought for the sayd heyr male and mary them togedur 
after the lawe of holy church." 

The ;^2oo is to be free of all tythe and interest. 

If Henry or his heirs male break or dispute this will, he is not 



230 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

to have the ^100 which is then to pay : ist, the expense of the 
suit ; and 2ndly, to make highways and other charitable works 
at the discretion of his executors. 

If Anthony dies without heir male, then Henry (having already 
received the ;^ioo) is to pay back to Anthony's heir ;^ioo and 
_;^ 1 00 to heir general of his daughter Elizabeth who fortunes at 
that time to be unmarried, for the purposes above mentioned. 

If Henry gets the ;^ioo first, and entail afterwards, he is to 
pay back to Elizabeth's heir ;!^ioo for same purposes, and ;^ioo 
to make roads between Norbury and all the market towns next 
adjoining and other villages thereabout, with the help of the said 
towns and villages, " that the sayd c li may goo the further." 

Cousin Humfrey is to pursue the same course. 

" Provided all way that if my sayde Brod' Henry decesse with- 
out issue male of hys boddy lawfully begotten then I will the sayd 
c li that shuld goo to the preferment of hys heyr male shall go to 
the performance of my will, payment of my detts, makyng of the 
hye ways and such charitable works." 

And if his daughter Elizabeth gets the remainder and after- 
wards the entail, she is to return;^ 100 to heirs of last in posses- 
sion, and make the highways or bestow in " exebion of por 
scholers that be disposed to lerne and specially to the mariage of 
meydons wared in Catall '■' and gyffen them and in such other 
charitable works." 

In case of the trustees dying, the last two are to appoint others 
'' of next kin and friends of those in the remainder or other sadde 
and discrete persons." 

The present holder is to keep up the estate, and the trustees 
are to see that it is done and to pay themselves for their trouble. 

" And also I will that all those that shall fortune to be myne 
heyr male of my body or heirs male by vertue of thys my will or 
heirs generall shall dayly and yerely fynd an honest prist at 
Norbury to singe and pray for my soole and all my ancestors 
sooles and all Chystin sooles and for the prosperitie and good lyff 

* "Wared in Catall," i.e. spent in chattels or movable goods. 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE KITZHERBERTS. 23 1 

of all thoos that shall come here after and inherit as heir male or 
heir generall by vertue of this my will and for their sooles when 
they be dead. And also to fynd a lamp brennying both day and 
nyght in the Chancell of Norbury before the Sacrament and also 
yerely to make a dowle every Sonday in Lenten that is to say to 
every housholder in Norbury, Roffington and Sntlston that be 
tenant or heyr after shall be tenant to my heirs males or to myn 
heyres generalles by vertue of this my will if that they wyll come to 
Norbury Church or send one of theyr howse and fetch yt, and of 
ther charitie to say a pater noster and an ave maria for my soole 
and all Crystin sooles, too farthyng lov) s two whyte herrings and if 
herryng whyte or redde faile and be not salt then to pay to every 
person soo wantynge herryngs for every ii herryings ob * in sylver. 
And in lyke manner yerely oon Ester evon halff a fatt oxe or nygh 
ther abount to be cut in peses and to every of the said tenants 
to be given ii farthying lovys and a pese of the seyde beff the 
which shal be better than a penny in value or else iid. in sylver." 

In case of the heir failing to perform these alms, then the 
trustees are to take the estate and provide all the charities until 
he finds surety as to his compliance. 

In case the heir attempts to alienate any property, the heir 
presumptive is to succeed at once. 

Joyntures to be provided for wives, but not to exceed a third 
part of value. 

Muniments of entailed estate to be kept by the heir — of all 
other lands to be given to Elizabeth Fitzherbert. 

The heir to bear the arms " descended to me from my father, 
without any differance as heyr male to the Manor of Norbury, but 
not to bear my mothers armys without his differance." Cousin 
Humfrey not to bear any part of my mother's arms " fur he is not 
comyn of her." 

Daughter Elizabeth and heirs to bear the whole arms of my 
father's mother " without any differance bycause she ys a woman 
and heyr generall to my father of those lands that he had that 

* That is a farthing. 



232 NOREURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

were not tallied to the heyr male and also in the remaynder of all 
the whole lands for want of issue male, and also she is heyr 
generall to my mother of all the lands dyscended to me from her 
per me J. F." 

And if Elizabeth is not contented, and sues the executors or 
breaks this will, then she is to have " non of the c li nor no parte 
of them," but the ;^iQo is to pay for the defence of the suit 
vexations or troubles, and any thing left to go to make highways 
and other " meritorious deeds." " And they that brek thys my 
sayd will to ronne in the damige of the censure of all holy church." 

Ehzabeth and her husband to find surety for ^500 for keeping 
the directions of this will. 

" And furthermore I will whereas Bennett my wyff hath been of 
lewde and vile disposicion and cowde not be content with me but 
forsaken my houshoolde and company and lyfFed in other places 
wher yt plesed her and yet doeth to my greale rebuke and hyrs 
both, wherefor in my concience she hath forsaken her right title 
and interest of her dowery and joynture or of any parte of my 
moveable goods, but yet not withstanding that my fader whose 
soole God pdon promised that she shuld have tenpownds in Lands. 
Wherefore I will that myn lieyr male by vertue of thys my gyfftes 
shall pay hyr yerely x pownds in money or ells Lands during hyr 
lyff yf she be of any better disposicion in her age then she hath 
ben in hyr youth and as for any moveable goods she hath non 
synce she hath byn noo getter of them and therfor shall she be no 
spender of them for I have clerely gyven them all away in my lyff. 
per me, J. F." 

He grants to his heir the use and profits of all goods and 
chattells of Norbury Manor as " heyr lomes " to pass from one 
heir to an other. 

The heir to find sureties for keeping up the heir looms, all the 
goods " booth quick and dead to be presed by wise men that can 
skill thereof," and the inventory to be annexed to the will, of 
which the heir male was to have a copy, and also his daughter 
Elizabeth, the executors keeping a third which was to be delivered 
to the feoffees after the execution of his will. 



I 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHEREERTS. 233 

The executors and surveyors to have full power to construe any 
apparent contradictions in the will, " or the most pte of them the 
which every man aftr my reason and consyence may well perceyve 
and considr what I meyne by the same." 

He appoints his brother Anthony, his cousin Richard Cotton, 
and his servant Cristofer Abell executors. 

And his brother Doctor,* and his well-beloved nephew Anthony 
Babyngton to be overseers. 

And for reward each is to have 5 marics and one of his best 
young horses. 

And the recoverers to have each a young horse and all their 
expenses out of the estate. 

Witnesses : — Sir John Draycott Knight, Philip Draycott his son, 
Roger Bentley parish priest of Norbury, William Botham chantry 
priest of Norbury, Robert Whythalgh chantry priest of Norbury, 
Sir Roger Roose parson of Ridware Hampstall, William Marshall 
priest, Ralph Parker priest, William Whythalgh, Robert Gerves, 
Henry Cotton, Hugh Cowper, and Richard Clerke of Ridware 
aforesaid, Nicholas Browne of Abbot's Bromley, and many others. 

Written at Norbury, and sealed and signed by John Fitzherbert, 
May 12th, in loth year of Henry VHI. Delivered to Richard 
Cotton. 

To this will a codicil was added on January 3rd, in the 12th 
year of Henry VHI. 

Therein he recites that, whereas his former will left ;^20o, 
^100 to heir of Henry, and ;^ioo to heir of his daughter Eliza- 
beth, now therefore — " Insomuch as my Broder Henry hath no 
heyr male nowe being alyve nor non ys lyke to have, wherfor yf 
he SOD dye havyng no issue male then I will that that hundred 
pounds rest unpayde. No payment thereof to be made to any 
man for any other cause, the premisses in the will aforsayd not 
withstanding. And the sayde hundred pounds the which I 
bequethed to the heyr male of my sayde daughter Elyzabeth to the 
intent aforsayde in the sayde will. Now I remembryng that the 

* Thomas Fitzherbert, D.C.L., Rector of Norbury (up to 1518) and North 
Wingfield, and precentor of Lichfield. 



234 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

sayde heyr male shall have sufficient ly vyng what of the lands that 
shall discende to hym after the decesse of hys fader. And also of 
lands and tenements, rents, reversions, and services that be now 
myn that shall com to hym after the decesse of my daughter hys 
moder, wherfor I will that the sayd hundred pounds bequethed to 
the sayde heir male be bestowed and imployed to the bying of a 
gentlewoman inheritable J:o lands and tenements and to be marydd 
unto the second son of my sayd daughter Elyzabeth yf he be to 
marye at the tym of my decesse and if he be maryed befor by 
myn assent and have issue male befor my decesse or after then 
will the said hundred pounds goo to the mariage of hys heyr male 
to the same intent beforsaid yf so be that I have not payd the 
same to hym or hys heyr male befor. And yf yt fortune my said 
daughter Elyzabeth to have but on son or but to liave Daughters 
all onlly then I will that the said hundred pounds rest unpayd and 
no payment to be ther made to any person the premisses not 
withstanding per me J. F." 
Another codicil to the will is to the following effect : — 
" And also I will that every one of my owne servants man 
woman and chyld of what condicion they be of to have a full wage 
paid them for as much as they have servyd at my decesse." 
Each servant was to have 6^. 8^. ; and the priest 13^. 4^. to say 
a trentall of masses. "And whereas long before the tyme I 
covenanted and bargaynyd with John Basseford of Bradley Ash 
that Anthony Basseford son and heyr apparant of the said John 
Basseford should by grace of God wed and take to wyffe Jane 
Fitzherbert my bastard daughter as is more playneley specified in 
a payre of Indentures of Covenante of maryage between the said 
John Basseford and me, whereas for the ijd tyme he hath varyed 
frome the said covenante and a new agreement made to pay at 
certen days to me the foresaid John Fitzherbert or to my executors 
or assignes fourty pounds of lawfull money whiche as yet he hath 
neither kept nor performed none of the said days of payment 
thereof, whereupon I wyll my feoffies in that behalf shall constreyne 
receyve and take the yerely value of the rent specified in the said 
Indenture of Covenante betwyxt hus or ells xl li. of money with 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 235 

the arrears to the use & mar)'age of Jane Fitzherbert my bastard 
daughter. I remit thys matter to my broder Justice for he knows 
hit frome the beygynnyng to the indying praying hym to be 
good to the poor wenche." 

Also, he gives to Nicholas Abell an "amblyng" mare and a 
trotting mare, and to his Brother Justice six coloured and six 
white mares, and two stallions, and their foals as heir looms. 

" Also I wyll that Jane Fitzherbert my bastard daughter have 
all such stuff of household as I have at tlie parsonage. 

" Also I wyll have my executors make a table of the trinitie* 
on the altar benethe the stepuU and a litle coffer benethe the arch 
of the same chapell for the ornaments belongyng to the same. 

" Also I wyll that my exors make restitution to John Cowhopp 
of Roddsley for wrong done by me xx^.'' Other small bequests 
are :— To make Ellaston bells, 20s.; to make the chantry house, 
20s.; to our Lady of Eveley and St. Stephen, of Hatton, 3^. 4^. 
each ; to Sir Nicholas Dakin, of Clysseton, 10^., to say mass, etc. ; 
to make Welen (?) Bridge, los. ; to Brother Justice, the best 
chamlet gown, and a piece of velvet lately bought at London ; to 
Philip Draycott, a piece of black chamlet, from London ; to — 
Mellor, a heifer, beside his own cow. " And when afore tyme for 
diverse causes and grudges that I hadd agaynst my said brother 
Anthony Fitzherbert I had put h)m out of my wyll & wold not 
that he shuld be any of my Executors for the which causes not- 
withstanding I wyll specially of all men y' he shalbe my principall 
executor & put hym most in trust to execute thys my wyll for in 
my conscience he & his heyres be most worthy to do for me." 
Cousin Roland Babingtont and Cousin John Fitzherbert, Vicar of 
Dovebridge, were the other executors, to have five marks, and a 
young horse each, and all their expenses. 

* This means a carved or painted leredos emblematical of the Trinity. The 
usual way of representing the Trinity at this date was by a venerable seated 
figure for God the Father, bearing in front of Him the Son on the Cross, with 
the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove, resting on one of the arms of the Crgss. 

f Roland Babington was, strictly speaking, nephew, and not cousin of the 
testator ; but the term " cousin " was used to imply almost any relationship. 
Roland was one of the younger brothers of Anthony Babington, mentioned 
elsewhere in the will, and fourth son of Thomas B., of Dethick, by his wife 
Edith, sister of the testator. 



236 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

Then follows a long list of heir-looms, referred to in the will, 
which is, in fact, an inventory of all the better furniture of the 
Manor House. The device of making almost all his chattels heir- 
looms, giving them in his life-time to one of his executors, and 
then resuming the use of them on loan, was a cunning device to 
out-wit his wife, and was probably suggested to John Fitzherbert 
by his astute lawyer brother, Sir Anthony. 

THE HEIRLOOMS OF NORBURY MANOR HOUSE. 

" These be they hirr lomes ordained and gyffen by me John Fitzherbert 
pertaining to the manor of Norbury and delivered to Ric Cooton oon of my 
executors that he may deliver them according to my will after my decesse and 
I have taken theym again to kepe during my lyff naturall. 

For the Hall. 
Hanging of lynnyn cloth stayned or such odur as shall fortune to be there 
at the tyme of my decesse. 

A cupborde with the covering of the same. 

A long paynted horde with trestylles. 

Two table dormands* and bankesf there being. 

Three formes whereof two be fast in the earth. 

A chymnery X and a fyre forke of yron. 

A cage and a byrde if there be any at that tyme. 

In the Over Parloure. 
All the hangynges and the bankes as they be there used. 
A cupborde with the clothe to the same. 
A borde and two trestiles those most used. 
A coveringe to the same borde. 
Syxe the best cuffhyns.§ 
Two andyrons and a fyre chovel of yron. 
A payre of tables and the men.|| 
A forme and too throwen H stoles. 



* Tables dorviant were the fixed high tables of the hall, in contradistinction 
to the moveable ones of boards and trestles. The term is found in Chaucer. 

+ Baukcs-Axe. lengths of wood cut square for any puipose ; here they signify 
the legs of the tables dormant. 

J Chyinnoy, i.e. fire-place, or moveable grate, sometimes placed upon the 
the, open hearth. 

§ Cuffhyns, i.e. coffins, coffers, or chests. 

II A payre of tables, -v/ns an expression used to signify a standing chess-board. 

If Throwen stoles, i.e. stools that were turned, differing from the ordinary 
rough cut stool or bench. 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHEKBERTS. 237 

In the Buttery. 
The best borde cloth of Drapre. 
Too the best towels of drapere. 
Sixe napkyns flaxen. 

Too the best salters of silver and and gyh uncovered. 
Too the best gobletts of silver and gylt. 
Twelve the best silver sponze. 
A drynkyng home garneshed with sylver and gylte. 
The best bassen and ewer of silver. 
Sixe the best candlestycks of laten. 
All the bredde being in the buterye. 
Sixe the grette ale combes. 
A chipping knyff and a rondelet of venagar. 
A gymlet and a rondelet of verges. * 
All the boords, peyrchis, and shelves there used. 
Too the best borde clothes of flaxen an elne brode. 
Too the best borde clothes of canvas yarde brode. 
Too the best towels of flaxen and too of canvas. 
A tonne of silver and gylt with a cover to the same. 

In the Kychyn and other Houses of Office. 
The best brasse pott and the theryde pott. 
The best brasse pan and the theryde pan. 

Too the best yron broches and too gooberds {sic} [? cupboards.] 
The best garnesher + of pewter vessells. 
The best ladle and skewer. 
A frying panne and croiset.J 
A chafyng dishe and a colander of laten. 
A payr of tongs and fyre fork. 
A brasen morter and a pestell of yron. 
A pair of mustard quons § and a stone morter. 
Too pott hoks and ij pott cheynes. 
A pair of wafer yrons || and a brandreth IT of bras. 
A skellett ** and a water chafer. 



* Rondelet of Verges, i.e. small cask of verjuice. 

+ K garnish means a complete set, usually of twelve, of plates, saucers, etc. 
To garnish originally means to place the proper set of crockery, or other ware, 
upon the table. 

+ A croiset is a small drinking vessel. 

§ A quon is a small hand-mill, specially made for the grinding of mustard. 

II That is irons for cutting out and stamping the breads and bread material 
for the Blessed Sacrament. 

IT Brandreth, a metal tripod for fixing over the fire. 

** Skillet, small metal pot with a long handle, a kind of saucepan. 



238 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

A flesh hok and a dressing knyffe. 

A flesh pot and grydyron. 

A verges presse and a bagg of heyr. 

Too kneding troghys and ij mulling bords. 

A bulling pipe and a bultiiig clothe.* 

A fromes and a mashe fat with a sylling fatte. 

The best soorte of leyde in forme. 

A mayle syve and a clensing syve. 

Foore the best seckes and a betewall ;t a stepefatte and an heyr. A churne 
with the staff, iiij mylkyng bolls and ij great and ij smal size chese fatts of 
divers sorts. 

per me John Fitzherbert. 

In the Chambers above the Hall. 

Six the best fedur bedds and bolsters above the hall. 

Sixe the best materesses and bolsters wheresoever they lye. 

Sixe the best coverings to beds above the hall. 

viij the best coverletts above the "hall, whereof iiij of them to be of colours 
and iiij whyte. 

xii. the best blankets above the hall whereof ij be fustyon. 

xij paire of shets whereof iiij payre of the best iiij payre mayde of flaxen and 
iiij payre of the best canvas whersoever they lye. 

vj the best pillowes with theyre beres. J 

All the hangying bedds spervers § and bedstocks above the hall. 

All the hangyns in every chambre above the hall. 

All the cupboards with theyre coverings and a carpet above the hall. 

ij old chayres and iiij oder throwen stoole wheresover they be. 

All the boords foriner and trestles above the hall. 

The best rayment belonging to my body of everything one. 

ij the best cofers with lock and keys. 

All maner of harnes and weppons for the war. 

All maner of booys shafts arrows and quyvers. 

All my books of Latin, French, and Englishe. 

A frame to make quysshyns || in. 

A tente to make tappestrie worke or to mende it. 

A tente to tnake matres in. 

A warping stock and a hanging lom'. [loom] 

The Evidence Cofer and all the evidence belonging to my eyr male ac- 
cording to my vriW. 

* A sifting tub and a sifting cloth. 

■f- A beieivall, that is a " beatwell," betle or hammer. 

% Bere, a pillow case. — Chaucer. 

§ Spei-ver, or sparver, the canopy or wooden frame at the top of the bed. 

II Qziysshyns, i.e. cushions. 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 239 

All things that ys pynde fast gerlh fast and nayled fast not to be prysed but 
goo as parcel of the manor. 

For Husbandry and other thynges Necessary. 

Sixteen the best oxen draying togeder in ij drayhtes. 

viij drawing yoke and ij cop yoke yroned. 

ij the best plowes with cutters and shares. 

Syxe Iron bynnes and ij peyre of clevyes.* 

ij axes ij hatchets and ij heging bylls. 

ij horse harrowes yroned and ij pyke forks. 

The best bull and xx the best kyne and as many calves as sowke upon theym 
at the time of my decesse and after y^ vij day past. 

iiij Steeres and ij heyfors of ij yeres age. 

All these to be of the best of those sorts, and a bull calft. 

ij the elder boores and ij the eldest sowes. 

ij boreys of a y old and ij sowes of the same age and as many piggs as 
sowke upon them after the vij day be past. 

ij boore pygge and ij sowe pygge of the yongest sorte yf there be any 
ordered to be reyred. 

ii c [200] of the best ewes, vj schore to the hundreth, and as many lambs as 
sowke upon them at my decesse. 

The best horse next my mortuary sadled bndl)'d horse . . . bootes and 
spurrys. 

Eight rammes and iiij ram hoggs of the best. 

Twelve quarters of wheyte. 

Eight quarters of rye. 

Twelve quarters of barly. 

viij quarters of oytes. 

xij quarters malt. 

xx" quarters pese, viij stryke to the quarter. 

A shovel, a spade, a muke fork, and muke hoke. 

A croe of yron and a mattok. 

A matt and ij yron wegges. 

All such stuff at the mylne as the mylner Deyly occupieth. 

And if any of these be lost or goon I will that my executors buy such other 
and to deliver them as heyre loomes. 

Per me Johannem Fitzherbert. 

Per me Johannem Fitzherbert de Norbury armigerum et ipsa manu mea 
scripta." 

Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, who succeeded his brother, as thir- 
* Clevvy, a species of draft iron for the plough. 



240 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

teenth lord of Norbury, was born in 1470. In 151 1 was called to 
the bar as serjeant-at-law; in 15 16 he was knighted ; and in 1522 
he was made one of the Justices of the Common Pleas. He was 
considered the greatest lawyer of his day, and was pre-eminently 
distinguished for his probity. He published various standard 
legal works, and other smaller ones on husbandry. He is said to 
have been the only man who dared to rebuke, not only Cardinal 
Wolsey, but even the King himself, on the subject of the aliena- 
tion of church lands. He died in 1538, and on his death-bed 
solemnly enjoined his children under no pretext to accept grants 
or become purchasers of monastic property.* Sir Anthony was 
possessed of an ample professional income, and during the seven 
years that he held the Manor House, is said to have spent much 
money on the fabric. We believe that he re-built, or at all events, 
re-fitted the central block of building be- 
tween the two courts, which is all that now 
remains (except the Great Hall) of the former 
extensive mansion. Undisputed tradition 
has assigned to an upper apartment, over 
the room marked " larder " on the ground 
plan, the name of " Sir Anthony's Study," 
and a private letter of the family, written in 
1703, records the then belief that he wrote 
the various texts with which the panels are 
in many places covered with his own hand. 
We believe that the panelled oak wainscoating of this upper 
study, as well as of the oak parlour on the ground-floor, were put 
in by the Judge. It is, however, only right to say that a good 
authority to whom we submitted the drawing of these panels, 
etc., pronounced them 15th century, in which case they would 
be part of the work of Sir Nicholas. At any rate, whether the 
panelling was placed there, as well as the texts or not, by Sir 
Anthony, it is likely that this room had been used before the 



* For a full account of the interesting palimpsest brass to Sir Anthony's 
memory, see Vol. IV. of these Transactions, pp. 48-57. 





-VORBURV MANOR HOUSE .MD THE KmHER^EKTS. 34, 

Judge's day as an up-stairs sitting- 
room, and is probably referred to 
as the "Over Parlour" of John 
Fitzherbert's will. 

The deeply recessed character of 
the panelling of the Study, and its 
general arrangement will be better 
gathered from Plate XVIII., than 
from any verbal description. Mr. 
Bailey also gives us a sketch of 
the peculiar treatment of one of 
the four door panels, and a section 
of the mouldings (see page 240), as 
well as a careful transcript of a text 
upon one of the east wall panels, 
which gives a good idea of the style 
of lettering. [Omfies siabimus ante 
tribunal Christi 
unusquisque nos- 
tru?n pro se 
'■aciojietnredet D(o 
Ro. 14]. 

These black letter 
texts are painted 
lightly on the 
wood-work upon a 
great number of 
the panels, and 
several are now 
very indistinct.. 
The version from 
which the texts 
are taken is the 
Vulgate. Upon 
one panel is a 
death's head, and 
below it memento 



mm 







>42 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBKRTS. 




c 



m\m\ 




mori, the only exception to simple lettering. Here are two other 
of the texts: — "Principium sapientise timer dni. Pro. g ; " also, 
" Qui audit et no facit similis est hoi edificanti domu sua terra 
sine fudamento. Luc. 6." The size of the Study is 19 ft. by 
14 ft. 6 in. 

f The Oak Parlour down-staiis is 

also panelled in a remarkable 
reticulated way, as will be seen on 
Plate XVIII. The small door- 
way in the south-west corner, which 
communicates direct with the outer 
air, is represented standing open, 
and shows the substantial character 
of the masonry on that side of 
the building. In the room marked 
"larder" on the plan, at the back 
of the Oak Parlour, in the wall to 
the west, are traces of old foundations. Probably the lower part, 
that piece of the east wall which runs from the larder angle, to 
where it turns at right angles a little before the outer door of the 

oak parlour, is another 

part of the house built by 

■"^^p/" ts|||i* gjj. Henry, tetnp. Edw. I. 

These wood-cuts of sections of the panelling of the Oak 

Parlour, and of the massive beam in the ceiling, will interest 

those who study old wood-work. 

The eldest son of Sir Anthony was Sir Thomas Fitzherbert, 
the whole of whose latter years were embittered by the Elizabethan 
persecution, dying a prisoner in the Tower. His wife, being the 
daughter and heiress of Eyre, of Padley, brought him a rich estate. 
His contribution to thebeauties of his ancestral home seems to have 
been chiefly heraldic, for he filled the windows of the Great Hall, 
as well as those of the principal apartments, with the blazonry of 
his ancient family and their numerous important alliances. In the 
year 1581, Lawrence Bostock, who seems to have been in the 
employ of the College of Arms, though not one of their regular 




iii\i 










fe^ 



OAK PARLOUR. NORBURY MANOR HOUSE. 




SIR ANTHONYS STUDY.' NORB URY MANOR HOUSE. 



NOKIJURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 243 

heralds, took notes of the very numerous coats that were tlien in 
the windows of Norbury Manor House. The sparse, but interest- 
ing remains of this once profuse display of rich heraldic glass, are 
now to be found in the south windows of the apartments marked 
" Entrance Hall " and '■ Kitchen " on the plan, and there are 
also some valuable sixteenth century roundlets of picture glass, 
representing the months, in the window of the staircase. All this 
glass has been described, and still better illustrated by my friend, 
Mr. Bailey, in the fourth and fifth volumes of our Society's 
Transactions. 

This is not the place or time to dwell upon the general facts of 
the Elizabethan persecution of the Recusants, that is, of those who 
adhered to the Roman Catholic faith, and refused to attend the 
])ublic worship of the Establishment ; nor to say what State ex- 
cuse, if any, there might be for a general policy of outrageous and 
long-continued oppression, before which the short-lived and fierce 
Marian persecution absolutely pales in comparison. Suffice it to 
say that this page of our national history has been generally 
slurred over, through ignorance or wilful suppression of the truth, 
by most of our historians. The facts are beyond dispute ; they 
are to be found at our Public Record Office, and are sup- 
ported by abundant other contemporary evidence. As we 
have written elsewhere, carefully weighing every word,* almost 
every persecution, short of death,t was resorted to immediately 
after Elizabeth's accession ; the Recusants were everywhere 
harassed by fines, forfeitures, and imprisonment, in order to 
compel their attendance at church. Where the local magistrates 
were lax in their eftbrts, special commissioners, armed with the 
fullest powers immediately from the crown — powers which, in their 
free use of torture, as well as in other respects, more closely 



* Here, and in some other subsequent paragraphs, I quote from a recent 
article of my own that appeared in the Church Quarterly, entitled "The 
Elizabethan Martyrs." 

+ Death was soon added to the other penalties by the legislation of 1 571 and 
1584. At least 183 individuals suffered the awful death of being hung, drawn, 
and quartered (they were cut down to be quartered whilst still sensible), for 
their religious belief during the reign of Elizabeth. From this number all 
those who had any complicity with " plots " are excluded. 



244 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 

resembled the Inquisition than anything hitherto established in 
England — visited the disaffected districts, or had the delinquents 
summoned before them in London. This phase of the persecu- 
tion was specially severe between 1561 and 1563, particularly in 
Derbyshire and Staffordshire. 

Early in the year 1561, Sir Thomas Fitzherbert was sent as a 
prisoner to the Fleet, London, by these special commissioners. 
Among his fellow- prisoners were Dr. Scott, ejected Bishop of 
Chester, Dr. Cole, ex-dean of St. Paul's, and Dr. Harpsfield, 
ex-archdeacon of London. Sir Thomas's Derbyshire relatives, 
John Draycott and John Sacheverell, were at the same time in 
other London prisons, all for the crime of recusancy. 

On July t2th, 1563, Grindal, then Bishop of London, writing to 
Cecil, sa}s : — "Sir Thomas Fitzherbert is a very stiff man. We 
had a solemn assembly of commissioners only for his case, 
when Mr. Ciiancellor of the Dutchy was present, and there con- 
cluded to let Mr. Fitzherbert be abroad upon sureties, if he 
would be bound in the meantime to go orderly to the church, 
without binding him to receive the Communion. That Sir 
Thomas refused." 

A return by Thomas Bentham, Bishop of Coventry and Lich- 
field, to the Privy Council of those in his diocese " openly known 
not to come to church," describes Sir Thomas Fitzherbert as "a 
gentileman of great wealthe and countenance, as well in Stafford- 
shire as in Derbieshire, and in myne owne Judgement no lesse 
worthe in Landes and goodes of the yere than in markes." And 
this return was made in 1577, after he had already suffered severely 
from fines, and from the bare-faced robbery of his cattle (whilst he 
was in gaol) by agents of the Government. Sir Thomas was 
actually imprisoned by the commissioners for thirty years, with 
only three brief intervals of freedom ; was dragged about from gaol 
to gaol, now in the Fleet, now in the county gaol at Derby, now 
at Lambeth, and now in the Tower, in which last State prison he 
finally died in 1591, at the age of 74. 

No means were neglected to try and secure his conviction for 
offences that were termed treason ; but though accused of 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 245 

complicity in several alleged plots,* nothing could ever be proved 
against him except his non-attendance at church. So loyal was 
he to Elizabeth in matters temporal, that notwithstanding the 
heavy and repeated fines to which he had been subjected, he 
volunteered to supply double the contribution demanded of his 
estate on the approach of the Spanish Armada. It will be within 
the mark to say that he was deprived of two-thirds of his estates. 
By his marriage with Anne, daughter and heiress of Sir Arthur 
Eyre, he came into possession of the valuable manor of Padley, in 
the parish of Hathersage. Sir Thomas having no children, and 
almost all his Elizabethan life being spent in bonds, his next 
brother, John Fitzherbert, resided at the mansion house at Padley, 
and received the rents of this and the Norbury estates. On 
Candlemas-day, 1587, the house at Padley was searched for 
priests ; two were found concealed, Nicholas Garlick and Robert 
Ludlam. These priests were taken to Derby Gaol. On July 25, 
1588, Garlick and Ludlam (together with a third priest seized else- 
where) were hanged, drawn, and quartered, and their heads and 
quarters fixed on poles in prominent places about the county towns, 
solely for the crime of being Roman priests; whilst John Fitz- 
herbert was confined at Derby and in other prisons for the rest 
of his life, finally dying of gaol fever. Richartl Fitzherbert, the 
next brother of Sir Thomas, resided at the principal seat of the 
family, at Norbury. When his brother was first imprisoned by 
the Episcopal Commissioners, at the beginning of Elizabeth's 
reign, Richard escaped to the Continent, and was formally out- 
lawed. On matters becoming rather quieter, Richard Fitzherbert 
returned to Norbury, and lived for a brief time peacably in that 
retired village. But the spies reported his return, and the Privy 
Council, not trustmg the Earl of Shrewsbury, the Lord-Lieutenant 
of the County, despatched one Thorne, a notorious pursuivant 
of the roughest character, to effect his capture. 

* See appendix at the end of this article of Interrogatories from the com- 
missioners, administered by torture when he was in prison, to try and prove 
his complicity in a northern rising in 1586. It is painful to have to state that 
both Avchbistiop Grindal and Archbishop Whitgift were in favour of torture 
being applied to Romanists, as can be proved in their own handwriting. 



246 NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHER BERTS. 

" Thorne practising to apprehend Mr. Richard Fitzherbert used this policy. 
To Noftjury, where he knew this gentleman lay, came three lame supposed 
beggars, one man, two women, among divers others that there had alms, and 
when all were served as accustomed, these three continued still crying and 
craving more alms, as seeming more needy. The good gentleman going down 
himself at their pitiful cry to give them some money, the man beggar arrested 
him, laying hands on him to carry him to an officer, and threw the gentleman 
down. With this noise his friends within came out to rescue him. The 
beggar seeing that, having a dagg (pistol) ready charged at his girdle, offered 
to discharge it at Mr. Fitzherbert's breast, but it went not off. Thereupon the 
beggar, beaten, let fall his dagg and went a little way off, where Thorne 
expected his return with hope of prey. The dagg, then taken up by one of 
that house, went off itself without hurting anybody, albeit there were many 
present."* 

Thorne sent his version of this affair to the Privy Council, and 
soon after Richard Fitzherbert was apprehended by a strong body 
of armed men, and placed in prison, where he remained for 
several years, and we believe died. Two of Richard's three sons 
were also imprisoned in Staffordshire for recusancy. William 
Fitzherbert, the remaining brother of Sir Thomas, married Eliza- 
beth, daughter and co-heiress of Humphrey Swinnerton, of Swin- 
nerton, from whom are descended the Fitzherberts, who now own 
that property. William happily died in tlie year of Elizabeth's 
accession, and thus escaped persecution, but his daughter and two 
sons were all at different times in prison. His eldest son, Thomas, 
who was in gaol in 1572, after his wife's death became a Jesuit 
father ; he was a well-known controversial writer, and died at 
Rome in 1640, at the age of 88. 

The three sisters of Sir Thomas Fitzherbert were Elizabeth, 
Dorothy, and Catherine, who were respectively married to William 
Bassett, of Langley, Ralph Longford, of Longford, and John 
Sacheverell, of Morley, all of them gentlemen of distinguished 
ancestry and considerable property in the county of Derby. All 
these were repeatedly and heavily fined, Bassett and Sacheverell 
also enduring long terms of imprisonment, whilst two of the ladies 
were given into the private custody of staunch conformists in the 

* Morris' "Troubles of our Catholic Forefathers," third series. This is 
a quotation from a contemporary MS. 



NORBURY MANOR HOUSE AND THE FITZHERBERTS. 247 

county, and compelled to pay for their own maintenance in those 
families. 

Returning to Candlemas-day, 1587, we find that though John 
Fitzherbert was not in the house at Padley at the time of the 
apprehension of the priests, Anthony, his seventh son, was present. 
Anthony was therefore also taken to Derby gaol, where he was 
seriously ill of the gaol fever that kept constantly breaking out 
there, and after nearly two years' detention set at liberty, but only 
to be again apprehended when in London. As to the other 
children of John Fitzh